Turning into ashes (teprwsa). First aorist participle of teprow, late word from tepra, ashes (in Dio Cassius of an eruption of Vesuvius, Philo), here alone in N.T. The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah (polei Sodomwn kai Gomorra). Genitive of apposition after polei (cities), though it makes sense as possessive genitive, for Jude 1:7 speaks of the cities around these two. The third example, the cities of the plain. See Genesis 19:24 . Condemned them (katekrinen). First aorist active indicative of katakrinw, still part of the protasis with ei. With an overthrow (katastroph). Instrumental case or even dative like qanatwi with katakrinw in Matthew 20:18 . But Westcott and Hort reject the word here because not in B C Coptic. Having made them (teqeikw). Perfect active participle of tiqhmi. An example (upodeigma). For which see James 5:10 ; John 13:15 . Cf. 1 Peter 2:21 . Unto those that should live ungodly (mellontwn asebesin). Rather, "unto ungodly men of things about to be" (see Hebrews 11:20 for this use of mellontwn). But Aleph A C K L read asebein (present active infinitive) with mellontwn=asebhsontwn (future active participle of asebew), from which we have our translation.