Thrice was I beaten with rods
Or "wands", by the Romans; for this was a Roman punishment, distinct from scourging with cords used by the Jews. There is mention made but of one time only that he was so beaten, elsewhere, and that is in ( Acts 16:22 Acts 16:23 ) which was at Philippi; but that he was so many times beaten in this way, there is no room to doubt:
once was I stoned.
This was at Lystra, at the instigation of the Jews that came from Antioch and Iconium, ( Acts 14:19 ) by whom he was left for dead:
thrice I suffered shipwreck;
neither of which are mentioned by Luke in the Acts of the Apostles; for the shipwreck he suffered as when he went to Rome was some time after the writing of this epistle, and therefore cannot be one of these here referred to
a night and a day I have been in the deep;
some understand this of a well, called "Bythos", or "the deep", which was near Lystra, where the apostle was hid for such a space of time after his deliverance there; but this, were it so, he would scarcely reckon among his very great hardships and sufferings: others of a prison at Cyzicum in Asia, which, because of its very great height, was called "the depth of the sea", in which the apostle was imprisoned for such a time; but, we nowhere read that he ever was at that place, or preached there, and much less was imprisoned there; and had he, it is not likely that he should particularly point out such a short imprisonment, but would have let it pass in the general account of being in prisons before mentioned: but rather this is to be understood of the sea, often called the "deep" in Scripture, where by some accident he was cast, and was in it, as the Syriac version has it, (atnypo ald) , "where was no ship", or without one, being shipwrecked; or being cast, or having fallen into the sea, he was swimming in it, or was preserved by a broken piece of the ship, or by some other means, or by the wonderful providence of God for so long a time; though as sailing in those times was chiefly by coasting, this phrase may only signify that the ship in which he was was drove from the coast into the sea, and lost sight of the land for the space of a day and night, and lay floating about in the deep, which was reckoned very dangerous. The word (nucyhmeron) , "a night day", signifies a whole natural day, consisting of a night and a day; and is an Hebraism, and answers to (rqbw bre) , "the evening and the morning", which make a full day; see ( Genesis 1:5 Genesis 1:8 Genesis 1:13 Genesis 1:19 Genesis 1:23 ) ( Daniel 8:14 ) .