Book III


I. I Shall settle the meaning of the word ; and shew what it supposes, includes, and is designed by it. Our English word Redemption, is from the Latin tongue, and signifies, buying again ; the obtaining of something by pa\ ing a proper price for it; sometimes the simple verb agorazo to buy, is used, 1 Cor. vi. 20. Sometimes the compound word exagorazo, is used; w,iich signifies, to buy again, or out of the hanUs of another, as in Gal. iii. 13, In other places lutroo is used, or others derived from it; which signifies, the deliverance of a slave, or captive, from his thraldom, by paying a ransom price for him, 1 Pet. i. 18. There are various typical redemptions, and that are of a civil nature, which may serve to illustrate our spiritual and eternal redemption by Christ. I. The deliverance of the people of Israel out of their captivities. The deliverance of the people of Israel out of Egypt was a very special and remarkable type of redemption by Christ, out of a worse state of bondage than that of Egypt. II. The ransom.of the people of Israel, when numbered, was typical of the ransom by Christ; which was made by paying half a shekel, called the atonement money for their souls, and

which was paid alike for a rich man, as a poor man ; whereby they were preserved from any plague among them, Exod. xxx. 12—16. Christ's people are all redeemed from their sins, and with the same price,,the price of his blood, lit.The buying again of an Israelite, waxen piKir, and sold to another, by any near akin to him ; is a lively representation of the purchase and redemption of the Lord's poor people, Lev. xxv. 4t---49. who, in a state of nature are poor, and wretched and miserable ; when such was the grace of Christ, who, though rich, for their sakes became poor, that they, through his poverty might be made rich. Only Christ, the near Kinsman of his people, can do this, and has done it. iv. The delivery of a debtor from prison, by paying his debts for him, is an emblem of deliverance and redemption by Christ: Christ has cleared the whole score, in consequtnce of which is proclaimed, in the gospel, liberty to the captives, v. The ransoming of persons out of slavery, by paying a ransom price for them, serves to give an idea of the redemption of the Lord's people by Christ; 1 have found a rans*m, Job. xxxiii. 4. In which there is an allusion to a custom in the Eastern countries, to put their slaves in an evening into a pit, where they are close shut up till the morning, and then taken out, to be put to their slavish employments ; but not delivered, unless a sufficient fansom is given for them and such is the blood of the covenant. These views of redemption, plainly point out to us the following things, with respect to the Lord's people, t. That Jthey arc, previous to their redemption, and, which that supposes, in a state of captivity and bondage. All having sinned, judgment, or the judicial sentence, came upon ali men to condemnation in a legal way. n. That redemption by Christ is a deliverance from this. It is a redemption from sin, original and actual, Tit. ii. 14. from avenging justice, on account of sin ; from the guilt and dominion of sin ; it is a deliverance from the law, and from eternal death and wrath to come, in. That redemption by Christ is such a deliverance, as that it is setting persons quite free, and at entire liberty. This will have its full completion on all accounts, when the saints shall be delivered from ever)' degree of bondage, into the glorious liberty of the children ot God.


I. The moving cause of it, or from whence it springs and flows ; and that is the everlasting love of God ; God so loved tit Ivor Id, that he gave his only ht^otten Son ; In this was manifested the love of God, fcfc 1 John iv. 9.

II. The procuring cause, or Author of redemption, is Christ, the Son of Gtd ; he was appointed to it, and assented to it. t. If it be asked, how Christ came to be the Redeemer ? it may be answered as the love, grace and mercy of God the Father moved him to resolve upon redtmption, and appoint his Son, and call him te this work ; so like love, grace, and mercy wrought in the heart of the Son of God to accept of this call, and engage in this work ; in his kve, and in his pityt he redeemed them, as he did Israel of old, Isai. lxiii. 9. he said I will ransom them, I will redeem them; as from the grave and death, so from every other enemy, Hos. xiii. 14. ti. The fitness of Christ to be a Redeemer of his people is worthy of notice. Now Christ's fitness for the work of redemption, lies in his being God and man in one person ; he is Immanuel, God with us, God in our nature ; and so fit to be a mediator be. tween God and man. As man, he could be made under the law, and so capable of yielding obedience to it. As God he would be zealously concerned for the glory of the divine perfections, and secure the honour of them, in the redemption wrought out by him. in. The means by which redemption is wrought out by Christ; and that is by his blood, his life, to which it is often ascribed, 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. Christ, as he had the full disposal of his own life, freely gave his life a ransom price ; J lay dawn my life for the sheep, says he, I lay it down of myself, Matt, xx.28. John.x. 15, 18. a great emphasis is put upon this, that the price with which men are redeemed, is the precious bhod of Christ, 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. for if he had any sin in him, he could not have been a redeemer from sin. Now this price is paid into the hands of God, whose justice is offended, whose law is broken, and who is the lawgiver, that is able to save and to destroy. It was not paid into the hands of Satan, or any other enemy; for their power was only an usurpation ; he had no legal right to hold them captives; and therefore the delivery of them out of his hand, is by power and not by price: but the justice of God had a legal right to shut them up, and detain them as prisoners, till satisfaction is given { and therefore redemption from avenging justice, which is properly the redemption that is by Christ, is by a price paid to justice for the ransom of them. In. The final cause, or causes, or ends, for which redemption was wrought out and obtained by Christ in this way ; and they are these. 1. That the justice of God might be satisfied in the salvation of a sinner, Rom. iii. 25, 26. 2. That the people of God might be reconciled unto him, and have peace with him, and joy through believing in Christ, Rom. v. 10, 11. 3. Another end of redemption by Christ is, that they might enjoy the blessing of adoption; for so it is said, that God sent his Son to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of Sons, Gal. iv. 4, 5. 4. The sanctification of God's elect, is another end of redemption by Christ; Who gave himself for them, that he might redeem them from all iniquity ; and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good -works, Tit. ii. 14, and again, Christ is said to love the church, and give himself for it, a ransom price for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it, Eph. v. 25. 26. In a word, Christ has redeem^ ed them from the curse of the law, being made a curse for them, that the blessing of Abraham, even all the blessings of the covenant of grace, in which Abraham was interested, might come on them through Jesus Christ, Gal. 3. 14. 6. And lastly, the subordinate end of redemption, is the everlasting salvation of God's elect, and their eternal life and happiness ; and the ultimate end, is the glory of God, of his grace and justice, and of all the perfections of his nature.


