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Part VIII--Eschatology, or the Doctrine of Final



Neither the individual Christian character, nor the Christian church as a whole, attains its destined perfection in this life (Rom. 8 : 24). This perfection is reached in the world to come (1 Cor. 13 : 10). As preparing the way for the kingdom of God in its completeness, certain events are to take place, such as death, Christ's second coming, the resurrection of the body, the general judgment. As stages in the future condition of men, there is to be an intermediate and an ultimate state, both for the righteous and for the wicked. We discuss these events and states in what appears from Scripture to be the order of their occurrence.

Rom. 8:24 —"in hope wen we saYed: bat hope that ts seen is not hope: for who hopeth for that which he seetfc?" 1 Cor. 13 :10 —" when that which is perfect is come, that which is in part shall be done away." Original sin Is not wholly eradicated from the Christian, and the Holy Spirit is not yet sole ruler. So, too, the church Is still in a state of conflict, and victory is hereafter. But as the Christian life attains its completeness only in the future, so with the life of sin. Death begins here, but culminates hereafter. James 1:15— "the sin, when it is fall grown, bringeth forth death." The wicked man here has only a foretaste of "the wrath to come" (Mat 3:7). We may "laj np .... treasures in bearen" (Mat. 6 : 20), but we may also "treasure up for oorselTes wrath" (Rom. 2:5), i. e., lay up treasure In hell.

Dorner: "To the actuality of the consummation of the church belongs a cessation of reproduction through which there is constantly renewed a world which the church

must subdue The mutually external existence of spirit and nature must give

way to a perfect internal existence. Their externality to each other is the ground of the mortality of the natural side, and of its being a means of temptation to the spiritual side. For in this externality the natural side has still too great Independence and

exerts a determining power over the personality Art, the beautiful, receives in

the future state Its special place; for it is the way of art to delight in visible presentation, to achieve the classical and perfect with unfettered play of Its powers. Every one morally perfect will thus wed the good to the beautiful. In the rest, there will be no Inactivity; and in the activity also, no unrest."

Schleiermacher: "Eschatology Is essentially prophetic; and is therefore vague and indefinite, like all unf u Hilled prophecy." Schiller's Thekla: "Every thought of beautiful, trustful seeming Stands fulfilled in heaven's eternal day: Shrink not then from erring and from dreaming,— Lofty sense lies oft In childish play." Frances Power Cobbe Peak of Darien, 285--" Human nature Is a ship with the tide out; when the tide of eternity comes in, we shall see the purpose of the ship." See, on the whole subject of Eschatology, Luthardt, Lehre von den letzten Dlngen, and Saving Truths of Christianity; Hodge, Systematic Theology, 3 : 713-880.

L Physical Death.

Physical death is the separation of the soul from the body. We distinguish it from spiritual death, or the separation of the soul from God ; and from the second death, or the banishment from God and final misery of the reunited soul and body of the wicked.

Spiritual death: Is. 59 : 2 —" Bat your iniquiUea have separated between you and your God, and your sins hare hid bis face from you, that be will not bear "; Rom. 7 : 24 —" 0 wretched man that I am I who shall deliver me out of the body of this death?" Eph. 2 :1 —" dead through your trespasses and sins." The second death: Rev. 2: 11 —" He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death "; 20 : 14 —" And death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death, even the lake of fire "; 21: 8 —" But for the fearful, and unbelieving, and abominable, and murderers, and fornicators, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, their part shall be in the lake that boraeth with fire and brimstone; which is the second death."

Julius M tiller. Doctrine of Sin, 2 : 303—" Spiritual death, the inner discord and enslavement of the soul, and the misery resulting therefrom, to which belongs that other death, the second death, an outward condition corresponding to that inner slavery." Trench, Epistles to the Seven Churches, 151—"This phrase ['second death'J Is Itself a solemn protest against the Sadducceism and Epicureanism which would make natural death the be-all and end-all of existence. As there is a life beyond the present life for the faithful, so there is a death beyond that which falls under our eyes for the wicked."

Although physical death falls upon the unbeliever as the original penalty of sin, to all who are united to Christ it loses its aspect of penalty, and becomes a means of discipline and of entrance into eternal life.

To the Christian physical death Is not n penalty: see Ps. 116 :15—"Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints "; Rom. 8 :10 —" And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the spirit is life because of righteousness "; 14 : 8 —" For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; or whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord's "; 1 Cor. 3 : 22 —" whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come, all are yours "; 15 : 55 —" 0 death, where is thy victory? 0 death, where is thy sting?" 1 Pet 4 : 6 —" For unto this end was the gospel preached even to the dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit"; cf. Rom. 1: 18—"For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hinder the truth in unrighteousness"; 8:1, 2—"There is therefore now no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death "; Heb. 12 : 6 —" For whom the Lord ]oreth he chasteneth."

Dr. Hovey says that "the present sufferings of believers are in the nature of discipline, with an aspect of retribution; while the present sufferings of unbelievers are retributive, with a glance toward reformation." We prefer to say that all penalty has been borne by Christ, and that, for him who is Justified in Christ, suffering of whatever kind is of the nature of fatherly chastening, never of Judicial retribution; sec our discussion of the Penalty of Sin, puge &r>4.

To neither saint nor sinner is death a cessation of being. This we maintain, against the advocates of annihilation:

1. Upon rational grounds.

(a) The metaphysical argument. — The soul is simple, not compounded. Death, in matter, is the separation of parts. But in the soul there are no parts to be separated. The dissolution of the body, therefore, does not necessarily work a dissolution of the soul. But, since there is an immaterial principle in the brute, and this argument taken by itself might seem to prove the immortality of the animal creation equally with that of man, we pass to consider the next argument.

The Immateriality of the brute mind was probably the consideration which led Bishop Butler, John Wesley, and Louis Agassiz to encourage the belief in animal immortality. "If death dissipates the sagacity of the elephant, why not. that of his captor?" It is better, therefore, to regard this argument as simply showing the inconclusiveness of materialism, and as leaving the matter open for positive proof from revelation. See Bp. Butler, Analogy, part r, chap, i ( Bohn's ed., 81-91).

Mansel, Metaphysics, 371, maintains that all this argument proves is that the objector cannot show the soul to be compound, and so cannot show that it is destructible. Calderwood. Moral Philosophy, 259—"The facta which point toward the termination of our present state of existence are connected with our physical nature, not with our mental." John Fluke, Destiny of the Creature, 110—"With his illegitimate hypothesis of annihilation, the materialist transgresses the bounds of experience quite as widely as the poet who sings of the New Jerusalem, with its river of life and its streets of gold. Scientifically speaking:, there is not a particle of evidence for either view."

It may be further objected to our argument, that death is not, as we define it, a separation of parts, but rather a cessation of consciousness; and that therefore, while the substance of human nature may endure, mankind may ever develops Into new forms, without Individual Immortality. To this we reply, that man's self-consciousness and self-determination are different In kind from the consciousness and determination of the brute. As man can direct his self-consclousness and self-determination to Immortal ends, we have the right to believe this self-consciousness and self-determination to be immortal. This leads us to the next argument.

(6) The teleologies! argument.— Man, as an intellectual, moral, and religious being, does not attain the end of his existence on earth. His development is imperfect here. Divine wisdom will not leave its work incomplete. There must be a hereafter for the full growth of man's powers, and for the satisfaction of his aspirations. Created, unlike the brute, with infinite capacities for moral progress, there must be an immortal existence in which those capacities shall be brought into exercise. Though the wicked forfeit all claim to this future, we have here an argument from God's love and wisdom to the immortality of the righteous.

In reply to this argument, it has been said that many right wishes are vain. Mill, Essays on Religion, 294 —" Desire for food Implies enough to eat, now and forever? hence an eternal supply of cabbage?" But our argument proceeds upon three presuppositions: (1) that a holy and benevolent God exists; (2) that he has made man In bis Image; (3) that man's true end Is holiness and likeness to God. Therefore, what will answer the true end of man will be furnished; but that is not cabbage — it Is holiness and love, f. (., God himself.

The argument, however, is valuable only In its application to the righteous. God will not treat the righteous as the tyrant of Florence treated Michael Angelo, when he bade him carve out of Ice a statue which would melt under the first rays of the sun. In the case of the wicked, the other law of retribution comes in — the taking away of "«Ten that which he hath " (Mat 25 : 29). Since we are all wicked, the argument is not satisfactory, unless we take luto account the further facts of atonement and justification —facts of which we learn from revelation alone.

But while, taken by itself, this rational argument might be called defective, and could never prove that man may not attain his end in the continued existence of the race, rather than in that of the Individual, the argument appears more valuable as a rational supplement to the facts already mentioned, and seems to render certain at least the immortality of those upon whom God has set his love, aud in whom he has wrought the beginnings of righteousness.

(c) The ethical argument.—Man is not, in this world, adequately punished for his evil deeds. Our sense of justice leads us to believe that God's moral administration will be vindicated in a life to come. Mere extinction of being would not be a sufficient penalty, nor would it permit degrees of punishment corresponding to degrees of guilt. This is therefore an argument from God's justice to the immortality of the wicked. The guilty conscience demands a state after death for punishment.

