Who is Beelzebub in the Bible? Name Meaning and Bible Significance

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Who is Beelzebub in the Bible? Name Meaning and Bible Significance
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But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, “It is only by Beelzebul, the prince of demons, that this man casts out demons.” (Matthew 12:24)

In the Old Testament, Beelzebul is referenced as "Baal-Zebub," a Canaanite deity worshipped at Ekron. "But the angel of the LORD said to Elijah the Tishbite, “Go up and meet the messengers of the king of Samaria and ask them, ‘Is it because there is no God in Israel that you are going off to consult Baal-Zebub, the god of Ekron?’ (2 Kings 1:3)

"Beelzebub" in the Bible

Beelzebub is the Greek version of the name Baal-zebub, a pagan deity worshipped in the ancient Philistine city of Ekron during Old Testament times. The name means “the lord of flies” (2 Kings 1:2), which is significant as golden fly images have been discovered during excavations at ancient Philistine sites. After the Philistines, the Jews changed the name to “Beelzeboul,” as used in the Greek New Testament, which means “lord of dung” and refers to the fly god that was worshipped for protection from fly bites. According to certain biblical scholars, Beelzebub was also known as the “god of filth,” which later became a term of contempt in the mouth of the Pharisees. As a result, Beelzebub was a particularly despised deity, and the Jews used his name as another name for Satan.

In Matthew 12, the Pharisees accuse Jesus of casting out demons by the power of "Beelzebub, the prince of demons." Read the full exchange here: 

"Then a demon-oppressed man who was blind and mute was brought to him, and he healed him, so that the man spoke and saw. And all the people were amazed, and said, "Can this be the Son of David?" But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, "It is only by Beelzebul, the prince of demons, that this man casts out demons." Knowing their thoughts, he said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is laid waste, and no city or house divided against itself will stand. And if Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? And if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? Therefore they will be your judges. But if it is by the Spirit of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you." (Matthew 12:22-28)

Who is Beelzebub?

Bible readers will encounter the name Beelzebub first in 2 Kings 1:2. In this passage, we read the account of Israel’s King Ahaziah falling through a window in his upstairs room in Samaria. He sends messengers to inquire about an entity we know as Beelzebub.

Beelzebub was also known as the god of Ekron. Ekron was a city inhabited by the Philistines and one of the capitals of the Philistine Pentapolis. Ekron was torn down by many rival people groups but was destroyed by the Babylonians in 603 B.C. under the leadership of Nebuchadnezzar.

What Does the Name Beelzebub Mean?

Beelzebub means “lord of the flies.” In Hebrew and Jewish literature, the name is translated to mean “lord of dung” or “lord of filth.” Images of Beelzebub portray him as a fly or flying insect. Scholars have learned that the image of the fly as Beelzebub derives from either the thought that he is a sun god that brings the flies or he is the god invoked to drive flies away from the sacrifice.

We should also note that Beelzebub is the Greek form of the word Baal-zebub. There are strong connections to Baal worship in conjunction with the worship of Beelzebub. Baal was a Canaanite fertility god in the Old Testament. The term zebub means “exalted dwelling.” When we combine those two terms, we have the name "prince of demons."

According to GotQuestions: "The word has two parts: Baal, which was the name for the Canaanite fertility gods in the Old Testament; and Zebul, which means “exalted dwelling.” Putting the two parts together, they formed a name for Satan himself, the prince of demons. This term was first used by the Pharisees in describing Jesus in Matthew 10:24-25. Earlier, they had accused Jesus of casting “out the demons by the ruler of the demons” (Matthew 9:34), referencing Beelzebul (Mark 3:22; Matthew 12:24)."

Is Beelzebub Satan?

In Scripture, Satan is referred to as Lucifer or the devil, to name a few. The evolution of the Beelzebub as a reference to Satan is linked to the Pharisees. The name became a bitter, scornful word, and Jews began to use it as a reference to Satan.

In Judaism, the word Satan is used as a verb. It does not refer to a person. Instead, it relates to temptation or difficulty to overcome. The Old Testament uses the name Beelzebub to speak of the god of Ekron. We do not see it being used as a name for Satan until the writings of the New Testament.

