James 4:9

Be afflicted (talaipwrhsate). First aorist active imperative talaipwrew, old verb from talaipwro ( Romans 7:24 ), to endure toils, here only in N.T. Cf. talaipwriai in James 5:1 . Mourn (penqhsate). First aorist active imperative of penqew, old verb from penqo (mourning, James 4:9 ), as in Matthew 5:4 . Often in N.T. joined as here with klaiw, to weep ( Mark 16:10 ; Luke 6:25 ). A call to the godly sorrow spoken of in 2 Corinthians 7:10 (Mayor), like an O.T. prophet. Weep (klausate). First aorist active imperative of klaiw. Laughter (gelw). Old word from Homer down, only here in N.T. as gelaw, to laugh (opposite of klaiw), in N.T. only in Luke 6:21 Luke 6:25 , but katagelaw in Luke 8:53 ( Mark 5:40 ; Matthew 9:24 ). Be turned (metatraphtw). Second aorist passive imperative of metatrepw, old word, to turn about, to transmute, in Homer (not in Attic), here only in N.T. Heaviness (kathpeian). Old word from kathph (of a downcast look, from kata, pah eyes), hanging down of the eyes like the publican in Luke 18:13 , here only in N.T.