This is an argument from God's justice to the immortality of the wicked, as the preceding was an argument from God's love to the immortality of the righteous. "History defies our moral sense by giving a peaceful end to Sulla." Louis XV and Madame Pompadour died in their beds, after a life of extreme luxury. Louis XVI and his queen, though far more just and pure, perished by an appalling tragedy. The fates of these four cannot be explained by the wickedness of the latter pair and the virtue of the former. Since there is not always an execution of justice here, we feel that there must be a "judgment to come," such as that which terrified Felix (Acts 24 : 25).

This argument has probably more power over the minds of men than any other. Men believe in Minos and Rhadamanthus, if not in the Elysian Fields. But even hero it may be replied that the judgment which conscience threatens, may be, not Immortality, but extinction of being. We shall see, however, in our discussion of the endlessness of future punishment, that mere annihilation cannot satisfy the moral Instinct which lies at the basis of this argument. That demands a punishment proportioned in each case to the guilt incurred by transgression. Extinction of being would be the same to all. As it would not admit of degrees, so it would not, in any case, sufficiently vindicate God's righteousness.

But while this argument proves life and punishment for the wicked after death, it leaves us dependent on revelation for our knowledge how long that life and punishment will be. Kant's argument is that man strives equally for morality and for well-being; but morality often requires the sacrifice of well-being; hence there must be a future reconciliation of the two in the well-being or reward of virtue. To all of which it might be answered, first, that there is no virtue so perfect as to merit reward; and secondly, that virtue Is its own reward, and so is well-being.

(d) The historical argument.—The popular belief of all nations and ages shows that the idea of immortality is natural to the human mind. It is not sufficient to say that this indicates only such desire for continued earthly existence as is necessary to self-preservation; for multitudes expect a life beyond death without desiring it, and multitudes desire a heavenly life without caring for the earthly. This testimony of man's nature to immortality may be regarded as the testimony of the God who made the nature.

Testimonies to this popular belief are given in Bartlett, Life and Death Eternal, preface: The arrow-heads and earthen vessels laid by the side of the dead Indian; the silver obolus put in the mouth of the dead Greek to pay Charon's passage money; the furnishing of the Egyptian corpse with the Book of the Dead, the papyrus-roll containing the prayer he is to oiler and the chart of his journey through the unseen world.

But it may be replied, that many universal popular impressions have proved false, such as belief in ghosts, and in the moving of the sun round the earth. While the mass of men have believed In immortality, some of the wisest have been doubters. Cyrus said: "I cannot imagine that the soul lives only while it remains in this mortal body." But the dying words of Socrates were: "We part; I am going to die, and you to live; which of us goes the better way is known to God alone." Cicero declared: "Upon this subject I entertain no more than conjectures;" and said that, when he was reading Plato's argument for immortality, he seemed to himself convinced, but when he laid down the book he found that all his doubts returned.

Aristotle, Nic. Ethics, 3 : 9, calls death "the most to be feared of all things for It

appears to be the end of everything; and for the deceased there appears to be no longer either any good or any evil." .-Eschylus: "Of one once dead there is no resurrection." Catullus: "When once our brief day has set, we must sleep one everlasting night." Tacitus: "If there is a place for the spirits of the pious; if, as the wise suppose, great souls do not become extinct with their bodies." "In that (/," says Uhlhorn, "lies the whole torturing uncertainty of heathenism."

The most that can be claimed for this fourth argument from popular belief is that It indicates a general appetency for continued existence after death, and that the Idea is congruous with our nature. W. E. Forster said to Harriet Martineau that he would rather be damned than be annihilated; see F. P. Cobbe, Peak of Darien, 44. But it may be replied that there is reason enough for this desire for life in the fact that it ensures the earthly existence of the race, which might commit universal suicide without it. There is reason enough In the present life for its existence, and we are not necessitated to infer a future life therefrom. This objection cannot be fully answered from reason alone. But if we take our argument in connection with the Scriptural revelation concerning God's making of man in his image, we may regard the testimony of man's nature as the testimony of the God who made it.

We conclude our statement of these rational proofs with the acknowledgment that they rest upon the presupposition that there exists a God of truth, wisdom, justice, and love, who has made man in his image, and who desires to commune with his creatures. We acknowledge, moreover, that these proofs give us, not an absolute demonstration, but only a balance of probability, in favor of man's immortality. We turn therefore to Scripture for the clear revelation of a fact of which reason furnishes us little more than a presumption.

Dorner: "There is no rational evidence which compels belief in immortality. Immortality has its pledfre in (tod's making man in his linage, and in God's will of love for communion with men." Luthardt, Compendium, 289—"The truth in these proofs from reason Is the idea of human personality and Its relation to God. Belief in God is the universal presupposition and foundation of the universal belief In immortality." Strauss declared that this belief in immortality is the last enemy which is to be destroyed. He forgot that belief in God is more Ineradicable still.

Hadley, Essays, Philological and Critical. 373-379—"The claim of immortality may be based on one or the other of two assumptions: (1) The same organism will be reproduced hereafter, and the same functions, or part of them, again manifested in connection with it, and accompanied with consciousness of continued identity; or, (2) The same functions may be- exercised and accompanied with consciousness of identity, though not connected with the same organism as before; may iu fact go on without interruption, without tieing even suspended by death, though no longer manifested to us." The conclusion is: "The light of nature, when all directed to this question, does furnish a presumption In favor of immortality, but not so strong a presumption as to exclude great and reasonable doubts upon the subject."

For an excellent synopsis of arguments and objections, see Hase, Hutterus Redivivus, 278. See also Uowen, Metaph. and Ethics, 417-441; A. M. Fairbairn, on Idea of Immortality, in Studies in Philos. of Religion and of History; Wordsworth, Intimations of Immortality; Tennyson, Two Voices; Alger, Critical History of Doctrine of Future Life, with Appendix by Ezra Abbot, containing a Catalogue of Works relating to the Nature, Origin, and Destiny of the Soul.

2. Upon Scriptural grounds.

(a) The account of man's creation, and the subsequent allusions to it iu Scripture, show that, while the body was "made corruptible and subject to death, the soul was made in the image of God, incorruptible and immortal.

Gen. 1: 26, 27 —" Let us make man in oar image "; 2:7 —" and the Lord God formed nun of the dnst of the ground, and breathed into hie nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul"— here, as was shown in our treatment of man's Original State, It is not the divine image, but the body, that Is formed of dust; and into this body the soul that possesses the divine image is breathed. In the Hebrew records, the animating soul is everywhere distinguished from the earthly body. Gen. 3 : 22, 23 —" Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now. lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and lire for ever; therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden"— man had immortality of soul, and now, lest to this he add immortality of body, be is expelled from the tree of life. Bed. 12 : 7—" the dust return to the earth as it was, and the spirit return unto God who gave it"; Zech. 12 : i —" The Lord, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layelb the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him."

Mat. 10 : 28 —" And be not afraid of them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell "; acta 7 : 59 —" And they stoned Stephen, calling upon the Lord, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit"; 2 Cor. 12 : 2— "I know a man in Christ fourteen years ago {whether in the body, I know not; or whether out of the body, I know not; God knoweth), such a one caught up even to the third heaven "; 1 Cor. 15 : 45, 46 —" The first man Adam became a living soul The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. Howbeit that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; then that which is spiritual" = the first Adam was made a being whose body was psychical and mortal—a body of flesh and blood, that could not inherit the kingdom of God. So Paul says the spiritual Is not first, but the psychical; but there is no intimation that the soul also was created mortal, and needed external appliances, like the tree of life, before it could enter upon immortality.

Hut it may be asked: Is not all this, in 1 Cor. 15, spoken of the regenerate—those to whom a new principle of life has been communicated? We answer, yes; but that does not prevent us from learning from the passage the natural immortality of the soul; for in regeneration the essence is not changed, no new substance is imparted, no new faculty or constitutive element is added, and no new principle of holiness is infused. The truth is simply that the spirit is morally readjusted. For substance of the above remarks, see Hovey, State of Impenitent Dead, 1-27.

(6) The account of the curse in Genesis, and the subsequent allusions to it in Scripture, show that, while the death then incurred includes the dissolution of the body, it does not include cessation of being on the part of the soul, but only designates that state of the soul which is the opposite of true life, viz., a state of banishment from God, of unholiness, and of misery.

Gen. 2 :17—"in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shall sorely die"; c/. 3 : 8—"the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the lord God "; 16-19 —the curse of pain and toil; 22-24 — banishment from the garden of Eden and from the tree of life. Mat. 8 : 22—"follow me; and leave the dead to bury their own dead "; 25 : 41. 46 —" Depart from me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire ..., These shall go away into eternal punishment": Luke 15 : 32—"this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found"; John 5 : 24 —" He that heareth my word, and believeth him that sent me, hath eternal life, and cometh not into judgment, but hath passed out of death into life ": 6 : 47, 53, 63 —" He that believeth hath eternal life Except ye eat

the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, ve have not life in yourselves the words that I have spoken unto

you are spirit, and are life "; 8 : 51 —" If a man keen my word, he shall never see death."