The objects of redemption come next under consideration. The inspired writers seem to delight in using the pronoun us, when speaking of the death of Christ, and redemption by it, thereby pointing at a particular people, as the context shews: Christ died for us,God delivered him up for us all,who gave himself for us.that he might redeem us,hath redeemed us unto God by thy blood, Rom. v. 8. and viii. 32. Tit. ii. 14. Rev. v. 9. That the objects of redemption are a special people, will apppear by the following observations.

I. The objects of redemption are such who are the objects of Gncl's love ; for redemption, as has been observed, flows from the love of God and Christ

II. The objects of election and redemption are the same: Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect ?It is Christ that died! died for the elect; so the same, us all, for whom God delivered up his Son, are those whom he foreknew, and whom he predestinated; and whose calling, justification and glorification are secured thereby, Rom. yiii. 30—i33. and the same us, who are said to be chosen in Christ, before the foundation of the world, have redemption jn hiro through his blood, Eph. i. 4—r7. Election and redemption are of equal extent.

III. Those for whom Christ has died, and has redeemed by his blood, are no other than those for whom he became a surety. Christ was the surety of the better testament, and of course became a surety for those, and for no other, than thope who were interested in that covenant. They are the Lord's Benjamins, the sons of his right hand, his beloved sons, that Christ, the antitype of Judah, laid himself under obligation, to bring safe to glory and present them to his divine Father.

IV. The objects of redemption are described by such characters as show them to be a special and distinct people; particularly they are called, the people of God and Christ, Isai. liii. 8.&e shall save his people from their sins, Matt, u 21. Now though all men are, in a sense, the people of God, as they are his creatures, and the care of his providence; yet they are not all redeemed by Christ; because those that are redeemed by Christ, are redeemed out of every people; and therefore cannot be every or all people, Rev. v. 9.

V. The objects of redemption; or those for whom Christ laid down his life a ransom price, are described as sheep; and who are represented as distinct from others, who are not his ■heep, John x. 15—29.

VI. The objects of redemption, are the sons of God; redemption and adoption belong to the same persons ; according to the prophecy of Caiaphas, Christ was to die, not for the nation of the Jews only, but to gather together in one, the children of God that were scattered abroad throughout the Gentile world, John xi. 52.

VII. The objects of redemption, are the church and spouse of Christ; it is the church he has loved, and given himself as a sacrifice and ransom price for, Thy Maker is thine Husband; and thy Redeemer the holy one of Israel! lsai. liv. 5. What may be farther necessary, will be to produce some reasons, or arguments, against universal redemption; and to give answer to such scriptures as are brought in favour of it. I. I shall give some reasons, or produce some arguments against the universal scheme of redemption. And, the first set of arguments shall be taken from hence, that universal redemption reflects highly on the perfections of God. 1. The universal scheme, greatly reflects on the love of God to men. What kind of love must that be, which does not secure the salvation of any by it? What sort of love must this be in God, not to spare his Son, but deliver him up to death for all the individuals of mankind, for their redemption ; and yet, to multitudes of them, does not send so much as the gospel? 2. The universal scheme, highly reflects on the wisdom of God. Where is his wisdom in forming a schim«., in which he fails of his end ? Should it be said, that the failure is owing to some men's not performing the conditions of their redemption re

