Peter (Petro). Greek form for the Aramaic (Chaldaic) Chpa, the nickname given Simon by Jesus when he first saw him ( John 1:42 ) and reaffirmed in the Greek form on his great confession ( Matthew 16:18 ), with an allusion to petra, another form for a rock, ledge, or cliff. In 2 Peter 1:1 we have both Simwn and Petro. Paul in his Epistles always terms himself Paul, not Saul. So Peter uses this name, not Cephas or Simon, because he is writing to Christians scattered over Asia Minor. The nominative absolute occurs here as in James 1:1 , but without cairein as there, the usual form of greeting in letters ( Acts 23:26 ) so common in the papyri. An apostle of Jesus Christ (apostolo Ihsou Cristou). This is his official title, but in 2 Peter 1:1doulo is added, which occurs alone in James 1:1 . In II and III John we have only o presbutero (the elder), as Peter terms himself sunpresbutero in 1 Peter 5:1 . Paul's usage varies greatly: only the names in I and II Thessalonians, the title apostolo added and defended in Galatians and Romans as also in I and II Corinthians and Colossians and Ephesians and II Timothy with "by the will of God" added, and in I Timothy with the addition of "according to the command of God." In Philippians Paul has only "doulo (slave) Cristou Ihsou," like James and Jude. In Romans and Titus Paul has both doulo and apostolo, like II Peter, while in Philemon he uses only desmio (prisoner) Ihsou Cristou. To the elect (eklektoi). Without article (with the article in Matthew 24:22Matthew 24:24Matthew 24:31 ) and dative case, "to elect persons" (viewed as a group). Bigg takes eklektoi (old, but rare verbal adjective from eklegw, to pick out, to select) as an adjective describing the next word, "to elect sojourners." That is possible and is like geno eklekton in Matthew 2:9 . See the distinction between klhtoi (called) and eklektoi (chosen) in Matthew 22:14 . Who are sojourners (parepidhmoi). Late double compound adjective (para, epidhmounte, Acts 2:10 , to sojourn by the side of natives), strangers sojourning for a while in a particular place. So in Polybius, papyri, in LXX only twice ( Genesis 23:4 ; 38 or 39 12), in N.T. only here, Genesis 2:11 ; Hebrews 11:13 . The picture in the metaphor here is that heaven is our native country and we are only temporary sojourners here on earth. Of the Dispersion (diaspora). See John 7:35 for literal sense of the word for scattered (from diaspeirw, to scatter abroad, Acts 8:1 ) Jews outside of Palestine, and James 1:1 for the sense here to Jewish Christians, including Gentile Christians (only N T. examples). Note absence of the article, though a definite conception (of the Dispersion). The Christian is a pilgrim on his way to the homeland. These five Roman provinces include what we call Asia Minor north and west of the Taurus mountain range (Hort). Hort suggests that the order here suggests that Silvanus (bearer of the Epistle) was to land in Pontus from the Euxine Sea, proceed through Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, to Bithynia, where he would re-embark for Rome. This, he holds, explains the separation of Pontus and Bithynia, though the same province. Only Galatia and Asia are mentioned elsewhere in the N.T. as having Christian converts, but the N.T. by no means gives a full account of the spread of the Gospel, as can be judged from Colossians 1:6Colossians 1:23 .