Chapter IV

In the morning they rose with the sun, and prepared themselves for their departure; but the Interpreter would have them tarry awhile, for, said he, You must orderly go from hence. Then said he to the damsel, that fir.-.t opened unto them, Take them and have them into the garden to the bath, and there wash them and make them clean from the soil, which they have gathered by travelling. Then Inuocent, the damsel, took them, and led them into the pardon, and brought them to the bath ; so she told them, That there they must wash and be clean, for so her master would have the women to do, that called at his house, as they were going on

pilgrimage. Then they went in and washed, yea, they and the boys and all; and they came out of thai bath, not only sweet and clean, bat also much enlivened and strengthened in their joints. So when they came in, they looked fairer a deal, than when they went out to the washing.

When they were returned out of the garden from the bath, the Interpreter took them and looked upon them, and said un'o them, "Fair as the moon." Then he called for the seal, wherewith they used to be sealed that are washed in his bath. So the seal was brought, and he set his mark upon them, that they might be known in the places, whither they were yet to go: Now the seal was the contents and sum of the passover which the children of Israel did eat (a), when they came out of the land of Egypt; and tne mark was set between their eyes. This seal greatly added to their beauty, for it was an ornament to their faces. It also added to the gravity, and made their countenance more like those of angels.

Then said the Interpreter again to the damsel that waited upon the women, Go into the vestry, and fetch out garments for these people : so she went and fetched out white raiment, and laid it down before him; so he commanded them to put it on. "It was fine linen, white and clean." When the women were thus adorned, they seemed to be a terror one to the other; for that they could not see that glory each one had in herself, which they could sec; in each other. Now, therefore, they began to esteem each other better than themselves. For you are fairer than I am, said one; and you are more comely than I am, saidTanother. The children also stood amazed, to see into what fashion they were brought.

The Interpreter then called for a man-servant of his, one Great-heart, and bkl him take sword, and helmet, and shield; and take these my daughters,

(a) Exad. xiii. 8.9, 10.

. * said he; conduct thein to tlie house called Beautiful, at which place they will rest next. So he took his weapons and went before them; and the Interpreter said, God speed. Those also that belonged to the family sent them away with many a good wish. So they went on their way, and sang:

This place has been our second stage,

Here we have heard and seen
'J hose good things that from age to age,

To others hid have been.
The dunghill-raker, spider, hen,

The chicken too, to me
Hath taught a losson, let me then

Comfoi med to it be.

The butcher, garden, and the field,

The rohin, and his bait,
Also the rotten tree doth yield

Me argument of weight;
To move me for to watch and pray,

To strive to be sincere;
To take my cross up day by day,

And serve the Lord with fear.


Now I saw in my dream, tliat those went on, and Great-heart before them ; so they went and came to the place where Christian's burden fell oft' his back, and tumbled into a sepulchre. Here then they made a pause; here also they blessed God. Now, said Christiana, it comes to my mind, what was said to us at the gate, to wit, That we should have pardon by word and deed; by word, that is, by the promise; by deed, to wit, in the way it was obtained. What the promise is, of that I know something: but what it is to have pardon by deed, or in the way that it was obtained, Mr. Great-heart, I suppose you know, which, if you please, let us have your discourse thereof.

Great-heart. Pardon by the deed done, is pardon obtained by some one for another that hath need thereof: not by the person pardoned, but in the way, saith another, in which I have obtained it. So then, to speak to the question more at large, this pardon is that you and Mercy, and these boys have attained by another: to wit, by him that let you in at the gate: and he hath obtained it in this double way. He has performed a righteousness to cover you, and spilt his blood to wash you in.

Christ. But if he parts with his righteousness to us, what will he have for himself?

Great-heart. He has more righteousness than you have need of, or than he needeth himself. Christ. Pray make that appear. Great-heart. With all my heart; but first I must premise, That he, of whom we are now about to speak, is one that has not his fellow. He has two natures in one person, plain to be distinguished, impossible to be divided. Unto each of these natures a righteousness belongeth, and each righteousness is essential to that nature. So that one may as easily cause the natures to be extinct, as to separate its justice or righteousness from it. Of these righteousnesses therefore we are not made partakers, so as that they, or any of them should be put upon us, that we might be made just, and live thereby. Besides these, there is a righteousness whicli this person has, as these two natures are joined in one. And this is not the righteousness of the Godhead, as distinguished from the manhood; nor the righteousness of the manhood as distinguished from the Godhead, but a righteousness which standeth in the union of both natures; and may properly be called the righteousness that is essential to his being prepared of God to the capacity of the mediatory office, which he was entrusted with. It he parts with his first righteousness, he parts with his Godhead: if he parts with his second righteousness, he parts with the purity of his manhood; if he parts with his third, he parts with that perfection which capacitates him to the office of mediation. He has therefore another righteousness, which standeth in performance, or obedience to a revealed will; and that is that he puts upon sinners, and that by which their sins are covered. Wherefore he saith, ** As by one man's disobedience many were made sinners: so, by the obedience of one, shall many be made righteous (£)."