required of them; it may be observed, either God did know, or did not know, that these men would not perform the conditions required : if he did not know, this ascribes want of knowledge to him : if he did know they would not perform them, where is his wisdom, to provide the blessing of redemption, which he knew beforehand, would be of no service to them ? 3. The universal scheme, highly reflects on the justice of God. If Christ died for the sins of all men, and the punishment of their sins is inflicted on him, and bore by him, and yet multitudes of them are everlastingly punished for them, where is justice? If Chribt has paid the debts of all men, can it be just with God to arrest such persons. 4. The universal scheme, reflects on the power of God. If Christ has redeemed all men, and all men are not saved, it must be either from want of will in God to save them, or from want of power: not from want of will; for, according to this scheme, it is the will of God that every individual man should be saved: it must be therefore for want of power; and so he is not omnipotent. 5. The universal scheme, reflects on the immutability of God, of his love and of his counsel: God, in the scripture, says, I am the Lord, I change not, &c. Mai. iii. 6. Yet, according to this scheme, he is sometimes in one mind, and sometimes in another ; sometimes his mind is to save them, at another time his mind is to damn them. 6. The universal scheme, disappoints God of his chief end, and robs him of his glory- If men, any of them who are redeemed, are not saved, so far God loses his end.

Another set of arguments against universal redemption, might be taken from its reflecting on the grace and work of Christ: whatever obscures, or lessens the grace of Christ in redemption, or depreciates his work as a Redeemer, can never be true. 1. The universal scheme, reflects on the love and grace of Christ. What sort of love is that, to love men to such a degree as to die for them, and yet withhold the means of grace from multitudes of them. 2. The universal scheme, reflects upon the work of Christ. Either he has made satisfaction for every man, or he has not: if he has, then they ought to be set free, and fully discharged, and not punishment inflicted on them, or their debts exacted of them. If he has not made satisfaction by redeeming them, this lessens the value of Christ's work, and makes it of no use, and ineffectual. 3. According to the universal scheme, the death of Christ, with respect to multitudes, for whom he is said to die, must be in vain. If he paid a ransom for all, and all are not ransomed, the price is given to no purpose. 4. The universal scheme, separates the works of Christ, the work of redemption, and the work of intercession ; and makes them to .belong to different persons; for his advocacy is founded upon his propitiatory sacrifice. Now those for whom he prays and intercedes, are not all men, himself being witness ; I pray for them; I pray not for theworld, John ;cvii. 9. Yet, according to the universal scheme, he died for them for whom he would not pray ; which is absurd and incredible. 5. If Christ died for all men, and all men are not saved, Christ will not 6ee the travail of his soul and be satisfied, as was promised him, Isat. liii.

Other arguments against universal redemption, may be taken from the uselessness of it to great numbers of men. 1. To those whose sins are irremissible; whose sins will never be forgiven, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come, Matt. xii. 31, 32. Christ cannot be thought to die for such. 2. Redemption, if for all, must be useless to those who never were favoured with the means of grace. 3. The uni. versal scheme, affords no encouragement to faith and hope in Christ. According to the universal scheme, men may be redeemed by Christ, and yet not saved, but eternally perish : what hope of salvation can a man have upon such a scheme? Which is most eligible of the two schemes, that which makes the salvation of some certain, or that which leaves the salvation of all precarious and uncertain; which though it asserts a redemption of all, yet it is possible none may be saved. .4. Heace; even to those who are redeemed and saved,

it lays no foundation for, nor does it furnish with any argument to engage to love Christ, to be thankful to him, and to praise him for the redemption of them; since the difference between them and others is not owing to the efficacy of Christ's death, but to their own wills and works ; that they are saved from destruction, if ever they are, according to this scheme j thev can not indeed sing the song of praise to the Lamb, for their redemption, saying, Thou art worthy, for thou waul slain, and hast redeemed us, is'c.


The several passages of scripture, which are usually brought in support of it, may be divided into three classes.— Such in which the words all and every one, are used, when the death of Christ, and the benefits of it are spoken of. Those in which the words world, and the whole world, occur, where the same subjects are treated of. And,—Those that seem to intimate, as if Christ died for some that may be destroyed and perish.

I. Such in which the words all, and every one, are used, when the death of Christ, and the benefit of it, particularh/ redemption and salvation by him, are spoken of. i. The declaration of the angel in Luke ii. 10,11. Behold I bring good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people, %?c. not to all the people of the world, many of whom never heard of it; nor to all the people of the Jews, who did hear of it; not to Herod the King, and to the Scribes and Pharisees, and to many, at least, of the inhabitants of Jerusalem ; for when he and they heard the report the wise men of the east made, of the birth of the King of the Jews, Herodwas troubled, and all Jerusalem with him, Matt. ii. 3. but to all the people of God and Christ; for he shall save hispeople from their sins. 11. The account given of John's ministry, and the end of it; That all men through him, might believe, John i. 7. from whence it is concluded,

