And her adversary also provoked her sore
That is, Peninnah, the other wife of Elkanah; for when a man had more wives, two or more, they were usually at enmity to one another, as the two wives of Socrates were, being always jealous lest one should have more love and respect than the other from the husband; and this woman provoked Hannah one time after another, and continually, by upbraiding her with her barrenness; and this was another reason why Elkanah did all he could to comfort her, not only because the Lord had restrained her from bearing children, but because also she that envied and emulated her sadly provoked her:
for to make her fret;
and be uneasy, and murmur at and complain of her unhappy circumstances: some render it, "because she thundered" F12 against her; that is, Peninnah was exceeding loud and clamorous with her reproaches and scoffs, which were grievously provoking to Hannah. So said Socrates, when Xantippe first scolded at him, and then poured foul water on him: did not I say, says he, that Xantippe first thunders, and then rains F13?
because the Lord had shut up her womb;
it was this Peninnah upbraided her with, and at which Hannah fretted and grieved.
F12 (hmerh rwbeb) "propterea quod intonabat contra eam", Piscator.
F13 Laert. in Vit. Socrat. p. 112.