I rejoiced greatly (ecarhn lian). As in 2 John 1:4 ; Philippians 4:10 , not epistolary aorist, but reference to his emotions at the good tidings about Gaius. When brethren came (ercomenwn adelpwn). Genitive absolute with present middle participle of ercomai, and so with marturountwn (bare witness, present active participle of marturew). Present participle here denotes repetition, from time to time. To the truth (th alhqeiai). Dative case. "As always in the Johannine writings, 'truth' covers every sphere of life, moral, intellectual, spiritual" (Brooke). Even as thou walkest in truth (kaqw su en alhqeiai peripatei). "Thou" in contrast to Diotrephes (verse Philippians 9 ) and others like him. On peripatew see 1 John 1:6 and on en alhqeiai see 2 John 1:4 .