1 Peter 1:2

According to (kata). Probably to be connected with eklektoi rather than with apostolo in spite of a rather loose arrangement of words and the absence of articles in verses Colossians 1 2 . The foreknowledge (prognwsin). Late substantive (Plutarch, Lucian, papyri) from proginwskw ( Colossians 1:20 ), to know beforehand, only twice in N.T. (here and Acts 2:23 in Peter's sermon). In this Epistle Peter often uses substantives rather than verbs (cf. Romans 8:29 ). Of God the Father (qeou patro). Anarthous again and genitive case. See pathr applied to God also in Romans 1:3 Romans 1:17 as often by Paul ( Romans 1:7 , etc.). Peter here presents the Trinity (God the Father, the Spirit, Jesus Christ). In sanctification of the Spirit (en agiasmwi pneumato). Clearly the Holy Spirit, though anarthrous like qeou patro. Late word from agiazw, to render holy (agio), to consecrate, as in 1 Thessalonians 4:7 . The subjective genitive here, sanctification wrought by the Spirit as in 2 Thessalonians 2:13 (where the Trinity mentioned as here). Unto obedience (ei upakohn). Obedience (from upakouw, to hear under, to hearken) to the Lord Jesus as in 2 Thessalonians 1:22 "to the truth," result of "the sanctification." And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ (rantismon aimato Ihsou Cristou). Late substantive from rantizw, to sprinkle ( Hebrews 9:13 ), a word used in the LXX of the sacrifices ( Numbers 19:9 Numbers 19:13 Numbers 19:20 , etc.), but not in any non-biblical source so far as known, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 12:24 (of the sprinkling of blood). Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross and to the ratification of the New Covenant by the blood of Christ as given in Hebrews 9:19 ; Hebrews 12:24 with allusion to Exodus 24:3-8 . Paul does not mention this ritual use of the blood of Christ, but Jesus does ( Matthew 26:28 ; Mark 14:24 ). Hence it is not surprising to find the use of it by Peter and the author of Hebrews. Hort suggests that Peter may also have an ulterior reference to the blood of the martyrs as in Revelation 7:14 ; Revelation 12:11 , but only as illustration of what Jesus did for us, not as having any value. The whole Epistle is a commentary upon prognwsi qeou, agiasmo pneumato, aima Cristou (Bigg). Peter is not ashamed of the blood of Christ. Be multiplied (plhqunqeih). First aorist passive optative (volitive) of plhqunw, old verb (from plhqu, fulness), in a wish. So in 2 Peter 1:2 ; Jude 1:2 , but nowhere else in N.T. salutations. Grace and peace (cari kai eirhnh) occur together in 2 Peter 1:2 , in 2 John 1:2 (with eleo), and in all Paul's Epistles (with eleo added in I and II Timothy).