Devarim 22

1 2 Thou shalt not see thy brother’s shor or his seh go astray, and ignore them; thou shalt in any case bring them back unto thy brother.
2 And if thy brother be not near unto thee, or if thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it unto thine own bais, and it shall be with thee until thy brother seek after it, and thou shalt restore it to him again.
3 In like manner shalt thou do with his chamor; and so shalt thou do with his raiment; and with all lost things of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found, shalt thou do likewise; thou mayest not ignore it.
4 Thou shalt not see thy brother’s chamor or his shor fall down by the road, and ignore them; thou shalt surely help him to lift them up again.
5 The isha shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a gever (man) neither shall a gever put on simlat isha (garment of a woman); for all that do so are to’avat unto Hashem Eloheicha.
6 If a bird’s ken (nest) chance to be before thee in the way in any tree, or on the ground, whether they be young ones, or eggs, and the mother is roosting upon the young, or upon the eggs, thou shalt not take the mother with the young;
7 But thou shalt in any wise let the mother go, and take the young to thee; that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest prolong thy yamim.
8 When thou buildest a bais chadash, then thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof, that thou bring not dahm (blood guiltiness) upon thine bais, if any fall from thence.
9 Thou shalt not sow thy kerem with different seeds; lest the fruit of thy zera which thou hast sown, and the fruit of thy kerem, be defiled.
10 Thou shalt not plow with a shor and a chamor together.
11 Thou shalt not wear a garment of different sorts, as of woolen and linen together.
12 Thou shalt make thee gedilim (fringes, tzitzis, twisted threads) upon the four corners of thy garment, wherewith thou coverest thyself.
13 If any ish take an isha, and go in unto her, and hate her,
14 And give occasions of speech against her, and bring up a shem rah (bad name) upon her, and say, I took this isha, and when I came to her, I found her with no betulim (proofs of virginity);
15 Then shall the av of the na’arah, and her em, take and bring forth the betulim (proofs of virginity) unto the zekenim of the town in the sha’arah (gate);
16 And the avi hana’arah shall say unto the zekenim, I gave my bat unto this ish as isha (wife) and he hateth her;
17 And, hinei, he hath given occasions of speech against her, saying, I found not thy bat with betulim; and yet these are my bat’s betulim. And they shall spread the simlah (clothing) before the zekenim of the town.
18 And the zekenim of that town shall take that ish and punish him;
19 And they shall fine him a hundred shekels of kesef, and give them unto the avi hana’arah, because he hath brought a shem rah (bad name) upon a betulat Yisroel; and she shall be his isha; he may not put her away all his yamim.
20 But if this thing be emes, and the betulim be not found for the na’arah;
21 Then they shall bring out the na’arah to the door of her bais avi, and the anashim of her town shall stone her with avanim that she die; because she hath committed an outrage in Yisroel, to play the whore in her bais avi; so shalt thou put away the rah from among you.
22 If an ish be found lying with an isha married to a husband then they shall both of them die, both the ish that lay with the isha, and the isha; so shalt thou put away the rah from Yisroel.
23 If a na’arah that is a betulah be betrothed unto a husband, and an ish find her in the town, and lie with her;
24 Then ye shall bring them both out unto the sha’ar of that town, and ye shall stone them with avanim that they die; the na’arah, because she cried not, being in the town; and the ish, because he hath humbled his neighbor’s isha; so thou shalt put away the rah from among you.
25 But if the ish find a na’arah hame’orasah (betrothed woman) in the sadeh, and the ish overpower her, and lie with her; then the ish only that lay with her shall die.
26 But unto the na’arah thou shalt do nothing; there is in the na’arah no chet mavet (sin worthy of death); for as when an ish riseth against his neighbor, and slayeth him, even so is this matter;
27 For he found her in the sadeh, and the na’arah hame’orasah cried, and there was no moshia (savior) for her [see 2C 11:2-3 regarding Moshiach and his Kehillah Kallah and Hasatan’s evil interference with the betrothal and the above three Scriptures T.N.].
28 If an ish find a na’arah that is a betulah, which is not orasah (betrothed), and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be found;
29 Then the ish that lay with her shall give unto the avi hana’arah fifty [shekels] of kesef, and she shall be his isha; because he hath humbled her, he may not put her away all his yamim.
302 (23:1) An ish shall not take eshet aviv (his father’s wife), nor uncover his father’s robe.

Devarim 22 Commentary

Chapter 22

Of humanity towards brethren. (1-4) Various precepts. (5-12) Against impurity. (13-30)

Verses 1-4 If we duly regard the golden rule of "doing to others as we would they should do unto us," many particular precepts might be omitted. We can have no property in any thing that we find. Religion teaches us to be neighbourly, and to be ready to do all good offices to all men. We know not how soon we may have occasion for help.

Verses 5-12 God's providence extends itself to the smallest affairs, and his precepts do so, that even in them we may be in the fear of the Lord, as we are under his eye and care. Yet the tendency of these laws, which seem little, is such, that being found among the things of God's law, they are to be accounted great things. If we would prove ourselves to be God's people, we must have respect to his will and to his glory, and not to the vain fashions of the world. Even in putting on our garments, as in eating or in drinking, all must be done with a serious regard to preserve our own and others' purity in heart and actions. Our eye should be single, our heart simple, and our behaviour all of a piece.

Verses 13-30 These and the like regulations might be needful then, and yet it is not necessary that we should curiously examine respecting them. The laws relate to the seventh commandment, laying a restraint upon fleshly lusts which war against the soul.

Chapter Summary


In this chapter are various laws, concerning care of a neighbour's cattle gone astray or in distress, and of anything lost by him, De 22:1-4, forbidding one sex to wear the apparel, of another, De 22:5 and the taking away of the dam with the young found in a bird's nest, De 22:6,7, ordering battlements to be made in a new house, De 22:8, prohibiting mixtures in sowing, ploughing, and in garments, De 22:9-11, requiring fringes on the four quarters of a garment, De 22:12, fining a man that slanders his wife, upon producing the tokens of her virginity, De 22:13-19 but if these cannot be produced, then orders are given that she be put to death, De 22:20-21, then follow other laws, punishing with death the adulterer and adulteress, and one that hath ravished a betrothed damsel, De 22:22-27, amercing a person that lies with a virgin not betrothed and she consenting, and obliging him to marry her, and not suffering him to divorce her, De 22:28-29 and another against a man's lying with his father's wife, De 22:30.

Devarim 22 Commentaries

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