that 11 men are bound to believe that Christ came to save them. But John's ministry only reached to the Jews ; and the report he made of Christ, they were bound to believe, was, not that he died for them; as yei he had not died ; but that he was the Messiah. The Indians who have never heard of Christ, are not bound to believe in him ; nor will they be condemned for their unbelief; but for their sins against the light of nature, they have been guilty of; see Rum. x. 14. and ii. 12. tit. The words of Christ in John xii. 38. And I. if I be lifted up from the earth will draw ail men to me; are expressive of the death of Christ, and of the manner of it, crucifixion; which would be the occasion of drawing a great number of persons together, as is usually at executions. Though rather this is to be understood of the great multitude of souls who should be gathered to Christ through the ministry of the word: but this is not true of all and every individual person ; for there were multitudes then, as now, who have no will to come to Christ, and are never wrought upon by the grace of God, or drawn by it. It may be observed that at this time, when Christ spoke these words, there were certain Greeks that were come to the feast. Our Lord's suggests, the time was at hand when he should be lifted up, as an en. sign in the ministry of the word, when the Gentiles in great numbers should flock unto him. tV. The passage of the apostle in Rom. v. 18. By the righteousness of one, the free gft came upon all men unto justification oflife ; is undoubtedly meant of the righteousness of Christ called the free gift f but then this does not come upon, or is imputed, to every individual son Bnd daughter of Adam; for then they would be all justified by it. But there is a world of ungodly men, a multitude of them that will be condemned, Jude 4. 1 Cor. xi. 32. What will set this matter in a clear light is, that Adam and Christ, throughout the whole conttxt, are to be considered as two covenant heads, having their respective seed and offspring under them ; the one as conveying sin and death to all his natural seed, and the other as conveying grace, righteousness, and life to all its spiritual seed. v. The parallel place in 1 Cor. xv. 22» As in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive; which is similar to the preceding in some respect. Though these words have no respect at all to justification of life, but to the resurrect'on of the dead, as by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead; as death came by the first Adam, the resurrection of the dead comes by the second Adam. But though all shall be made alive or raised from the dead, by Christ; only the members of his body shall be raised to everlasting life ; others will be raised to shame and everlasting contempt, vi. The text in 2 Cor. v. 14, 15. is sometimes brought as a proof of Christ's dying for all men, in an unlimited sense ; if one died for all, then were all dead: now let it be observed, that in the supposition, if one •died for all, the word men is not used: it is not all men, but all, and may be supplied, all the sheep, all the sons whom he brings to glory. Let it be further observed, that the same persons Christ died for, for them he rose again: if he rose for the justification of all men, then all would be justified ; whereas they are not. vti. The words in 1 Tim. ii. 4. Who will have all men to be saved, fcfe. It is certain that all that are saved, it is the will of God, they should be saved; but if it was die will of God that every individual of mankind should be saved, they would be saved ; for who hath resisted his will ? It is easy therefore to understand by all, some of all sorts, as the word all must be understood in many places, particularly in Gen. vii. 14. and this sense agrees with the context, in which the apostle exhorts that prayers and thanksgivings be made for all men. Though it is best of all to understand this of the Gentiles. vin. Another passage in the same context, in which Christ is said to give himself a ransom for all; but this cannot be understood of all and every individual man; for then all would be ransomed, or else the ransom price must be paid in vain ; but of many, as it is expressed by Christ, Matt. xx. 28. and particularly of the Gentiles as before, Ix. Another passage in the same epistle is sometimes brought in favour of the general scheme, 1 Tim. iv. 10V where God is said to be the Saviour of all men ; but the past


sage is to be understood of God the Father, and of temporal salvation by him. His providence is extended in a special manner towards those that trust and believe in him ; he leads them about by his wisdom, and keeps them as tenderly as the apple of his eye. x. So the words of the apostle, in 1 Tit. ii. 11,12. For the grace of God that bringeth salvation, hath appeared to all men; but it is not said, that this grace brings salvation to all men, but only to us, to whom the gospel of the. grace of God comes with power; for that is to be understood by it ; not the grace and love of God, in his own heart, towards men: this had been like a candle lighted up in a small part of the world, in Judea ; but now as it was like the sun in its meridian glory, n. Likewise what the author of the epistle to the Hebrews, says, chap ii. 9. That he (Christ) iy the grace of God should taste death for every man ; but the word man is not in the text; it is only for every one ; and is to be interpreted and supplied^ by the context, for every one of the sons Christ brings to glory, 10. for every one of the brethren whom he sanctifies, 11. and for every one of the members of the church. Besides, the words may be rendered, that he should taste of evtry death, of every kind of death, which it was proper he should, in bringing many sons to glory, 10. and as he did; of the death of afflictions ; of corporal death ; and of spiritual and eternal death, xti. One passage more, is in 2 Pet. iii. 9. God is long-suffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish ; but that all should tome to repentance. This cannot be understood of every individual of every individual of mankind; for certain it is, that God is Willing that some should perish ; What if God willing, fcfc. Rom. ix. 22. Nor is it true, that it is the will of God that all men should have repentance unto life, for then he would give it to them. The key to this text, lies in the phrase, to Us-ward, to whom God is lohg suffering; these design a society, to which the apostle belonged, and not all mankind, who are distinguished in the context, from scoffers and mockers, that would be in the last days, 3,4. and are described by the character of beloved»

