Genesis 32

Jacob prepares to meet Esau

1 Jacob went on his way, and God's messengers approached him.
2 When Jacob saw them, he said, "This is God's camp," and he named that sacred place Mahanaim.
3 Jacob sent messengers ahead of him to his brother Esau, toward the land of Seir, the open country of Edom.
4 He gave them these orders: "Say this to my master Esau. This is the message of your servant Jacob: ‘I've lived as an immigrant with Laban, where I've stayed till now.
5 I own cattle, donkeys, flocks, men servants, and women servants. I'm sending this message to my master now to ask that he be kind.'"
6 The messengers returned to Jacob and said, "We went out to your brother Esau, and he's coming to meet you with four hundred men."
7 Jacob was terrified and felt trapped, so he divided the people with him, and the flocks, cattle, and camels, into two camps.
8 He thought, If Esau meets the first camp and attacks it, at least one camp will be left to escape.
9 Jacob said, "LORD, God of my father Abraham, God of my father Isaac, who said to me, ‘Go back to your country and your relatives, and I'll make sure things go well for you,'
10 I don't deserve how loyal and truthful you've been to your servant. I went away across the Jordan with just my staff, but now I've become two camps.
11 Save me from my brother Esau! I'm afraid he will come and kill me, the mothers, and their children.
12 You were the one who told me, ‘I will make sure things go well for you, and I will make your descendants like the sand of the sea, so many you won't be able to count them.'"
13 Jacob spent that night there. From what he had acquired, he set aside a gift for his brother Esau:
14 two hundred female goats and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams,
15 thirty nursing camels with their young, forty cows and ten bulls, and twenty female donkeys and ten male donkeys.
16 He separated these herds and gave them to his servants. He said to them, "Go ahead of me and put some distance between each of the herds."
17 He ordered the first group, "When my brother Esau meets you and asks you, ‘Who are you with? Where are you going? And whose herds are these in front of you?'
18 say, ‘They are your servant Jacob's, a gift sent to my master Esau. And Jacob is actually right behind us.'"
19 He also ordered the second group, the third group, and everybody following the herds, "Say exactly the same thing to Esau when you find him.
20 Say also, ‘Your servant Jacob is right behind us.'" Jacob thought, I may be able to pacify Esau with the gift I'm sending ahead. When I meet him, perhaps he will be kind to me.
21 So Jacob sent the gift ahead of him, but he spent that night in the camp.

Jacob wrestles with God

22 Jacob got up during the night, took his two wives, his two women servants, and his eleven sons, and crossed the Jabbok River's shallow water.
23 He took them and everything that belonged to him, and he helped them cross the river.
24 But Jacob stayed apart by himself, and a man wrestled with him until dawn broke.
25 When the man saw that he couldn't defeat Jacob, he grabbed Jacob's thigh and tore a muscle in Jacob's thigh as he wrestled with him.
26 The man said, "Let me go because the dawn is breaking." But Jacob said, "I won't let you go until you bless me."
27 He said to Jacob, "What's your name?" and he said, "Jacob."
28 Then he said, "Your name won't be Jacob any longer, but Israel, because you struggled with God and with men and won."
29 Jacob also asked and said, "Tell me your name." But he said, "Why do you ask for my name?" and he blessed Jacob there.
30 Jacob named the place Peniel,"because I've seen God face-to-face, and my life has been saved."
31 The sun rose as Jacob passed Penuel, limping because of his thigh.
32 Therefore, Israelites don't eat the tendon attached to the thigh muscle to this day, because he grabbed Jacob's thigh muscle at the tendon.

Genesis 32 Commentary

Chapter 32

Jacob's vision at Mahanaim, His fear of Esau. (1-8) Jacob's earnest prayer for deliverance, He prepares a present for Esau. (9-23) He wrestles with the Angel. (24-32)

Verses 1-8 The angels of God appeared to Jacob, to encourage him with the assurance of the Divine protection. When God designs his people for great trials, he prepares them by great comforts. While Jacob, to whom the promise belonged, had been in hard service, Esau was become a prince. Jacob sent a message, showing that he did not insist upon the birth-right. Yielding pacifies great offences, ( Ecclesiastes 10:4 ) . We must not refuse to speak respectfully, even to those unjustly angry with us. Jacob received an account of Esau's warlike preparations against him, and was greatly afraid. A lively sense of danger, and quickening fear arising from it, may be found united with humble confidence in God's power and promise.

