For he sent letters unto all the king's provinces
The one hundred and twenty seven provinces, ( Esther 1:1 ) , which, according to the Targum, were written and sealed with his own seal; which is very probable: into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every
people after their language;
that is, these letters were written in the language, and in the characters in which that language was written, used in each of the provinces to which these letters were sent, that they might be easily read and understood by all: the sum of which was, that every man should bear rule in his own house;
be prince, lord, and master there, and his commands obeyed, not only by his children and servants, but by his wife also: and that it should be published according to the language of every
but as this is expressed, or at least implied, in the first clause of this verse, it should rather be rendered, "and that he should speak according to the language of his people"; and so is the latter Targum; it seems as if a man, who had married a woman in another country, in complaisance to her had neglected his own native tongue, and used hers in the family, by which means he lost, or seemed to lose, his authority in it: now, to guard against this, this part of the law was made; and, according to Jarchi, the husband was to compel his wife to learn and speak his language, if she was a foreigner; to which agrees the first Targum, which paraphrases the whole thus,
``that a man rule over his wife, and oblige her to speak according to the language of her husband, and the speech of his people;''and, in later times, Bahram Gaur forbid any other language, besides the Persian, to be used within his port, either in speaking or writing F2.