II. A second class of scriptures, which may seem to favour, and are sometimes brought in support of the universal scheme, are such in which the words world, and the whole world are used ; when the death of Christ, and the benefits of it, are spoken of. i. The words of John the Baptist to his hearers, in John i. 29. Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world! which are to be understood neither of original sin, which is common to the whole world; but is not taken away, with respect to all: nor of the actual transgressions of every person ; which is not true in fact, 1 Tim. v. 24. they are the sins of many, and not all, which haie been made to meet on Chriit n. The words of Christ himself, in John iii. 16. God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten So?i, &rc. But all the individuals in the world are not loved by God in such a manner, since many will go into everlasting punishment: but by the world, is meant the Gentiles; whosoever believes, be he of what nation sorver, shall be saved wjth an everlasting salvation , m. The words of the Samaritans to the woman of Samaria, in John iy. 42. We know that this is indeed the Christ, the Saviour of the world, of Gentiles as well as J'.jws. Iv. The words of our Lord in his discourse about himself, as the bread which giveth life unto the world; now no more can be designed'by the world, than those who are quickened by this bread applied unto them, since even the gospel, which exhibits the heavenly manna, and holds forth Christ, the bread of life, is to some the saviour of death unto death, whilst to others it is, the saviour of life unto life, 2 Cor. ii. 16. v. The words of the apostle, in 2 Cor. v. 19. God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself: these are the same with us, in the preceding verse, which were a special and distinct people, by various circumstances in the context it seems, that by the world the Gentiles are meant, vi. The famous, and well-known text in this controversy, is 1 John ii. 2. where Christ is said to be, the propitiation for the sins of the world. Now let it be observed, that these phrases, all the world, and the whole world, are often in scripture to be taken in a limited sense ; as in Luke ii. 1. that all the world should be taxed., and in Rom. i. 8. it can only design the christians, when the gospel is said to be in all the world, and bring forth fruit, Col. i. 6. it can only intend true believers in Christ, and when it is said, all the world wondercdafter the beasty Rev. xiii. 3. at that same time, there were saints he made war with. As John was a Jtw, he spake in the language of the Jews, who frequently in their writings, use the phrase the whole world, in a limited sense : sometimes it only signifies a large number of people * ; sometimes a majority of their doctors \ ; sometimes a congregation J: or a whole synagogue § ; and sometimes very few ||: John was a Jew, and wrote to Jews; and in the text speaks of them, and of the Gentiles, as to be distinguished ; and therefore says of Christ, he is the propitiation for our sins ; andnot for our only, . for the sins of us Jews only ; but for the sins of the wh$!e world. Nothing is more common in Jewish writings, than to call the Gentiles the world, the whole world, and the nations of the world ; as they are by the apostle Paul, in distinction from the Jews, Rom. xi. 12—15.

III. Another class of scriptures, which may seem to favour the universal scheme, and are usually brought in support of it, are such which it is thought, intimate that Christ died for some that may be destroyed and perish. i. The first passage is in Rom. xiv. 15. Destroy not him with thy meat for whom Christ died: which can never design eternal destruction; for none but God can destroy soul and bodv in hell, Matt. x. 28. But the passage is to be understood of the destruction of a weak brother's peace and comfort, through the imprudence use of things indifferent, and is to be taken in the same sense as the phrase in 20, for meat destroy not the work of God. n. A similar passage, and to be understood in much the same manner, is in 1 Cor. viii. 12. And through thy knowledge shall thy weak brother perish, jor whom Christ died ? which intends, not the perishing of his immortal soul, for then the death of Christ would be so far in vain ; and not be a security from condemnation; contrary to Rom. viii. 33. but intends, the perishing of his peace for a time : through the imprudent use of christian liberty, in those who had stronger faith and greater knowledge, of which they should be careful, a weak brother is as near and dear to Christ, since he died for him, as a stronger brother is. in. Another passage urged for the same purpose, is in 2 Pet. ii. 1. which speaks of false teachers that should be among the saints, who would bring in damnable heresies, denying the Lord that bought them, &c. from whence it is concluded, that such as are bought by Christ may be destroyed; but Christ is not here spoken of, but God the Father; and of him the word despotes is always used, when applied to a divine Person, and not of Christ. The buying, spoken of in the text, respects temporal deliverance, particularly the redemption of Israel out of Egypt; who are therefore called, a purchased people, Exod. xv. 16. The phrase is borrowed from DeuU xxxii. 6. where, to aggravate the ingratitude of the people of Israel, it is said, is ntt he thy Father that hath bought thee ? And this is not the only place Peter refers to in this chapter; see verse 12, and 13. compared with Deut. xxxii. 5. From wh%t has been observed concerning redemption; the nature and properties of it may be learnt. 1. That it is agreeable to all the perfections of God: it springs from his love, it is planned and conducted by his infinite wisdom, it is wrought out to declare his justice and all the perfections of God meet in it, mercy and truth, peace and righteousness: the glory of all his attributes is great, in the redemption and salvation of his people. 2. It is what a creature could obtain, neither by power nor by price: not by power, he could not have loosed the fetters of sin ; nor by price, for the infinite justice of God being offended by sin, required an infinite satisfaction. 3. The redemption obtained by Christ, resides in him, as the subject of it, who is the author of it; In him we have redemption, through his blood, Eph. i. 7. 4. It is special, they that are redeemed, are redeemed out of every kindred, tongue, people, and nation. 5. It is a plenteous one, full and complete, by it men are brought, not into a mere salvable state ; but are actually, and to all intents and purposes, saved by it. 6. It is eternal, Heb. ix. 12. so called, in distinction from the typical and temporary expiations, by the blood of slain beasts, which could not take away sin, and in distinction from temporary redemption and salvation ; as of the people of Israel out of Egypt and Babylon ; and because it extends, as to ages past, and was a redemption of transgressions and of transgressors, that were under the first testament; so to ages to come.