Rom. 5 : 21 —"that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life"; 8 :13—"if ye lire after the flesh, ye most die; but if by the Spirit ye put to death the deeds of the body, ye shall live "; Eph. 2 :1 —" dead through your trespasses and sins "; 5 :14 —" Awake, thou that sloepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall shine upon thee"; 1 Tim. 5 : 6—"she that giveth herself to pleasure is dead while she liveth"; James 5 ; 20—"he which converteth a sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death, and shall cover a multitude of sins"; 1 John 3 : 4 —"We know that we have passed out of death onto life, because we love the brethren "; Rev. 3 :1 —"I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead."

We are to interpret O. T. terms by the N. T. meaning: put into them. We are to interpret the Hebrew by the Greek, not the Greek by the Hebrew. It never would do to interpret our missionaries' use of the Chinese words for "God," "spirit," "holiness," by the use of those words among" the Chinese before the missionaries came. By the later usage of the N. T., the Holy Spirit shows us what he meant by the usage of the O. T.

(c) The Scriptural expressions, held by annihilationiste to imply cessation of being on the part of the wicked, are used not only in connections where they cannot bear this meaning (Esther 4 : 16), but in connections where they imply the opposite.

Esther 4 :16 —"if I perish, I perish "; Gen. 6 :11 —"the earth also was corrupt before God"— here, in tho Ijcx, the word «^iiap»j, translated "was corrupt," is the same word which in other places is interpreted by annihllationists as meaning extinction of being. In Ps. 119 .176," I have gone astray like a lost sheep" cannot mean " I have gone astray like an annihilated sheep." Is. 49 :17 —"thy destroyers [annihilntorsV ] and they that made thee waste shall go forth of thee"; 57:1, 2—"The righteous perisheth [ is annihilated ? ] and no man layeth it to heart: and merciful men are taken away, none considering that the righteous is taken away from the evil to come. He entereth into peace: they rest in their beds, each one that walketh in his uprightness "; Dan. 9 : 26—" ind after three score and two weeks shall the anointed one be cut off [annihilated?]".

Mat. 10 : 6, 39, 42 —" the lost sheep of the house of Israel.... be that loseth his life for my sake shall find it.... he shall in nowise lose his reward "—In these verses we cannot substitute "annihilate" for "lose"; acta 13 : 41—"Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish"; cf. Mat. 6 : 16—"for they disfigure their faces — where the same word iif>a>'ic> is used. 1 Cor. 3 :17— "If any man destroyeth [annihilates?] the temple of God, him shall God destroy"; 2 Cor. 7 : 2—"we corrupted no man"— where the same word o>«*«i'pu> is used. 2 Thess. 1:9—" who shall suffer punishment, even eternal destruction from the face of the Lord and from the glory of his might" — tho wicked shall be driven out from the presence of Christ. Destruction is not annihilation. "Destruction from" separation. "A ship engulfed in quicksands is destroyed: a temple broken down and deserted Is destroyed "; see Lillle, Com. in loco. 2 Pet. 3 : 7—"day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men"—here the word "destruction" (diruAeiac) is the same with that used of the end of the present order of things, and translated "perished" (iinuAcro) in verse 6. "We cannot accordingly infer from it that the ungodly will cease to exist, but only that there will be a great and penal change in their condition " (Plumptre, Com. in loco).

(d) The passages held to prove the annihilation of the -wicked at death cannot have this meaning, since the Scriptures foretell a resurrection of the unjust as well as of the just; and a second death, or a misery of the reunited soul and body, in the case of the wicked.

lets 24 : IS—"than shall be » resurrection both of lh« jut and unjust"; Rev. 2 : II "He tut ovorcometh shall not be hart of the second death "; 20 : 14,15 — " And death and Hades vers east into the lake of Are. This is the second death, eren the lake of Mrs. Ind if any vas not found written in the book of life, he vu oast into the lake of Ire"; 21: 8—"their part shall be in the lake that burnetii with Ire and brimstone; which is the second death." The "second death" is the first death intensified. Having one's "part in the lake of Ire" Is not annihilation.

(e) The words used in Scripture to denote the place of departed spirits, as well as the allusions to their condition, show that death, to the writers of the Old and the New Testaments, although it was the termination of man's earthly existence, was not an extinction of his being or his consciousness. ( Sl'NIP is either from ^i'^i to press, aud = ' the shut-up or constrained place'; or from ''Nt?, to be at rest or quiet, and = 1 the resting place.' "A«5w =• not 'hell,' but the 'unseen world,' conceived by the Greeks as a shadowy, but not as an unconscious, state of being).

Gen. 25 : 8, 9 — Abraham "was gathered to his people, ind Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him in the care of Mschpelah"; so of Isaac in Gen. 35 : 29, and of Jacob In 49 : 29, 33 — all of whom were (fathered to their fathers before they were buried. Sum. 20 : 24—"Aaron shall be gathered unto his people"— since Aaron was not burled at all, being" gathered to their fathers" was something different from burial. Job 3 :13, 18—"for now should 1 have lien down snd been quiet; I should hare slept: then had I been at rest.... There the prisoners are at ease together; They hear not the voice of the taskmaster'; 7 : 9 —" Is the cloud is consumed and vanisheth away, So he that goeth down to the grave shall come up no more "; 14 : 22 —" But his flesh upon him hath pain, And his soul within him mourneth."

Ez. 32 : 21 —" The strong among the mighty shall speak to him out of the midst of hell"; Luke 16 ; 23 —" And in Hsdes he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom "; 23 : 43 — "To-day shall thou be with me in Paradise "; cf. 1 Sam. 28 :19 — Samuel said to Saul in the cave of Endor: "To-morrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me "—evidently not in an unconscious state. Many of these passages intimate a continuity of consciousness after death. Though Sheol Is unknown to man, it is naked and open to God (Job 26 : 6); he can find men there and redeem them from thence (Ps. 49 :15)—proof that death is not annihilation. See Glrdlestone, O. T. Synonyms, 447.

(/) The terms and phrases which have been held to declare absolute cessation of existence at death are frequently metaphorical, and an examination of them in connection with the context and with other Scriptures is sufficient to show the untenableness of the literal interpretation put upon them by the anniliilationists, and to prove that the language is merely the language of appearance.

Death is often designated as a "sleeping" or a "falling asleep"; see John 11; 11,14— "Our friend Laxarus is fallen asleep; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep .... Then Jesus therefore said unto them plainly, Lasarus is dead." Here the language of appearance is used; yet this language could not have been used, if the soul had not been conceived of as alive, though sundered from the body; see Meyer on 1 Cor. t: 18. So the language of appearance is used in loci. 9 :10 —" there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave whither thou goest"—and in Ps. 146 : 4 —"His breath goeth forth; in that very day his thoughts perish,"

See Mozley, Essays, 2 :171 —" These passages often describe the phenomena of death as it presents itself to our eyes, and so do not enter into the reality which takes place beneath it." Bartlett, Life and Death Eternal, 189-358 —" Because the same Hebrew word is used is used for 'spirit' and ' breath,' shall we say that the spirit is only breath? 'Heart' in English might in like manner be made to mean only the material organ; and David's heart, panting, thirsting, melting within him, would have to be interpreted literally. So a man may be 'eaten up with avarice,' while yet his being is not only not extinct, but is in a state of frightful activity."

(fir) The Jewish belief in a conscious existence after death is proof that the theory of annihilation rests upon a misinterpretation of Scripture. That such a belief in the immortality of the soul existed among the Jews is abundantly evident: from the knowledge of a future state possessed by the Egyptians (Acts 7 : 22); from the accounts of the translation of Enoch and of Elijah (Gen. 5 : 24; cf. Heb. 11:5. 2 K. 2 : 11); from the invocation of the dead which was practised, although forbidden by the law (1 Sam. 28 : 7-14; of. Lev. 20 : 27; Deut. 18 : 10, 11); from allusions in the O. T. to resurrection, future retribution, and life beyond the grave (Job 19 : 25, 27; Ps. 16 : 9-11; Is. 26 :19; Ez. 37 :1-14; Dan. 12 : 2, 3, 13); and from distinct declarations of such faith by Philo and Josephus, as well as by the writers of the N. T. (Mat. 22 : 31, 32; Acts 23 : 6; 26 : 6-8; Heb. 11 :13-16).

The Egyptian coffin was called "the chest of the living." See the Book of the Dead, translated by Birch, In Bunsen's Egypt's Place, 123-333: The principal ideas of the first part of the Book of the Dead are "living again after death, and being born again as the sun," which typified the Egyptian resurrection (138). "The deceased lived again after death" (134). "The Osiris lives after he dies, like the sun daily ; for as the sun died and was born yesterday, so the Osiris Is born " (184). Yet the Immortal part, in its continued existence, was dependent for its blessedness upon the preservation of the body; and for this reason the body was embalmed. Immortality of the body Is as Important as the passage of the soul. Growth or natural reparation of the body is invoked as earnestly as the passage of the soul to the upper regions." "There Is not a limb of him without a god; Thoth Is vivifying his limbs" (197). See Uarda, by Ebers; Dr. Howard Osgood on Resurrection among the Egyptians, in Hebrew Student, Feb., 1885. The Egyptians, however, recognized no transmigration of souls; see Renouf, Hlbbert Lectures, 181-184.

