Not rendering evil for evil (mh apodidonte kakon anti kakou). Mh and the present active participle of apodidwmi, to give back. The same phrase in Romans 12:17 and the same idea in 1 Thessalonians 5:15 . Peter may have obtained it from Paul or both from Proverbs 17:13 ; Proverbs 20:22 , "an approximation to Christ's repeal of the lex talioni ( Matthew 5:38 ) which Plato first opposed among the Greeks" (Hart). Common use of anti for exchange. Reviling for reviling (loidorian anti loidoria). Allusion to Matthew 2:23 (Christ's own example). But contrariwise blessing (tounantion de eulogounte). Adverbial accusative and crasis (to enantion) of the neuter article and the adjective enantio (en, antio, opposite, Matthew 14:24 ), "on the contrary." For eulogounte (present active participle of eulogew) see Luke 6:28 ; Romans 12:14 (imperative eulogeite). For hereunto were ye called (oti ei touto eklhqhte). See 1 Peter 2:21 for this verb and use of ei touto (pointing to the preceding argument). That ye should inherit a blessing (ina eulogian klhronomhshte). Purpose clause with ina and the first aorist active subjunctive of klhronomew, a plain reference to Esau, who wanted "to inherit the blessing" ( Hebrews 12:17 ) after he had sold his birthright. Christians are the new Israel (both Gentiles and Jews) and are the spiritual descendants of Isaac ( Galatians 4:22 ).