*T. Bab Yoma. fol. 71. 2 t Ibid. Bava Mctzia, fol. 33. 2. \ Ibid. MegiUah, fol, 22. 2. § Ibid. Horaiot, fed. 33 2. (| Vid. Mill. Form. Talmud, p. 41, 43.


Though the word satisfaction is not syllabically expressed in scripture, as used in the doctrine under consideration, the thing is abundantly declared in it; which yet Socinus denies ; though he himself owns, that a thing is not to be rejected, because not expressly found in scripture ; for he says, it is enough with all lovers of truth, that the thing in question is confirmed by reason and testimony. What Christ has done and suffered may, with propriety, be called satisfaction; God is said to be well-pleased for Christ's righteousness-sake, being answerable to the demands of law and justice ; the sacrifice of Christ, is said to be of a sweet smelling savour to God; because it has expiated sin, that is, made satisfaction for it, and taken it away.

I. The necessity of satisfaction to be made for sin, in order to the salvation of sinners; for without satisfaction for sin, there can be no salvation from it. If two things are granted, which surely must be easily granted, satisfaction for sin will appear necessary:—1. That men are sinners ; and every transgression and disobedience will receive, a just recompence of reward; that is, righteous judgment and punishment, either * in the sinner himself, or in a surety for him, Heb. ii. 2. 2. "he other thing to be taken for granted is, that it is the will

of God (o save sinners. Now it is certain, that God has ordained to eternal life, vessels of mercy, afore prepared for glory, for whose salvation a provision is made, and Christ appointed to be the author of it.

Some have affirmed, that God could forgive sin, and save sinners without a satisfaction ; and this is said, not only by Socinians, but by some others, as Twisse, Dr. Goodwin, Rutherford, Stc who own that a satisfaction is made, and the fitness and expedience of it; but then this is giving up the point; for if it is fitting and expedient to be done, it is necessary ; for whatever is fitting to be done in the affair of salvation, God cannot but do it, or will it to be done. It is not indeed proper to limit the holy One of Israel, or lay a restraint on his power; yet it is no ways derogatory to the glory of his power, nor is it any impeachment of it, to say there are some things he cannot do ; for not to be able to do them ia his glory. If any other method could have been taken, consistent with the will of God, the prayer of Christ would have brought it out; Father if it be possible, let this cup, of suffering death, pass from me: and then adds, not my will, but thine be done! what that will was, is notorious; see Heb. x. 5—10. It may be said, this is to make God weaker than man; one man can forgive another the debts that are owing to him. But it should be observed, that sins are not pecuniary debts, and to be remitted as they are ; they are not properly debts, only so called allusively; if they were proper debts, they might be paid in their kind, one sin by committing another, which is absurd; but they are called debts, because as debts, oblige to payment, these oblige to punishment. Sin are criminal debts, and can be remitted no other way. God, therefore, in this affair, is to be considered not merely as a creditor, but as the Judge of all the earth. Though one man may forgive another a private offence, committed against himself, as it is an injury to him, yet he cannot forgive one as it is an injury to the commonwealth. Sin is crimen kse Majestatis, a crime committed against the majesty of God; it disturbs the universe, of which he is Governor, and tends to shake and overthrow his moral government of the world ; and therefore requires satisfaction, and an infinite one. To forgive sin, without a satisfaction, does not accord with the perfections of God. 1. Not with his justice and holiness : God is a consuming fire ; and as fire naturally burns combustible matter, so it is natural to God to pun* ish sin. n. To forgive sin, without satisfaction for it, does not agree with his veracity, with respect to his holy and righteous law ; this law has a sanction annexed to it, and the sanction is nothing less than death, than death eternal. Now the truth of God is engaged to see this sanction established, and threatening executed either upon the transgressor himself, or upon a surety for him. in. The wisdom of God makes it necessary that sin should not be forgiven, without a satisfaction ; for it is not the wisdom of any legislature, to suffer the law not to take place in a delinquent; it is always through weakness that it is admitted, either through fear, or through favour and affection. The all-wise Lawgiver can never be thought to act such a part: besides, the scheme of men's peace and reconciliation by Christ, is represented as the highest act of wisdon;, known to be wrought by God; but where is the con. sumate wisdom of it, if it could have been in an easier way? iV. Nor does it seem so well to comport with the great love and affection of God, to his Son Jesus Christ, said to be his beloved Son, the dear Son of his love ; to send him into this world in the likentss of sinful flesh—to be vilified and abused by the worst of men—to be buffeted, lashed, and tortured, by a set of miscreants.^—and to put him to the most cruel and shameful death; if sin could have been forgiven without all this, by a hint, a nod, a word speaking; Thy sins are forgiven thee, and thou shalt be saved ! Where is the greatness of this love, if salvation could have been done in another way. The several sacrifices of the Jews, they were directedto under the former dispensation, plainly shew the necessity of a satisfaction for sin. But if God could forgive sin without any satisfaction at all, why not forgive it upon the foot of those sacrifices ?