It Is morally impossible that Moses should not have known the Egyptian doctrine of Immortality: lots 7 : 22 —" Ind Moses was instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians." That Moses did not make the doctrine more prominent In his teachings, may be for the reason that it was so connected with Egyptian superstitions with regard to Osiris. Yet the Jews believed In immortality: Gen. 5 : 24 —" Ind Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him "; cf. Heb. II: 5 —" By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death "; 2 lings 2 :11 —" Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven "; 1 Sam. 28 :1-14 — the Invocation of Samuel by the woman of Endor; cf. Lot. 20 : 27 —" A man also, or woman, that hath a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall snrely be put to death;" Dent 20 :10,11 —" There shall not be found among yon a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer."

Job 19 : 25-27 —" For I know that my redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand up at the last upon the earth: and after my skin hath been thus destroyed, yet from my flesh shall I see God: whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another. Hy reins are consumed within me "; Ps. 16 : 9-11 —" Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth: My flesh also shall dwell in safety. For thou wilt not leave my soul to Sheol; Neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life: In thy presence is fulness of joy; In thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore "; Is. 26 :19 —" Thy dead shall live; my dead bodies snail arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust: for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall east forth the dead "; Ez. 37 :1-14 — the valley of dry bones —"I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, 0 my people"—a prophecy of restoration based upon the idea of immortality and resurrection; Dan. 12 : 2, 3,13 —" Ind many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament,

and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever But go thou thy way till the end be:

for thou shalt rest, and shalt stand in thy lot, at the end of the days."

Josephus, on the doctrine of the Pharisees, In Antiquities, xvm: 1: 3, and Wars of the Jews, ii: 8 : 10-14—"Souls have an immortal vigor. Under the earth are rewards and punishments. The wicked are detained in an everlasting prison. The righteous shall have power to revive and live again. Bodies are indeed corruptible, but souls remain exempt from death forever. But the doctrine of the Saddueecs Is that souls die with their bodies." Mat 22 : 31, 32 —" But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living."

Christ's argument, in the passage last quoted, rests upon the two implied assumptions; first, that love will never suffer the object of its affection to die; beings who have ever ton the objects of God's love will be so forever — for " Life is ever Lord of death. And love can never lose its own " (Tennyson, In Memorlam); secondly, that body and soul belong normally together; if body and soul are temporarily separated, they shall be united; Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are living, and therefore they shall rise again. It was only an application of the same principle, when Robert Hall gave up his early materialism as he looked down Into his father's grave: he felt that this could not be the end; ef. Ps. 22 : 26 - '' Your heart shall live forever." Acts 23 : 6 —" I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees: touching the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question "; 26 : 7, 8 —" ind concerning this hope I am accused bj the Jews, 0 king! ¥ej is it judged incredible with jou. if God doth raise the dead?" leb. 11:13-16 — the present life was reckoned as a pilgrimage; the patriarchs sought " a better country, that is, a heavenly "; cf. Gen. 47 : 9.

Mozley, Lectures, 38-59, and Essays, 2 :169—"True religion among the Jews had an evidence of Immortality in Its possession of God. Paganism was hopeless in its loss of friends, because affection never advanced beyond Its earthly object, and therefore, In losing It, lost all. But religious love, which loves the creature in the Creator, has that on which to fall back, when its earthly object is removed."

(h) The most impressive and conclusive of all proofs of immortality, however, is afforded in the resurrection of Jesns Christ,— a work accomplished by his own power, and demonstrating that the spirit lived after its separation from the body (John 2 : 19, 21; 10 : 17, 18). By coming back from the tomb, he proves that death is not annihilation (2 Tim. 1:10 ).

John 2 :19. 21 —"Jesns answered and said unto them. Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up .... But he spake of the temple of his body "; 10 :17,18 —" Therefore doth the father love me, because I lay down my life,

that I may take it again I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again "; 2 Tim. 1 :10 —

"our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel "— that is, Immortality had been a truth dimly recognized, suspected, longed for, before Christ came: but it was he who first brought It out from obscurity and uncertainty Into clear daylight and convincing power.

Christ taught immortality: (1) By exhibiting himself the perfect conception of a human life. Who could believe that Christ could become forever extinct? (2) By actually coming back from beyond the grave. There were many speculations about a trans-Atlantic continent before 1493, but these were of little worth compared with the actual word which Columbus brought of a new world beyond the sea. (3) By providing a way through which his own spiritual life and victory may be ours; so that, though we pass through the valley of the shadow of death, we may fear no evil. (4) By thus gaining authority to teach us of the resurrection of the righteous and of the wicked, as he actually does. Christ's resurrection is not only the best proof of Immortality, but we have no certain evidence of immortality without it.

For the annihilation theory, see Hudson, Debt and Grace, and Christ, Our Life: also Dobney, Future Punishment. Per contra, see Hovey, State of the Impenitent Dead, 1-27, and Manual of Theology and Ethics, 153-188; Luthardt, Compendium, 289-292; Delitzsch, Bib. Psych., 397-407; Herzog, Encyclop.. art.: Tod; Spllttgerber, Schlaf und Tod; Estes, Christian Doctrine of the Soul; Baptist Review, 1879 : 411-439; Presb. Rev., Jan., 1882 : 203.

II. The Intermediate State.

The Scriptures affirm the conscious existence of both the righteous and the wicked, after death, and prior to the resurrection. In the intermediate state the soul is without a body, yet this state is for the righteous a state of conscious joy, and for the wicked a state of conscious suffering.

That the righteous do not receive the spiritual body at death, is plain from 1 Thess. 4 : 16, 17 and 1 Cor. 15 : 52, where an interval is intimated between Paul's time and the rising of those who slept. This rising was to occur in the future, "at the last trump." So the resurrection of the wicked had not yet occurred in any single case, but was yet future (John 5 : 28-30 — tpXeTat <->pa, not Kai viv iariv, as in verse 25; Acts 24 : 15 — avaaraaiv jitXKtiv iaeodat). Christ was the firatfruits (1 Cor. 15 : 20, 23). If the saints had received the spiritual body at death, the patriarchs would have been raised before Christ.

1. Of the righteous, it is declared:

(a) That the soul of the believer, at its separation from the body, enters the presence of Christ.

2 Cor. 5 :1-8—" If the earthly house of oar tabernacle be dissolved, wo have a building from God. a house not made with hands, eternal, in the heavens. For verily in this we groan, longing to be clothed upon with our habitation which is from heaven: if so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked. For indeed we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened; not for that we would be unclothed, but that we would be clothed upon, that what is mortal may be swallowed up of life .... willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be at home with the Lord "— Paul hopes to escape the violent separation of soul and body — the being- "unclothed"— by living till the coming of the Lord, and then putting on the heavenly body, as it were, over the present one (tVivoWao-dat); yet whether he lived till Christ's coming or not, he knew that the soul, when it left the body, would be at home with the Lord.

Luke 23 : 43 —" To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise "; John 14 : 3 —" and if I go and prepare a plan for you, I come again, and will receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also "; 2 Tim. 4 :18 —" The lord will deliver me from every evil work, and will save me unto [ or,'into'] his heavenly kingdom " = will save me and put me into his heavenly kingdom (Ellicott), the characteristic of which is the visible presence of the King with his subjects.

(6) That the spirits of departed believers are with God.

Eeb. 12 :23—Ye are come "to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who an enrolled in heaven, and to God the Judge of all"; cf. led. 12 : 7 —" the dust return to the earth as it was; and the spirit return unto God who gave it" John 20 :17 —" Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended unto the Father "— probably means: "my body has not yet ascended." The soul had gone to God during the interval between death and the resurrection, as is evident from Luke 23 : 43, 46 —" with me in Paradise.... Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit"

(c) That believers at death enter paradise.

Luke 23 : 42, 43 —" And he said, Jesus, remember me when thou oomest in thy kingdom, and he said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise "; cf. 2 Cor. 12 : 4 —" caught up into Paradise, and heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter "; Rev. 2 : 7 —" To him that overcometh, to him will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of God "; Gen. 2 : 8 —" ind the Lord planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed." Paradise is none other than the abode of God and the blessed, of which the primeval Eden was the type.

(d) That their state, immediately after death, is greatly to be preferred to that of faithful and successful laborers for Christ here.

Phil. I : 22. 23 -"I am in a strait betwixt the two, having the desire to depart and be with Christ; for it is very far better "—here Haekett says: "ivaAiio-ai = departing, cutting loose, as if to put to sea, followed by <riiv Xoio-Tw «!vat, as if Paul regarded one event as immediately subsequent to the other." Paul, with his burning desire to preach Christ, would certainly have preferred to live and labor, even amid great suffering, rather than to die, if death to him had been a state of unconsciousness and inaction. See Edwards the younger, Works, 2 :530, 531; Hovey, Impenitent Dead. 81.

