Daniel’s Development in the King’s Court

1 In [the] third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it.

References for Daniel 1:1

      2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim the king of Judah into his hand and {some of}a of the utensils of the temple of God,b and he brought them [to] the land of Shinar [to] the temple of his gods, and he brought the utensils to {the treasury}c of his gods.

      References for Daniel 1:2

        • a 1:2 - Literally "from the end/extremity/limits"
        • b 1:2 - Hebrew "the God"
        • c 1:2 - Literally "the house of the treasury"
          3 And the king {ordered}d Ashpenaz, the commander of his court officials, to bring {some of the Israelites}e from {the royal family}f and from the lords,g

          References for Daniel 1:3

            • d 1:3 - Literally "said to"
            • e 1:3 - Literally "from the sons/children of Israel"
            • f 1:3 - Literally "from the seed of the kingship"
            • g 1:3 - Or "nobles"
              4 youths who {have no physical defect},h and [who are] {handsome},i and [who are] prudentj in all wisdom and {endowed with knowledge},k and [who] understand insight, and who [have] the {ability}l in them to serve in the palace of the king. [And the king ordered him] to teach them the literature and the language of [the] Chaldeans.

              References for Daniel 1:4

                • h 1:4 - Literally "there is not in them any physical defect"
                • i 1:4 - Literally "good/pleasing of appearance"
                • j 1:4 - Or "insightful"
                • k 1:4 - Literally "[who have] knowledge of knowledge"
                • l 1:4 - Literally "strength"
                  5 And the king assigned to them {his daily portion}m from the fine food of the king, and from {the wine that he drank},n and [instructed that] {they were to be educated for three years}.o And at the end [of] their [training], {they were to be stationed}p {before}q the king.

                  References for Daniel 1:5

                    • m 1:5 - Literally "[the] portion of the day on its day"
                    • n 1:5 - Literally "the wine of his drink"
                    • o 1:5 - Literally "and to be educated them years three"
                    • p 1:5 - Literally "they would stand"
                    • q 1:5 - Literally "to the face of"
                      6 Now there was among them {from the Judeans},r Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah.

                      References for Daniel 1:6

                        • r 1:6 - Literally "from the children of Judah"
                          7 And the commander of the court officials gave them names, and he called Daniel, Belteshazzar; and Hananiah, Shadrach; and Mishael, Meshach; and Azariah, Abednego.

                          Daniel’s Resolve

                          8 Now {Daniel resolved}s that he would not defile himself with the fine food of the king, and with {the wine that he drank},t and [so] he requested from the commander of the court officials [permission so] that he would not defile himself.

                          References for Daniel 1:8

                            • s 1:8 - Literally "Daniel placed upon his heart"
                            • t 1:8 - Literally "the wine of his drink"
                              9 And Godu gave Daniel favor and compassion {before}v the commander of the court officials,

                              References for Daniel 1:9

                                • u 1:9 - Hebrew "the God"
                                • v 1:9 - Literally "to the face of"
                                  10 and the commander of the court officials said to Daniel, "I [am] afraid [of] my lord, the king, who has determined your food and your drink, for {why should}w he see your face having a worse appearance than the young men who {are your age}?x Then you will endanger my head with the king."

                                  References for Daniel 1:10

                                    • w 1:10 - Literally "to what would"
                                    • x 1:10 - Literally "like your age"; "your" is plural
                                      11 Theny Daniel asked the guardz whom the commander of the court officials [had] appointed over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah,

                                      References for Daniel 1:11

                                        • y 1:11 - Hebrew "And"
                                        • z 1:11 - Or "overseer"
                                          12 "Please test your servants [for] ten days, and let them give us {some of the vegetables},{ and let us eat and let us drink water.

                                          References for Daniel 1:12

                                            • { 1:12 - Literally "from the vegetables"
                                              13 Then| let our appearances and the appearance of the young men who are eating the fine food of the king be compared {before you},} and [then] deal with your servants {according to what you see}."~

                                              References for Daniel 1:13

                                                • | 1:13 - Hebrew "And"
                                                • } 1:13 - Literally "in your presence"
                                                • ~ 1:13 - Literally "and according to/that you see"
                                                  14 So he agreed to this proposal with them, and he tested them [for] ten days.
                                                  15 And at the end of ten days their appearances appeared better and [they were] healthier of body than all the young men who were eating the fine food of the king.
                                                  16 {So} the guard {continued to withhold}€ their fine food and the wine of their drink, and he gave them vegetables.

                                                  References for Daniel 1:16

                                                    •  1:16 - Literally "And it happened"
                                                    • € 1:16 - Literally "he was ... withdrawing"
                                                    •  1:16 - Hebrew "to them"
                                                      17 {And as for these four young men},‚ Godƒ gave to them knowledge and insight into all literature and wisdom, and Daniel had insight into all visions„ and dreams.

                                                      References for Daniel 1:17

                                                        • ‚ 1:17 - Literally "And these young men, four of them"
                                                        • ƒ 1:17 - Hebrew "the God"
                                                        • „ 1:17 - Hebrew "vision"
                                                          18 And at the end of the time the king had set to bring them, the commander of the court officials brought them in {before}… Nebuchadnezzar.

                                                          References for Daniel 1:18

                                                            • … 1:18 - Literally "to the face of"
                                                              19 And the king spoke with them, {and among all of them no one was found like}† Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah; then they stood {before}‡ the king.

                                                              References for Daniel 1:19

                                                                • † 1:19 - Literally "and he was not found from all of them like"
                                                                • ‡ 1:19 - Literally "to the face of"
                                                                  20 And in every matter of wisdom [and] understanding [about] which the king inquired from them, he found them ten times better [than] all [of] the magiciansˆ [and] conjurers‰ that {were in his entire kingdom}.Š

                                                                  References for Daniel 1:20

                                                                    • ˆ 1:20 - Or "soothsayer-priests"
                                                                    • ‰ 1:20 - Or "enchanters"
                                                                    • Š 1:20 - Literally "in the whole of his kingdom"
                                                                      21 And Daniel was [there] until the first year of Cyrus the king.