Verses 9-23 Times of fear should be times of prayer: whatever causes fear, should drive us to our knees, to our God. Jacob had lately seen his guards of angels, but in this distress he applied to God, not to them; he knew they were his fellow-servants, Re. 22:9 . There cannot be a better pattern for true prayer than this. Here is a thankful acknowledgement of former undeserved favours; a humble confession of unworthiness; a plain statement of his fears and distress; a full reference of the whole affair to the Lord, and resting all his hopes on him. The best we can say to God in prayer, is what he has said to us. Thus he made the name of the Lord his strong tower, and could not but be safe. Jacob's fear did not make him sink into despair, nor did his prayer make him presume upon God's mercy, without the use of means. God answers prayers by teaching us to order our affairs aright. To pacify Esau, Jacob sent him a present. We must not despair of reconciling ourselves to those most angry against us.

Verses 24-32 A great while before day, Jacob being alone, more fully spread his fears before God in prayer. While thus employed, One in the likeness of a man wrestled with him. When the spirit helpeth our infirmities, and our earnest and vast desires can scarcely find words to utter them, and we still mean more than we can express, then prayer is indeed wrestling with God. However tried or discouraged, we shall prevail; and prevailing with Him in prayer, we shall prevail against all enemies that strive with us. Nothing requires more vigour and unceasing exertion than wrestling. It is an emblem of the true spirit of faith and prayer. Jacob kept his ground; though the struggle continued long, this did not shake his faith, nor silence his prayer. He will have a blessing, and had rather have all his bone put out of joint than go away without one. Those who would have the blessing of Christ, must resolve to take no denial. The fervent prayer is the effectual prayer. The Angel puts a lasting mark of honour upon him, by changing his name. Jacob signifies a supplanter. From henceforth he shall be celebrated, not for craft and artful management, but for true valour. Thou shalt be called Israel, a prince with God, a name greater than those of the great men of the earth. He is a prince indeed that is a prince with God; those are truly honourable that are mighty in prayer. Having power with God, he shall have power with men too; he shall prevail, and gain Esau's favour. Jacob gives a new name to the place. He calls it Peniel, the face of God, because there he had seen the appearance of God, and obtained the favour of God. It becomes those whom God honours, to admire his grace towards them. The Angel who wrestled with Jacob was the second Person in the sacred Trinity, who was afterwards God manifest in the flesh, and who, dwelling in human nature, is called Immanuel, ( hosea 12:4 hosea 12:5 ) . Jacob halted on his thigh. It might serve to keep him from being lifted up with the abundance of the revelations. The sun rose on Jacob: it is sun-rise with that soul, which has had communion with God.

Footnotes 4

Chapter Summary

INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS 32

This chapter informs us of Jacob's proceeding on in his journey, and of his being met and guarded by an host of angels, Ge 32:1,2; of his sending messengers to his brother Esau, acquainting him with his increase, and desiring his favour and good will, Ge 32:3-5, who return and report to him, that Esau was coming to him with four hundred men, which put him into a panic, and after devising ways and means for the security of himself; and those with him, at least a part, if not the whole, Ge 32:6-8; then follows a prayer of his to God, pressing his unworthiness of mercies, and his sense of them, imploring deliverance from his brother, and putting the Lord in mind of his promises, Ge 32:9-12; after which we have an account of the wise methods he took for the safety of himself and family, by sending a present to his brother, dividing those who had the charge of it into separate companies, and directing them to move at a proper distance from each other, he, his wives and children, following after, Ge 32:13-23; when they were over the brook Jabbok, he stopped, and being alone, the Son of God in an human form appeared to him, and wrestled with him, with whom Jacob prevailed, and got the blessing, and hence had the name of Israel, Ge 32:24-28; and though he could not get his name, he perceived it was a divine Person he had wrestled with, and therefore called the name of the place Penuel, Ge 32:29-31; the hollow of his thigh being touched by him with whom he wrestled, which put it out of joint, he halted as he went over Penuel, in commemoration of which the children of Israel eat not of that part of the thigh, Ge 32:31,32.

Genesis 32 Commentaries