(e) That departed saints are truly alive and conscious.

Mat. 22 : 32—" God is not the God of the dead, but of the living "; Luke 16 : 22 —" carried away by the angels into Abraham's bosom "; 23 : 43 —" To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise " — " with me" = in the same state unless Christ slept in unconsciousness, we cannot think that the penitent thief did; John 11: 26—"whosoever liveth and believeth on me shall never die"; 1 Tbess. 5 :10—"who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him "; Rom. 8 10—" and if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin: but the spirit is life because of righteousness." Life and consciousness clearly belong to the "souls under the altar" mentioned under the next head.

(/) That they are at rest and blessed.

Rev. 6 : 9-11 —"I saw under the altar the souls of them that had been slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held: and they cried with a great voice, saying;, How long, 0 Master, the holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth, and there was given them to each one a white robe; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet a little tune, until their fellow-seiranta also and their brethren, which should be hilled even as they were, should be fulfilled in number"; 14 :13 —" Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labors; for their works follow with them "; 20 :14 — "and death and Hades were oast into the lake of fire"— see Evans, in Presb. Kev., 1883 : 303—"The shadow of death lying upon Hades is the penumbra of Hell. Hence Hades is associated with death in the final doom."

2. Of the wicked, it is declared:

(a) That they are in prison,— that is, under constraint and guard (1 Pet. 3:19 — <pvlaKT) ).

1 Pet 3 :19 —" In which [ spirit ] also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison "— there is no need of putting unconscious spirits under guard. Hovey: "Restraint implies power of action, and suffering implies consciousness."

(6) That they are in torment, or conscious suffering (Luke 16 : 23 —

cv jiaa&vaM;).

Luke 16 : 23 —" And in Hades he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom, and he cried and said. Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of bis finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am in anguish in this flame."

Here many unanswerable questions may be asked: Had the rich man a body before the resurrection, or is this representation of a body only figurative? Did the soul still feel the body from which it was temporarily separated, or have souls in the intermediate state temporary bodies? However we may answer these questions, it is certain that the rich man suffers, while probation still lasts for bis brethren on earth. Fire is here the source of sufferiug, but not of annihilation. Eten though this be a parable, it proves conscious existence after death to have been the common view of the Jews, and to have been a view sanctioned by Christ.

(c) That they are under punishment (2 Pet. 2:9 — KoXa^ofiivovr).

2 Pet 2 : 9 —" The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly ont of temptation, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment unto the day of judgment"—here "the unrighteous" — not only evil angels, but ungodly men; cf. verse 4—"For if God spared not angels when they sinned, but oast them down to hell, and committed them to pits of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment,"

The passages cited enable us properly to estimate two opposite errors.

A. They refute, on the one hand, the view that the souls of both righteous and wicked sleep between death and the resurrection.

This view is based upon the assumption the possession of a physical organism is indispensable to activity and consciousness — an assumption which the existence of a God who is pure spirit (John 4 : 24), and the existence of angels who are probably pure spirits (Heb. 1 : 14), show to be erroneous. Although the departed are characterized as 'spirits (Eccl. 12: 7; Acts 7 : 59; Heb. 12 : 23; 1 Pet. 3 :19), there is nothing in this 'absence from the body' (2 Cor. 5:8) inconsistent with the activity and consciousness ascribed to them in the Scriptures above referred to. When the dead are spoken of as 'sleeping' (Dan. 12 : 2; Mat. 9 : 24; John 11 : 11; 1 Cor. 11: 30; 15 : 51; 1 Thess. 4 : 14; 5 : 10), we are to regard this as simply the language of appearance, and as literally applicable only to the body.

John 4 : 24 —"God is a Spirit [or rather, as margin, 'God is spirit']"; Heb. 1:14 —" Are they [angels]

not all ministering spirits?'' fed. 12:7—"the Just return to the earth as it was; and the spirit return unto God who gave it"; lets 7 : 59 —" and thej stoned Stephen, calling upon the Lord, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit"; Heb. 12 : 23 —"to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect"; 1 Pet, 3 :19 —"in which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison"; 2 Cor. 5 : 8—"We are of good courage, I say, and are willing rather to be absent from the bodj, and to be at home with the Lord "; Dan. 12 : 2 —" man; of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake''; Mat. 9 : 24 — " the damsel is not dead, but sleepeth "; John 11:11 —" Our friend Lasarus is fallen asleep; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep"; 1 Cor. 11: 30— "For this cause many among you are weak and sickly, and not a few sleep "; 1 These. 4:14 —" For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also that are fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him "; 5 :10—" who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him."

B. The passages first cited refute, on the other hand, the view that the suffering of the intermediate state is purgatorial.

According to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic church, "all who die at peace with the church, but are not perfect, pass into purgatory." Here they make satisfaction for the sins committed after baptism by suffering a longer or shorter time, according to the degree of their guilt The church on earth, however, has power, by prayers and the sacrifice of the mass, to shorten these sufferings or to remit them altogether. But we urge, in reply, that the passages referring to suffering in the intermediate state give no indication that any true believer is subject to this suffering, or that the church has any power to relieve from the consequences of sin, either in this world or in the world to come. Only God can forgive, and the church is simply empowered to declare that, upon the fulfilment of the appointed conditions of repentance and faith, he does actually forgive. This theory, moreover, is inconsistent with any proper view of the completeness of Christ's satisfaction (Gal. 2:21; Heb. 9 : 28); of justification through faith alone (Bom. 3 : 28); and of the condition after death, of both righteous and wicked, as determined in this life (Eccl. 11 : 3; Mat. 25 :10; Luke 16 : 26; Heb. 9 : 27; Eev. 22 :11).

Against this doctrine we quote the following- texts: Gal. 2 : 21 —" I do not make void the grace of God: for if righteousness is through the law, then Christ died for nought"; Heb. 9 : 28 —" so Christ also, having been once [or,'once for all'] offered to bear the sins of many, shall appear a second time, apart from sin, to them that wait for him, unto salvation''; Rom. 3 : 28—" We reckon therefore that a man is justified by faith, apart from the works of the law "; fed. 11: 3 —" If the tree fall toward the south or toward the north, in the place where the tree falleth. there it shall be "; Mat 25 :10 —" and while they went away to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage feast: and the door was shut"; Luke 16 : 26—" and beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, that they which would pass from henoe to you may not be able, and that none may cross over from thence to us "; Heb. 9 : 27 —" it is appointed unto men onoo to die, and after this Cometh judgment''; Rev. 22 : 11 —" He that is unrighteous, let him do unrighteousness still: and he that is filthy, let him be made filthy still; and he that is righteous, let him do righteousness still: and he that is holy, let him be made holy ttUL"

For the Romanist doctrine, see Perrone, Prtelectiones Theologies?, 2:301-420. Per contra, see Hodge, Systematic Theology, 3 : 743-770; Barrows, Purgatory. Augustine, Encheiridion, 69, suggests the possibility of purgatorial fire in the future for some believers. Whlton, Is Eternal Punishment Endless? page 89, says that Tertullian held to a delay of resurrection in the case of faulty Christians; Cyprian first stated the notion of a middle state of purification; Augustine thought It " not incredible "; Gregory the Great called it" worthy of belief "; it is now one of the most potent doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church; that church has been, from the third century, for all souls who accept her last consolations, practically restorationlst.

Elliott, Hone Apocalyptical, 1:410, adopts Hume's simile, and says that purgatory gave the Roman Catholic Churoh what Archimedes wanted, another world on which to fix Its lever, that so fixed, the church might with It move this world. We must remember, however, that the Roman church teaches no radical change of character in purgatory — purgatory Is only a purifying process for believers.

We close our discussion of this subject with a single, but an important, remark,— this, namely, that while the Scriptures represent the intermediate state to be one of conscious joy to the righteous, and of conscious pain to the wicked, they also represent this state to be one of incompleteness. The perfect joy of the saints, and the utter misery of the wicked, begin only with the resurrection and general judgment.

That the Intermediate state Is one of Incompleteness, appears from the following passages: Mat 8 : 29—" That have we to do with, thee, thou Son of God? art thoa come hither to torment as before the time?" 2 Cor. 5 : 3, 4 —" if ao be that being clothed we shall not be found naked, for indeed we that are in tail tabernacle do groan, being burdened; not for that we would be unclothed, but that we would be clothed upon, that what is mortal maj be swallowed up of life "; cf. Rom. 8 : 23—• And not only so, but ourselves also, which hare the urstfruiu of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for our adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body "; Phil. 3 :11 —" if by any means I may attain unto the resurrection from the dead "; 2 Pet. 2 : 9 —" the lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptation, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment unto the day of judgment"; Rot. 6 :10—"and they [the souls underneath the altar] cried with a great voice, saying, How long, 0 Vaster, the holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?"