II. The ground and foundation of satisfaction for sin by Christ, and the cause and spring of it. First, The ground and foundation on which ii is laid, are the council and covenant of grace, and the suretyship engagements of Christ therein. r. The scheme of making peace with God, or of appeasing divine justice, and of making reconciliation for sin, that is, satisfaction for it, was planned in the everlasting council; which, from thence is called, the council of peace, Zech. vi. As early as the council of peace was held, and the above method was concerted and agreed to, or Christ became a Surety for his people, so early were their sins imputed to him, and he became responsible for them ; and this laid the foundation of his making satisfaction for sin. For, ii. The scheme drawn in council, was settled in covenant; which., On that account, is called the covenant of peace, Isai. liv. 10. Mai. ii. 5. in which covenant Christ was called to be a Priest. Now the principal business of a priest was to make reconciliation and atonement for sin, for the sake of this, Christ was called to this office; and it was signified to him in covenant, that he should not offer such sacrifices and offerings as were offered up under the law, which could not take away sin. Though Christ was a Priest, he never offered any legal sacrifice; but when any thing of this kind was necessary to be done for persons he was concerned with, he always sent them to carry their offerings to a priest, Now as this whole scheme was drawn in council, and settled in covenant, it was proposed to Christ, and he readily agreed to it, and became the surety of the covenant, the better testament; and engaged to assume human nature, to do and suffer in it, all that the law and justice of God could require, and should demand of him, in the room and stead of sinners, in order to make full satisfaction for their sins, of which the above things are the ground and foundation. Now, in. There is nothing in this whole transaction that is injurious to any person or thing, or that is chargeable with any unrighteousness, but all is agreeable to the rules of justice and judgment. 1. No injury is done t'>

Christ by his voluntary substitution in the room and stead of sinners, to make satisfaction for their sins; for as he was able, so he was willing to make it. Besides, he had a right to dispose of his own life; and therefore in laying it down did no injustice to any. Nor is the human nature of Christ a loser but a gainer by his sufferings and death; for having finished his work, he is glorified with the glory promised him in covenant before the world was; is crowned with glory and honour, highly exalted above every creature, has a place at the right hand of God, where angels have not. 2. Nor is there any unjust thing done by God throughout this whole transaction ; there is no unrighteousness in him. The person sent to do this work, and who was given up into the hands of justice, and not spared, was one, God had a property in, he was his own Son; and who being their surety, and having engaged to pay their debts, it could be no unrighteous thing to make a demand or satisfaction for them. When God has visited the iniquities of fathers upon the children, there is the relation of fathers and children, and the fathers are punished in the children^ as being parts of them { thus Ham, the son of Noah, was the transgressor, but the curse was denounced and fell on Canaan his son, and Ham was punished in him ; when David numbered the people, and so many thousands suffered for it, here was a relation of king and subjects, who were one in a civil sense, and the one were punished for the other. Thus Christ and his people are one, both in a natural sense, being of the same nature, and partakers of the same flesh and blood ; and so satisfaction for sin was made in the same nature that sinned. 3. Nor is there any injury done to the law of God. The law is so far from being a looser by the change of persons in giving it satisfaction, that it is a great gainer; the law is magnified and made honourable; more honourable by Christ's obedience to it, than by the obedience of the saints and angels in heaven; and is made more honourable by the Bufferings of Christ, it bearing the penal sanction of it, than by all the sufferings of the damned in hell to all eternity. Secondly, The causes, spring, and source of satisfaction. 1. So far as God the Father was concerned in it, he may be said to be an efficient cause of ic, and his love the moving cause; All thmgs are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, 2 Cor. v. 18. n. In like manner Christ may be considered as an efficient cause, and his love as a moving cause in this affair; he came into the world to die for sinners, and redeem them to God by his blood; Hereby perceive we the love off God, that is, of God the Son, because he laid down his life for us, 1 John iii. 16.

III. The matter of satisfaction, is no other than Christ's fulfilling the whole law, in the room and stead of sinners; this was what he undertook, and has fulfilled it. 1. By obeying the precepts of it, and answering all that it requires. Does it require an holy nature ? it has it in him, who is holy, harmless, and undefiled ; does it require perfect and sinless obedi. ence ? it is found in him, who always did the things which pleased his Father. Nor is it any objection to this doctrine that Christ, as man, was oblig d to yield obedience to the law for himself, which is true ; but then it should be observed, that as he assumed human nature, or became man, for the sake of his people to us, or for us, a child is born, so it was for their sake he yielded obedience to the law. Besides, though be was obliged to it as man, yet be was not obliged to yield it in such a state and condition as he did ; in a state of humiliation ; obedience to the law in such a low estate was quite voluntary, ;i. Christ has fulfilled the law and satisfied it, by bearing the penalty of it in the room of his people, which is death of every kind, Hom. vi. 23. Thus, by doing and suffering all that the law and justice of God could require, he made a proper, full, and adequate satisfaction, so that nothing more in point of justice, could be required.