Christ. But are the other righteousnesses of no use to us?

Great-heart. Yes; for though they are essential to his natures and offices, and cannot be communicated uuto another ;yet, it is by virtue of them that the righteousness that justifies is for that purpose efficacious. The righteousness of his Godhead gives virtue to his obedience; the righteousness of his manhood gtveth capability to his obedience to justify; and the righteousness that standeth in the union of these two natures to his office, giveth authority to that righteousness f - do the work, for which it was ordained.

So then here is a righteousness that Christ, as God, has no need of; for he is God without it: here is a righteousness that Christ, as man, has no need of to make him so, for he is perfect man without it. Again, here is a righteousness, that Christ, as Godman, has no need of, for he is perfectly so without it. Here then is a righteousness that Christ as God, and ts God-man, has no need of, with reference to himself, and therefore he can spare it; a justifyingnghteousness, that he for himself wanteth not, and therefore giveth it away; hence it is called the gift of righteousness. This righteousness, since Christ Jesus the Lord has made himself under the law, must be given away; for the law doth not only bind him that is under it to do justly, but to use charity (c). Wherefore he must, or ought, by" the law, if he hath two coats, to give one to him that hath none. Now our Lord indeed hath two coats, one for himself, and one to spare: wherefore he freely bestows one upon those that have none. And thus, Christiana and Mercy, and the rest of

(ll) Rom. v. 19.

(c) Luke iii. 11.

you that are here, doth your pardon come by deed, or by the work of another man. Yeur Lord Christ is lie that worked, and hath given away what he wrought for, to the next poor beggar he meets.

But again, in order to pardon by deed, there must semething be paid to God as a price, as well as something prepared to cover us withal. Sin has delivered us up to the just course of a righteous law: now from this course we must be justified by way of-redemption, a price being paid for the harms we have done; and this is by the blood of your Lord, who came and stood in your place and stead, and died your death for your transgressions. Thus lias he ransomed you from your transgressions by blood, and covered your polluted and deformed souls with righteousness^). For the sake of which God passed by you, and will not hurt you, when he comes to judge the world (e).

Christ. This is brave: now I see that there was something to be learned by our being pardoned by word and deed. Good Mercy, let us labour to keep this in mind; and, my children, do you remember it also. But, Sir, was not this it that made my good Christian's burden fall from his shoulder, and that made him giye three leaps for joy?

Great-heart. Yes, it was the belief of this that cut off those strings, that could not be cut by other means ; and it was to give him a proof of the virtue of this, that he was suffered to carry his burden to the cross.

Christ. I thought so; for though my heart was lightsome and joyous before, yet it is ten times more hghtsouie and joyous now. And 1 am persuaded, by what I have felt, though I have felt but little as yet, that if the most burdened man in the world was here, and did see, and believe as I now do, it would make his heart the more merry and blithe.

Great-heart. There is not only comfort, and the

ease of a burden brought to us, by the sight and consideration of these, but an endeared affection begot in us by it; for who can (if he doth but once think that pardon comes not only by promise, but thus) but be affected with the way and means of redemption, and so with the man that hath wrought it for him?

Christ. True; methinks it makes my heart bleed to think that he should bleed for me. Oh! thou loving One: Oh! thou blessed One. Thou deservest to have me: thou hast bought me: thou deservest to have me all; thou hast paid for me ten thousands times more than I am worth. No marvel that this made the water stand in my husband's eyes, and that it made him trudge so nimbly on: I am persuaded he wished me with him; but, vile wretch that I was, I let him come all alone. (See Part I, p. 41.) O Mercy, that thy father and mother were here; yea, and Mrs. Timorous also: nay, I wish now with all my heart that here was Madam Wanton too. Surely, surely, their hearts would be affected; nor could the fear of the one, nor the powerful lusts of the other, prevail with them to go home again, and refuse to become good pilgrims.

Great-heart. You speak now in the warmth of your affections: will it, think you, be always thus with you? Bt sides, this is not communicated to every one, nor to every one that did see your Jesus bleed. There were that stood by, and that saw the blood run from his heart to the ground, and yet were so far off this, that instead of lamenting, they laughed at him ; and instead of becoming his disciples, did harden their hearts against him. So that all that you have, my daughters, you have by peculiar impression made by a divine contemplating upon what I have spoken to you. Remember that it was told you, that the hen, by her common call, gives no meat to her chickens. This you have therefore by a special grace.

Now I saw still in my dream, that they went on, until they were come to the place where Simple, and Sloth, and Presumption, Jay and slept in, when Christian went by on Pilgrimage: and behold they were hanged up in irons a little way off on the other side.

Mercy. Then said Mercy to kim that was their guide and conductor, What are these three men? And for what are they hanged there?