In opposition to Locke, Human Understanding, 2:1:10, who said that" the soul thinks not always"; and to Turner, Wish and Will, 48, who declares that "the soul need not always think, any more than the body always move; the essence of the soul is potentiality for activity "; Descartes, Kant, Jouffroy, sir Wm. Hamilton, all maintain that it belongs to mental existence continuously to think. Upon this view, the intermediate state would be necessarily a state of thought. As to the nature of that thought, Dorner remarks In his Eschatology that "in this relatively bodiless state, a still life begins, a sinking of the soul into itself and into the ground of its being— what Steffens calls 'involution,' and Martensen 'self-brooding.' In this state, spiritual things are the only realities. In the unbelieving, their impurity, discord, alienation from God, are laid bare. If they still prefer sin, Its form becomes more spiritual, more demoniacal, and so ripens for the Judgment."

Even here, Dorner deals in speculation rather than in Scripture. But he goes further, and regards the intermediate state as one, not only of moral progress, but of elimination of evil; and holds the end of probation to be, not at death, but at the Judgment, at least in the case of all non-believers who are not incorrigible. We must regard this as a practical revival of the Romanist theory of purgatory, and as contradicted not only by all the considerations already urged, but also by the general tenor of Scriptural representation that the decisions of this life are final, and that character is fixed here for eternity. This is the solemnity of preaching, that the gospel Is "a aavor from life unto life," or "a savor from death unto death" (2 Cor. 2 :16).

On the whole subject, see Hovey, State of Man after Death; Savage, Souls of the Righteous; Julius Mttller, Doct. Sin, 2 : 304-306; Neandcr, Planting and Training, 482-484; Delitzsch, Bib. Psychologic, 407-448; Bib. Sac, 13:153; Methodist Rev., 34 : 240; Christian Rev., 20 :381; Herzog, Encyclop., art.: Hades; Stuart, Essays on Future Punishment; Whately, Future State.

III. Tub Second Coming Of Christ.

While the Scriptures represent great events in the history of the individual Christian, like death, and great events in the history of the church, like the outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost and the destruction of Jerusalem, as comings of Christ for deliverance or judgment, they also declare that these partial and typical comings shall be concluded by a final, triumphant return of Christ, to punish the wicked and to complete the salvation of his people.

Temporal comings of Christ are indicated in: Mat. 24 : 23, 27, 34 —" Then if any man shall say

unto you, Lo, here is the Christ, or, Here; believe it not For as the lightning cometh forth from the east, and is

seen even unto the west; so shall be the coming of the Sou of man Verily, I say unto you, This generation shall

not pass away, till all these things be accomplished "; 16 : 28—" Verily, I say unto you, There be some of them that stand here, which shall in no wise taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom "; John 14 : 3,18 —" inj if i go and prepare a place for you, I come again, and will receive you unto myself; that where I am, there

may be also I will not leave you desolate: I come onto you "; Rot. 3 : 20 —" Behold, I stand at the door and

knock: if any man hear my voice and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me." So the Protestant Reformation, the modern missionary enterprise, the battle against papacy In Europe and against slavery in this country, the great revivals under Whitefield in England and under Edwards in America, were all preliminary and typical comings of Christ.

The final coming of Christ is referred to in: Mat. 24 : 30 —" they shall see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he shall send forth his angels with a gnat sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds from one end of heaven to the other "; 25 : 31 —" But when the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the angels with him, then shall he tit on the throne of bis glory "; Acts 1 :11 —" Te men of Galilee, why stand ye looking into heaven? this Jesus, which was received up from yon into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye beheld him going into heaven "; 1 Thess. 4 :16 — " For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven, with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God "; 2 Then. 1: 7,10 —" the revelation of the Lord Jesus from heaven with the angels of his power when he shall come to be glorified in bis saints,

and to be marvelled at in all them that believed"; Heb. 9 : 28—"so Christ also, having been once offered to bear the sins of many, shall appear a second time, apart from sin, to them that wait for him, unto salvation"; Rev. 1: 7 — "Behold, he oometh with the clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they which pierced him; and all the tribes of the earth snail mourn over him.

1. The nature of this Coming.

Although without doubt accompanied, in the case of the regenerate, by inward and invisible influences of the Holy Spirit, the second advent is to be outward and visible. This we argue:

(a) From the objects to be secured by Christ's return. These are partly external (Rom. 8 : 21, 23). Nature and the body are both to be glorified. These external changes may well be accompanied by a visible manifestation of him who 'makes all things new' (Rev. 21 : 5).

Rom. 8 : 21, 23— "in hope that the creation also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of

the glory of the children of God waiting for our adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body "; Rev, 21: 5 —

"Behold, I make all things new."

(6) From the Scriptural comparison of the manner of Christ's return with the manner of his departure (Acts 1:11) — see Com. of Hackett, in loco:" bv rpdirov — visibly, and in the air. The expression is never employed to affirm merely the certainty of one event as compared with another. The assertion that the meaning is simply that, as Christ had departed, so also he would return, is oontradicted by every passage in which the phrase, occurs."

lets 1 :11 —" this Jesus, which was received up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye beheld him going into heaven "; c/. Acts 7 : 28 —" Wouldest thou kill me, as [ br rponoy ] thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday?" Mat. 23 : 37—" how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as [ rp6noy ] a ben gathereth her chickens under her wings "; 2 Tim. 3:8 —" like as [ 6v rpovov ] Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also withstand the truth."

(e) From the analogy of Christ's first coming. If this was a literal and visible ooming, we may expect the second coming to be literal and visible also.

1 Thess. 4 :16— "For the Lord himself [ in his own person] shall descend from heaven, with a shout [something heard], with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God"—see Com. of Prof. W. A. Stevens: "So different from Luke 17:20, where 'the kingdom of God cometh not with observation.' The 'shout' is not necessarily the voice of Christ himself (lit. 'in a shorn-,' or 'in shouting'). 'Voice of the archangel' and 'trump of God' are apposltlonal, not additional." Rev. 1: 7—"every eye shall see him "; as every ear shall hear him: John 5 : 28, 29 —"ail that are in the tombs shall hear his

voice"; 2 Thess. 2 : 2—" to the end that ye be not quickly shaken from your mind, nor yet be troubled as that

the day of the Lord is now present "—they may have "thought that the first gathering of the saints to Christ was a quiet, invisible one —a stealthy advent, like a thief in the night" (Lillie). 2 John 7—" For many deoeivers are gone forth into the world, even they that confess not that Jesus Christ oometh in the desk "— here denial of a future second coming of Christ is declared to be the mark of a deceiver.

Alford and Alexander, In their Commentaries on ids 1: tl, agree with the view of Hackett quoted above. Warren, Parousia, 61-05,106-1H, controverts this view, and says that "an omnipresent divine being can come, only in the sense of ntanifastation." He regards the parousia, or coming of Christ, as nothing but Christ's spiritual presence. A writer In the Presb. Review, 1883: 221, replies that Warren's view is contradicted "by the fact that the apostles often spoke of the parousia as an event yet future, long after the promise of the Redeemer's spiritual presence with his church had begun to be fulfilled, and by the fact that Paul expressly cautions the Thcssalonlans against the belief that the parousia was just at hand." We do not know how all men at one time can see a bodily Christ; but we also do not know the nature of Christ's body. If all men may see the same rainbow, all men may see the same Christ coming in the clouds.

2. The time of Christ's coming.

(a) Although Christ's prophecy of this event, in the twenty-fifth chapter of Matthew, so connects it with the destruction of Jerusalem that the apostles and the early Christians seem to have hoped for its occurrence during their life-time, yet neither Christ nor the apostles definitely taught when the end should be, but rather declared the knowledge of it to be reserved in the counsels of God, that men might ever recognize it as possibly at hand, and so might live in the attitude of constant expectation.

1 Cor. 15 : 51 — " We all shall not sleep, but we shall all be changed "; i These. 4 :17 —" then we that are alive, that are left, shall together with them be caught up in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord "; 2 Tim. 4:8 — " henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give to me at that day: and not only to me, but also to all them that have loved his appearing "; James5:7—" Be patient therefore, brethren, until the coming of the Lord"; 1 Pet 4 : 7—"But the end of all things is at hand: be ye therefore of sound mind, and be sober unto prayer "; 1 John 2 :18 —" Little children, it is the last hour: and as ye heard that antichrist oometh, even now have there risen many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last hour."

PhiL 4 : 5—"The Lord is at hand (ryyvc). In nothing be anxious"—may mean "the Lord Is near" (in space), without any reference to the second coming. The passages quoted above, expressing as they do the surmises of the apostles that Christ's coming was near, while yet abstaining from all definite fixing of the time, are at least sufficient proof that Christ's advent may not be near to our time. We should be no more warranted than they were, in inferring from these passages alone the immediate coming of the Lor«^

(6) Hence we And, in immediate connection with many of these predictions of the end, a reference to intervening events and to the eternity of God which shows that the prophecies themselves are expressed in a large way which befits the greatness of the divine plans.