Beelzebul in Apocryphal and Literary Texts

Beyond the canonical scriptures, Beelzebul appears in apocryphal texts such as the Testament of Solomon, where he is depicted as a former heavenly angel associated with the star Hesperus (Venus). This portrayal links him to Lucifer and deepens his narrative as a fallen angel who influences human affairs through destruction and temptation (New World Encyclopedia).

Modern Relevance and Interpretations

Today, Beelzebul's name is synonymous with demonic influence. It is often used in theological studies and popular media to explore themes of good vs. evil, spiritual warfare, and the psychological aspects of temptation. His enduring presence in religious and cultural discussions underscores his significance as a symbol of ultimate malevolence.

What Does Beelzebub Do?

In ancient religions, Beelzebub was associated with sacrifices. He was invoked to drive away the flies that always came as sacrifices were made and blood was shed. During the time of Jesus, Beelzebub becomes a prince of demons. The name becomes a reference to Satan and a distinct insult to Jesus.

Beelzebub was believed to be someone who could perform exorcisms. This deity had control of all the devilish behavior in the world. It could even possess people itself. Today, we lean toward the thought that Beelzebub is another name for Satan and has all the powers of Satan.

Why Does Satan Have So Many Names?

Satan is one of many names for the evil Christians who fight daily. Other names include Prince of Darkness, Lucifer, Prince of Demons, Father of Lies, Moloch, and Antichrist. All these names refer to the same being. There is only one God with one name, yet Satan has many. Why?

Satan is considered the author of confusion. Having so many names solidifies that to be true. If Satan can use a different name in any given situation, humans are more likely to become confused and commit sin. Satan is cunning and uses his various names to trick us and convince us that we are not doing the devil’s bidding.

Satan’s many names also describe his identity and actions. For example, the name devil means “false accuser” or “deceitful nature.” Satan is a false accuser and deceives even those who love God. He is the tempter because he often leads us into temptation. He tempted Jesus in the wilderness. Satan is the serpent, and a snake can slither into places without us realizing it’s there. It can hide itself well and make itself known in surprising ways.

Satan’s many names are his weapons. He uses them against those who love the Lord and to keep those who don’t know the Lord in the dark.  

Should Christians Be Worried about Satan?

Christians know that Christ has already won the war. Even so, we should still be concerned about the cunning, deceitful, and sly behaviors of Satan.

Satan can lead Christians into temptation. He can lead us to sin and cause us to stay in sin much longer than we want. He can cause division among Christians, ultimately leading to conflict in homes, churches, and families.

In Matthew 10, Jesus explains what it means to be His disciple. He tells His apostles to go out and preach the gospel (Matthew 10:7) and provides them with specific instructions on what to do and what to avoid. He warns them to be cautious of people who may harm them, as they may be handed over to councils and flogged in synagogues. He also tells them that people may hate them because they believe in Him (Matthew 10:17-22). Jesus reminds them that as His followers, they should not expect to be treated better than Him and that it is enough for them to be like their teacher. He emphasizes that if people insulted Him, they will likely insult them too (Matthew 10:24-25).

The name Beelzebub is just one of the many names for Satan. It is the name of the one that delivers mayhem to our world. Christians should know this name but not worry about Satan’s power. Satan will always work to separate humanity from the God who created us. Our focus should be on the fact that our God is victorious, and as His children, we are safe from Beelzebub’s efforts to separate us from God.

Beelzebub FAQs

What is Beelzebub in the Bible? In the Bible, Beelzebub, also called Baalzebub, is the prince of the devils. In the Old Testament, in the form Baalzebub, it is the name given to the god of the Philistine city of Ekron (2 Kings 1:1-18).

What is Beelzebub the sin of? Sebastien Michaelis associated Beelzebub with the deadly sin of pride. However, according to Peter Binsfeld, Beelzebub was the demon of gluttony, one of the other seven deadly sins, whereas Francis Barrett asserted that Beelzebub was the prince of idolatry.

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Photo credit: ©Getty Images/Alex Raths

Ashley Hooker headshotAshley Hooker is a freelance writer passionate about missions. She has collaborated with mission teams in North Carolina, Mississippi, Texas, West Virginia, and Vermont. Presently, she lives in North Carolina with her husband and two children, where she fulfills roles as a pastor's wife, a dance mom, and a farm girl.

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