Great-heart. These three men were men of had qualities; they had no mind to be pilgrims themselves, and whosoever they could they hindered: they were for Sloth and Folly thea.selves, and whomsoever they could persuade, they made so too, and withal taught them to presume that they should do well at las'. They were asleep when Christian went by, and now you go by they are hanged.

Mercy. But could they [jersuade any one to be of their opinion?

Great-heart. Yes ; they turned several out of the way. There was Slow-pace, that they persuaded to do as ihey. They also prevailed with one Shortwind, with one No-heart, with one Linger-afterLust, and with one Sleepy-head, and with a young woman, her name was Dull, to turn out of the way and become as they. Besides, they brought up an ill-report of your Lord, persuading others that he was a hard task-master. They also brought up an evil report of the good land, saying, it was not half so good as some pretended it was. They also began to vilify his servants, and to count the best of them meddlesome, troublesome, busy-bodies: farther, they would call the bread of God, husks; the comforts of his children, fancies; the travail and labour of pilgrims, things to no purpose.

Christ. Nay, said Christiana, if they were such, they should never be bewailed by me: they have but what they deserve; and I think it well that they stand so near the highway, that others may see and take warning. But, had it not been well if their crimes had been engraven on some pillar of iron, or brass, and left here where they did their mischiefs, for a caution to other bad men.

Great-heart. So it is, as you may well perceive, if you go a little to the wall.

Mercy. No, no; let them hang, and their names rot, and their crimes live for ever against them: I think it is a high favour that they are hanged before we came hither; who knows else what they might have done to such poor women as we arc? Then she turned it into a song, saying,

Now then, you three, hang there, and be a sign
To all that shall against the truth comhine:
And let him that comes after, (ear this end,
If unto Pilgrims he is not a friend.
And thou, my soul, of all such men beware,
That unto holiness opposers are.

Explanatory Notes.

THE privileges of believers are emblematically represented in this chapter, by the Bath, the Seal, and the Garments. Pilgrims are apt to contract defilement in their daily walk: this our Lord taught his disciples when he washed their feet, John xiii. 10. "He that is washed, needeth not save to wash his feet."—He whose person is justified through faith in the blood of Christ, needeth not to wash again, as if every spot altered his state before God ; yet needeth a daily application to the fountain, that his actions and affections may be purified from remaining sin; and that he may constantly receive renewing and sanctifying grace.

The pilgrims were also s«aled in their foreheads. The Spirit seals believers unto the day of redemption, by impressing upon them a visible image of God, and by shining upon the graces he has bestowed, so as to witness with their conscienct-s, and to the world at large, that they are the children of God. T hus are they marked as his peculiar property; secured from the destroying angel i and made beautiful in the eyes of all, who can discern the beauty of holiness.

By the garments of ** linen, clean and white," we are to understand "the righteousness of the saints," for so it is described, Rev. xix/8. The righteousness of Christ, put on by faith, for justification, by which they are all entitled to glory; and the sanctification of the Spirit, by which they are made meet to enjoy it. In both these senses, every believer '* puts on the Lord Jesus Christ." Christians thus washed, sealed, and clothed, are truly glorious; but the grace of humility teaches every one to esteem his brother better than himself: he admires the grace of God in another, while perhaps he questions its existence in himself.

The Conductor, named Great-heart, a servant of the Interpreter, seems intended to point out the character of a gospel minister—he is under the direction of the Holy Spirit, and his name intimates, that ministers who are to guide others, should bp courageous in the cause of God ;—armed with the. sword of the Spirit, enjoying the hope of salvation, and defended perhaps by the shield of faith.

Thus conducted, they arrive at the cross, where they stopped to bless God for his love and grace. Here they recollected what was said to them at the gate, namely, that they should have pardon by word and by deed. This their guide fully explams, and shows very clearly the doctrineof a sinner's justification by the righteousness of Christ, imputed to him, and received by faith. This doctrine is not an useless, much less a pernicious speculation, as some have unjustly represented it. Its genuine effects on the hearts of believers» are such as the pilgrims experienced at the cross. It was the belief of this, " that cut the strings of Christian's burden, and made him leap for joy." "In this righteousness (says the believer) I am justified, and I will glory. I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness," Isa. lxi. 10. A sight of this righteousness, as ours, will "beget affection to Christ in the soul." It will excite holy admiration, and constrain the believer to devote his heart, his all, to the Lord. O that every professor might experience the power of this tiuth, as it is in Jesus I

Folly, Sloth, and Presumption, are the great opposers of vital religion. When Christian passed this way, he found them asleep in fetters, and would fain have awakened them. But Simple cried, I see no danger; Sloth said, Yet a little mare sleep; and Presumption cried, Every tub must stand on its own bottom. Behold the end of such wretched men. Fearlessness of danger from sin; love of carnal ease; and presumptuous hopes of heaven, ruin vast multitudes of souls.

the end of these things is death." Take warning then: watch and pray, lest ye enter into temptation."