Ananias (Hanania). Not the one in Luke 3:2 ; John 18:13 ; Acts 4:7 , but the son of Nebedaeus, nominated high priest by Herod, King of Chalcis, A.D. 48 and till A.D. 59. He was called to Rome A.D. 52 to answer "a charge of rapine and cruelty made against him by the Samaritans, but honourably acquitted" (Page). Though high priest, he was a man of bad character. Them that stood by him (toi parestwsin autwi). Dative case of second perfect participle of paristhmi, to place, and intransitive. See the same form in verse Acts 4 (parestwte). To smite him on the mouth (tuptein autou to stoma). See on 12:45; Acts 18:17 . Cf. the treatment of Jesus ( John 18:22 ). Ananias was provoked by Paul's self-assertion while on trial before his judges. "The act was illegal and peculiarly offensive to a Jew at the hands of a Jew" (Knowling). More self-control might have served Paul better. Smiting the mouth or cheek is a peculiarly irritating offence and one not uncommon among the Jews and this fact gives point to the command of Jesus to turn the other check ( Luke 6:29 where tuptw is also used).