Mat 24 : 36—"But of that day and hour knoweth no one, not even the angels of heaven, neither the Son, but the father "; Hark 13 : 32 —" But of that day or that hour knoweth no one, not even the angels in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father. Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when the time is "; Acts 1: 7 —" And he said unto them, It is not for you to know times or seasons, which the Father hath set within his own authority "; 1 Cor. 10 :11 —"Now those things happened unto them by way of example; and they were written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages are come "; 16 : 22 —" Maran atha [ marg.— that is, 1 Our Lord eometh' J"; 2 Thess. 2 :1-3 —"Sow we beseech you, brethren, touching the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together unto him; to the end that ye be not quickly shaken from your mind, nor yet be troubled .... as that the day of the Lord is now present [Am. Rev.: 'is just at hand']; let no man beguile you in any wise: for it will not be, exoept the falling away come first, and the man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition."

James 5: 8, 9—"Be ye also patient; stablish your hearts: for the coming of the Lord is at hand. Murmur not, brethren, one against another, that ye be not judged: behold the judge standeth before the doors"; 2 Pet 3 : 3-12 — "in the last days mockers shall come .... saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for from the day that the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they wen from the beginning of the creation. For this they wilfully forget,

that there were heavens from of old But forget not this one thing, beloved, that one day is with the Lord as a

thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. The Lord is not slack concerning his promise But the day of the lord Till raw •» a thief.... what manner of persons ought ye to be in all holj litis? ud godliness, looking for and earnestly desiring [marg.—'hastening'] the coming of the day of God"—awaiting it, and hastening its 00ml□# by your prayer and labor.

Her. 1: 3—"Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things which are written therein: for the time is at hand"; 22 :12, 20 —" Behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to render

to each man according as his work is He which testifieth these things s&ith, Yea: I come quickly. Amen: come.

Lord Jesus." From these passages It is evident that the apostles did not know the time of the end, and that it was hidden from Christ himself while here in the flesh. He, therefore, who assumes to know, assumes to know more than Christ or his apostles — assumes to know the very thing which Christ declared it was not for us to know.

(c) In this we discern a striking parallel between the predictions of Christ's first, and the predictions of his second, advent. In both cases the event was more distant and more grand than those imagined to whom the prophecies first came. Under both dispensations, patient waiting for Christ was intended to discipline the faith, and to enlarge the conceptions, of God's true servants. The fact that every age since Christ ascended has had its Chiliasts and Second Adventists should turn our thoughts away from curious and fruitless prying into the time of Christ's coming, and set us at immediate and constant endeavor to be ready, at whatsoever hour he may appear.

Gen. 4:1 —" And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man with the help of the Lord [ lit.: 'I hare gotten a man, even Jehovah1 ] "— an Intimation that Eve fancied her first-born to be already the promised seed, the coming deliverer; see MacWnorter, Jah veh Christ. Dent 18 :15 —" The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him shall ye hearken—here is a prophecy which Moses may have expected to be fulfilled in Joshua, but which God designed to be fulfilled only In Christ. Is. 7 :14,16 —" Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign: behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and

shall call his name Immanuel for before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land

whose two kings thou abhorrest shall be forsaken "— a prophecy which the prophet may have expected to be fulfilled in his own time, and which was partially so fulfilled, but which God intended to be fulfilled ages thereafter.

Luke 2 : 25 —" Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel "—Si moon was the type of holy men, in every age of Jewish history, who were waiting for the fulfilment of God's promise, and for the coming of the deliverer. So under the Christian dispensation. Luther, near the time of his death, said: "God forbid that the world should last fifty years longer. Let him cut matters short with hi9 last judgment." Melancthon put the end less than two hundred years from his time. Calvin's motto was: "Dnmine, qiumgque t" "O Lord, how long?" On the whole subject, see Hovey, in Baptist Quarterly, Oct., 1877 : 416-432, and notes upon our next section.

3. The precursors of Christ's coming.

(a) Through the preaching of the gospel in all the world, the kingdom of Christ is steadily to enlarge its boundaries, until Jews and Gentiles alike become possessed of its blessings, and a millennial period is introduced in which Christianity generally prevails throughout the earth.

Dan. 2 : 44, 45 —" And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed, nor shall the sovereignty thereof be left to another people; but it shall break in pieces and oonsume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever, forasmuch as thou sawest that a stone was out out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure."

Mat. 13 : 31, 32—"The kingdom of heaven is like unto a grain of mustard seed .... which indeed is less than all seeds; but when it is grown, it is greater than the herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the heaven come and lodge in the branches thereof "—the parable of the leaven, which follows, apparently illustrates the intensive, as that of the mustard-seed illustrates the extensive, development of the kingdom of God; and it is as impossible to confine the reference of the leaven to the spread of evil as it is impossible to confine the reference of the mustard-seed to the spread of evil.

Hat 24 :14 —" And this gospel of the kingdom shall bo preached in the Thole world for a testimony unto all the nations; and then shall the end come"; Rom. 11: 25. 26—"a hardening in part hath befallen Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in; and so all Israel shall be saved "; Rev. 20 : 4-8 — "And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God. and such as worshipped not the beast, neither his image, and received not the mark upon their forehead and upon their hand; and they lived, and reigned with Christ a thousand years,"

(6) There will be a corresponding development of evil, either extensive or intensive, whose true character shall be manifest not only in deceiving many professed followers of Christ and in persecuting true believers, but in constituting a personal antichrist as ite representative and object of worship. This rapid growth shall continue until the millennium, during which evil, in the person of its chief, shall be temporarily restrained.

■at 13 : 30. 38 — "Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of the harvest I will say to the reapers.

Gather up first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn The field

is the world; and the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom: and the tares are the sons of the evil one "; 24 : 5,

11,12, 24 —" For many shall come in my name, saying, I am the Christ; and shall lead many astray And many

false prophets shall arise and shall lead many astray. And because iniquity shall bo multiplied, the lore of the many

shall wax cold for there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders: so

as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect."

Luke 21:12 —" But before all these things, they shall lay their hands on you, and shall persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake "; 2 Thess. 2 : 3. 4. 7, 8—"it will not be, except the falling away come first, and the man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition, he that opposeth and exalteth himself against all that is called God or that is worshipped; so that he sitteth in the temple of God,

setting himself forth as God for the mystery of lawlessness doth already work: only there is one that restrameth

now, until he be taken out of the way. And then shall be revealed the lawless one, whom the Lord Jesus shall slay with the breath of his mouth, and bring to nought by the manifestation of his coming."

Elliott, Hone Apocalypticte, 1:85, holds that "Antichrist means another Christ, a pro-Christ, a vice-Clirtst, a pretender to the name of Christ, and in that character, an usurper and adversary. The principle of Antichrist was already sown in the time of Paul. But a certain hindrance, i. t., the Roman Empire as then constituted, needed first to be removed out of the way, before room could be made for Antichrist's development." Antichrist, according to this view, is the hierarchical Bpirlt, which found its final and most complete expression in the Papacy.

(c) At the close of this millennial period, evil shall again be permitted to exert its utmost power in a final conflict with righteousness. This spiritual struggle, moreover, shall be accompanied and symbolized by political convulsions, and by fearful indications of desolation in the natural world.

Mat 24 : 29, 30 —" But immediately, after the tribulation of those days, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken; and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven "; Luke 21: 8-28 — False prophets; wars and tumults; earthquakes; pestilences; persecutions; signs in the sun, moon, and stars; "and then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. But when these things begin to come to pass, look up, and lift up your heads; because your redemption draweth nigh."

Interpretations of the book of Revelation are divided into three classes: (1) the PrtetcrM (held by Grotius, Moses Stuart, and Warren), which regards the prophecy as mainly fulfilled in the age immediately succeeding the time of the apostles (666 = Neron Kalsar): (2) the Continuous (held by Isaac Newton, Vitringa, Bengel, Elliott, Kelly, and Cumming), which regards the whole as a continuous prophetical history, extending from the first age until the end of all things (666 = Lateinos): Hengstenberg and Alford hold substantially this view, though they regard the seven seals, trumpets, and vials as synchronological, each succeeding set going over the same ground and exhibiting It in some special aspect; (3) the FuturM (held by Maitland and Todd), which considers the book as describing events yet to occur, during the times immediately preceding and following the coming of the Lord.

Of all these Interpretations, the most learned and exhaustive is that of Elliott, in his four volumes entitled Hone Apocaly pticse. The basis of his interpretation is the "time and timee and half a time" of Ban. 7 : 25, which according to the year-day theory means 1280 years — the year, according to ancient reckoning, containing 360 days, and the "time" being therefore 380 years [360 + (2X360) + 180 = 1280 ]. This phrase we find recurring with regard to the woman nourished in the wilderness (Key. 12:14). The blasphemy of the beast for forty and two months ( R»t. 13 : 5) seems to refer to the same period [ 42 X 30 = 1260, as before ]. The two witnesses prophesy 1280 days (Her. 11:3); and the woman's time In the wilderness Is stated (Roy. 12 : 8) as 1280 days. This period of 1280 years is regarded by Elliott as the time of the temporal power of the Papacy.

