Was trodden (epathqh). First aorist passive indicative of patew, to tread. The image of treading out the grapes is a familiar one in the East. Perhaps Isaiah 63:3 is in mind. Without the city (exwqen th polew). Ablative case with exwqen (like exw). This was the usual place ( Hebrews 13:12 ). See exwqen in Revelation 11:2 . Joel ( Joel 3:12 ) pictures the valley of Jehoshaphat as the place of the slaughter of God's enemies. Cf. Zechariah 14:4 . Blood from the winepress (aima ek th lhnou). Bold imagery suggested by the colour of the grapes. Unto the bridles (acri twn calinwn). Old word (from calaw to slacken), in N.T. only here and James 3:3 . Bold picture. As far as a thousand and six hundred furlongs (apo stadiwn ciliwn exakosiwn). A peculiar use of apo, for "distance from (of)" as also in John 11:18 ; John 21:8 , somewhat like the use of pro in John 12:1 . The distance itself covers the length of Palestine, but it is more likely that "the metaphor is worked out with the exuberance of apocalyptic symbolism" (Swete) for the whole earth.