Round about the throne (kukloqen tou qronou). Here as a preposition with the genitive, though only adverb in Exodus 4:8 (only N.T. examples save Textus Rec. in Exodus 5:11 ). Four and twenty thrones (qronoi eikosi tessare). So P Q, but Aleph A have accusative qronou (supply eidon from Exodus 4:1 ) and tessare (late accusative in -e). This further circle of thrones beyond the great throne. I saw four and twenty elders (eikosi tessara presbuterou). No eidon in the text, but the accusative case calls for it. Twenty-four as a symbolic number occurs only in this book and only for these elders ( Exodus 4:4Exodus 4:10 ; Exodus 5:8 ; Exodus 11:16 ; Exodus 19:4 ). We do not really know why this number is chosen, perhaps two elders for each tribe, perhaps the twelve tribes and the twelve apostles (Judaism and Christianity), perhaps the twenty-four courses of the sons of Aaron ( 1 Chronicles 24:1-19 ), perhaps some angelic rank ( Colossians 1:16 ) of which we know nothing. Cf. Ephesians 2:6 . Sitting (kaqhmenou). Upon their thrones. Arrayed (peribeblhmenou). Perfect passive participle of periballw (to throw around). In white garments (imatioi leukoi). Locative case here as in Ephesians 3:5 (with en), though accusative in Ephesians 7:9Ephesians 7:13 . Crowns of gold (stepanou crusou). Accusative case again like presbuterou after eidon ( Ephesians 4:1 ), not idou. In Ephesians 19:14ecwn (having) is added. John uses diadhma (diadem) for the kingly crown in Ephesians 12:3 ; Ephesians 13:1 ; Ephesians 19:12 , but it is not certain that the old distinction between diadem as the kingly crown and stepano as the victor's wreath is always observed in late Greek.