There is a twofold term Intu a quo, and correspondingly a twofold terminus ail quern. The first commencement is A. D. 531, when in the edict of Justinian the dragon of the Roman Empire gives its power to the beast of the Papacy, and resigns its throne to the rising Antichrist, giving opportunity for the rise of the ten horns as European kings (Rom. 13 :1-3). The second commencement, adding the seventy-five supplementary years of Daniel 12 :12 [ 1335 —1260 = 75 ], is A. D. 806, when the Emperor Phocas acknowledges the Primacy of Rome, and the ten horns, or kings, now diademed, submit to the Papacy (Rev. 17:12,13). The first ending-point is A. D. 1791, when the French Revolution struck the first blow at the independence of the Pope L531 +1260 = 1791 ]. The second endingpoint is A. D. 1866, when the temporal power of the Pope was abolished at the unification of the kingdom of Italy [ 606 +1260 = 1868 ]. Elliott regards the two-horned beast (Rev. 13 :11) as representing the Papal clergy, and the image of the beast (Rot. 13 :14,15) as representing the Papal Councils.

Unlike Hengstcnberg and Alford, who consider the seals, trumpets, and vials as synchronologlcal, Elliott makes the seven trumpets to be an unfolding of the seventh seal, and the seven vials to be an unfolding of the seventh trumpet. Like other advocates of the premillennial advent of Christ, Elliott regards the four chief signs of Christ's near approach as being: (1) the decay of the Turkish Empire (the drying up of the river Euphrates — Re*. 16:12); (2) the Pope's loss of temporal power—(the destruction of Babylon — Rev. 17-19); (3) the conversion of the Jews and their return to their own land (St. 37; Rom. 11:12-15, 25-27 —but on this last, see Meyer); (4) the pouring out of the Holy Spirit and the conversion of the Gentiles (the way of the kings of the East—Rev. 16 :12; the fulness of the Gentiles —Rom. 11:25).

Elliott's whole scheme, however, is vitiated by the fact that he wrongly assumes the book of Revelation to have been written under Domltlan (94 or 96), Instead of under Nero (67 or 68). His terminus a quo is therefore incorrect, and his interpretation of chapters 5-9 is rendered very precarious. The year 1866, moreover, should have been the time of the end, and so the terminus ad quern seems to be clearly misunderstood — unless indeed the seventy-five supplementary years of Daniel are to be added to 1866. We regard the failure of this most Ingenious scheme of Apocalyptic interpretation as a practical demonstration that a clear understanding of the meaning of prophecy is, before the event, impossible, and we are confirmed in this view by the utterly untenable nature of the theory of the millennium which is commonly held by so-called Second Adventists, a theory which we now proceed to examine.

4. Relation of Christ's second coming to the millennium.

The Scripture foretells a period, called in the language of prophecy "a thousand years," when Satan shall be restrained and the saints shall reign with Christ on the earth. A comparison of the passages bearing on this subject leads us to the conclusion that this millennial blessedness and dominion is prior to the second advent. One passage only seems at first sight to teach the contrary, viz.: Bev. 20 : 4-10. But this supports the theory of a premillennial advent only when the passage is interpreted with the barest literalness. A better view of its meaning will be gained by considering:

(a) That it constitutes a part, and confessedly an obscure part, of one of the most figurative books of Scripture, and therefore ought to be interpreted by the plainer statements of the other Scriptures.

We quote here the passage alluded to: Rev. 20 : 4-10 —" lid I saw thrones, and the? sat upon thin, ud judgment na given onto them: and I saw the souls of them that had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as worshipped not the beast, neither his image, and received not the mark upon their forehead and upon their hand; and they lived, and reigned with Christ a thousand years. The rest of the dead lived not until the thousand years should be finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: over these the second death hath no power; but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years."

(b) That the other Scriptures contain nothing with regard to a resurrection of the righteous which is widely separated in time from that of the wicked, but rather declare distinctly that the second coming of Christ is immediately connected both with the resurrection of the just and the unjust and with the general judgment.

Mat. 16 : 27 —" For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then shall he render unto every man according to his deeds"; 25 : 31-33—"But when the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the angels with him, then shall he ait on the throne of his glory: and before him shall be gathered all the nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats"; John 5 . 28, 29—"Marvel not at this: for the hour cometh, in which all that are in the tombs shall hear his voioe, and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of judgment"; 2 Cor 6:10—"For we must all be made manifest before the judgment-Mat of Christ; that each one may receive the things done in the body, according to what he hath done, whether it be good or bad "; 2 These. 1: 6-10 —" if so be that it is a righteous thing with God to recompense affliction to them which afflict you, and to you that are afflicted rest with us, at the revelation of the Lord Jesus from heaven with the angels of his power in flaming fire, rendering vengeance to them that know not God, and to them that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: who shall suffer punishment, even eternal destruction from the face of the Lord and from the glory of his might, when he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be marvelled at in all them that believed."

2 Pet. 3 : 7,10 —"the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men .... But the day of the Lord will come as a thief: in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall be dissolved with fervent heat. and the earth and the works that are therein shall be burned up "; Rev. 20 :11-15 —" and I aw a great white throne, and him that sat upon it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away: and there was found no place for them, and I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne; and books were opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of the things that were written in the books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and Hades gave up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death, even the lake of fire, and if any was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire."

Here ia abundant evidence that there is no interval of a thousand years between the second coming of Christ and the resurrection, general judgment, and end of all things. All these events come together. The only answer of the premlllennialists to this objection to their theory is, that the day of judgment and the millennium may be contemporaneous,—in other words, the day of judgment may be a thousand years long. Elliott holds to a conflagration, partial at the beginning of this period, complete at its close — Peter's prophecy treating the two conflagrations as one, while the book of Revelation separates them; so a nearer view resolves binary stars into two. But we reply that, if the Judgment occupies the whole period of a thousand years, then the coming of Christ, the resurrection, and the final conflagration should all be a thousand years long also. It is Indeed possible that, in this case, as Peter says in connection with his prophecy of judgment, "one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day" (2 Pet 3 : 8). But if we make the word "day" so Indefinite in connection with the judgment, why should we regard it as so definite, when we come to interpret the 1260 days?

(c) That the literal interpretation of the passage — holding, as it does, to a resurrection of bodies of flesh and blood, and to a reign of the risen saints in the flesh, and in the world as at present constituted — is inconsistent with other Scriptural declarations with regard to the spiritual nature of the resurrection-body and of the coming reign of Christ.

1 Cor. 15 : 44, 50 —" it is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body Now this I say, brethren, that

lesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption." These passages are Inconsistent with the view that the resurrection is a physical resurrection at the beginning of the thousand years —a resurrection to be followed by a second life of the saints in bodies of flesh and blood. They are not, however, inconsistent with the true view, soon to be mentioned, that "th« Srst resurrection" is simply the raising: of the church to a new life and zeal.

(d) That the literal interpretation is generally and naturally connected with the expectation of a gradual and necessary decline of Christ's kingdom upon earth, until Christ comes to bind Satan and to introduce the millennium. This view not only contradicts such passages as Dan. 2 : 34, 35, and Mat. 13: 31, 32, but it begets a passive and hopeless endurance of evil, whereas the Scriptures enjoin a constant and aggressive warfare against it, upon the very ground that God's power shall assure to the church a gradual but constant progress in the face of it, even to the time of the end.

Dan. 2 : 34, 35—"Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them in pieces. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth "; Hat 13 : 31, 32 —" The kingdom of heaven is like unto a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in bis field: which indeed is less than all seeds; but when it is grown, it is greater than the herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the heaven come and lodge in the branches thereof." In both these figures there is no sign of cessation or of backward movement, but rather every indication of continuous advance to complete victory and dominion. The premillennial theory supposes that for the principle of development under the dispensation of the Holy 8pirit, God will substitute a reign of mere power and violence. J. B. Thomas: "The kingdom of heaven is like a grain of mustard seed, not like a can of nltro-glycerine."

The theory also divests Christ of all kingly power until the millennium, or, rather, maintains that the kingdom has not yet been given to him; see Elliott, Hone Apocalypticte, 1: 94 — where Luke 19 :12 —" a certain nobleman went into a far country, to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return"—is interpreted as follows: "Subordinate kings went to Home to receive the investiture to their kingdoms from the Roman Emperor, and then returned to occupy them and reign. So Christ received from his Father, after his ascension, the investiture to his kingdom; but with the Intention not to occupy it, till his return at his second coming. In token of this investiture he takes his seat as the Lamb on the divine throne" (Rev. 5 i 6-8 >. But this interpretation contradicts Hat. 28:18, 20—" ill authority hath been

given into me in heaven and on earth lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world." See Presb.

Rev., 1882:238. On the effects of the premillennial view in weakening Christian endeavor, see J. H. Seelye, Christian Missions, 94-137; per contra, see A. J. Gordon, in Independent, Feb., 1886.