Who was foreknown indeed (proegnwsmenou men). Perfect passive participle (in genitive singular agreeing with Cristou) of proginwskw, old verb, to know beforehand ( Romans 8:29 ; 2 Peter 3:17 ). See prognwsin qeou in verse 1 Peter 1:2 . Before the foundation of the world (pro katabolh kosmou). This precise curious phrase occurs in John 17:24 in the Saviour's mouth of his preincarnate state with the Father as here and in Ephesians 1:4 . We have apo katabolh kosmou in Matthew 25:34 (kosmou omitted in Matthew 13:35 ); Luke 11:50 ; Hebrews 4:3 ; Hebrews 9:26 ; Revelation 13:8 ; Revelation 17:8 . Katabolh (from kataballw) was originally laying the foundation of a house ( Hebrews 6:1 ). The preincarnate Messiah appears in the counsels of God also in 1 Corinthians 2:7 ; Colossians 1:26 ; Ephesians 1:9 ; Ephesians 3:9-11 ; Romans 16:25 ; 1 Timothy 1:9 . But was manifested (panerwqento de). First aorist (ingressive) passive participle of panerow, referring to the Incarnation in contrast with the preexistence of Christ (cf. John 1:31 ; 1 John 3:5 1 John 3:8 ). At the end of the times (ep escatou twn cronwn). Like ep escatou twn hmerwn ( Hebrews 1:2 ). The plural cronoi, doubtless referring to successive periods in human history until the fullness of the time came ( Galatians 4:4 ). For your sake (di uma). Proof of God's love, not of their desert or worth ( Acts 17:30 ; Hebrews 11:39 ).