IV. The form, or manner in which satisfaction was made by Christ; these are the phrases by which it is expressed in scripture. i. By bearing the sins of his people, which we first read of in Isai. liii. 11, 12. he bare the sin of many; he

lifted them up, he took them off of his people, and took them upon himself. He shall bear their iniquities, as a man bears and carries a burden upon his shoulders ; hence the use of the phrase in the New Testament, Hebrews ix. 28. Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many ; His own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree.' 1 Pet. ii. 24. Now his bearing sin, supposes it was upon him ; in him is no sin, 1 John iii. 5. but sin was put upon him, as the sins of Israel were put upon the scape goat, by Aaron. 1 his phrase of laying sin on Christ, is expressive of the imputation of it to him ; For he hath mad* him to be sin for us, that is, by imputation, in which way we are made the righteousness of God in him. What Christ bore, being laid on him,and imputed to him, were sins, all sorts of sin, original and actual; sins of every kind, open and secret, of heart, lip, and life. Bearing sin, supposes it to be a burden ; and, indeed, it is a burden too heavy to bear . by a sensible sinner : when sin is charged home upon the conscience, and a saint groans, being burdened with it, what must that burden be, and how heavy that Christ bore. He bore it, and bore it away ; he removed the iniquity of his people in one day; and that as far as the East is from the West, ii. The form and manner in which Christ made satisfaction for sin.l. By dying^/or the sins of his people ; this the apostle represents as the first and principal article of the christian faith, that Christ died for our sins, according to the scriptures, 1. Cor. xv. 3. He was wounded for our trunsgressions, bruis~ ed for our iniquities, and stricken for the transgressions of his people, Dan. ix. 26. Isai, liii. 5—8. 2. By dying for sinners, as their substitute, in their room ; so the several Greek particles, anti, uper, peri, used in this phrase, and others equivalent to it, signify a surrogation, a subsi'uute of one for another, as in divers passages in the New Testament ;see Matt. ii. 21. and v. 38. Christ gave his life a ransom for many, in the stead of many, Matt. xx. 28. The prophecy of Caiaphas YRI~, That one man should die for the people, in the stead of them, John xi. 50. While we were yet sinners Christ died for

vs, in our room and stead, Rom. v. 6— 8. Again,'Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, in iheroom of the unjust, 1 Pet. iii. 18. This is the greatest instance of love among men, That a man lay down his life for, in the room and stead of his friend, John xv. 13. Such was the love of Christ to his church, that he gave, delivered himself to death for her, Eph v. 25.

V. The effects of satisfaction made by Christ, or the ends that were to be, and have been answered by it. i. The finish. ingand making an entire end of sin, Dan. ix. 24. not that the being of sin was removed thereby ; for that remains in all the justified and sanctified ones, in this life, put the damning power of it; it will be seen no more by the eye of avenging justice. ii. In virtue of Christ's satisfaction for sin, his people are brought into an open state of reconciliation with God ; he declares himself pacified towards them, for all that they have done, Ezek. xvi. 63. in. Sin being atoned for, and made an end cf, an everlasting righteousness is brought in, which acquits them from sin, and entitles them to eternal life. Iv. Immunity from all evils ; that is, from all penal evils, both in this life, and in that to come. The Judge will be their Friend and Saviour, and it will be well with them to all eternity, v. With respect to God, the effects of Christ's satisfaction is the glorifying of his justice, There are many objections made to this important doctrine, and article of faith ; some of the principal of which are as follow: 1. It is suggested, as if the doctrtine of satisfaction is inconsistent with the mercy of God ; but the attributes of mercy and justice accord together, in the same divine nature ; Gracious is the Lord and righteous; yea, our God it merciful, Psal. cxvi. 5. 2. It is objected that pardon of sin, upon the foot of a full satisfaction for it, cannot be said to be free: but eclipses the glory of God's free grace in it; but both are expressed in one verse, as entirely agreeing together ; In whom, Christ, we have redemption through bis blood, the forgivness of sin, according to the riches oj his grace, Eph. i. 7. Though it cost Christ much blood, his life, and the sufferings of his death, to make satisfaction for sin, and to procure forgiveness by it; it cost us nothing, it is all free gra'ce to us. Besides, grace in scripture is only opposed to the works of men, and satisfaction by them ; and not to the work of Christ, and to his satisfaction. 3. It is pretended that this scheme of pardon, upon the foot of satisfaction, makes the love of Christ to men, to be greater than the love of the Father: whereas the love of both is most strongly expressed in this business of Christ's satisfaction; the Father in giving his Son, the Son in giving himself. 4. It is said, that if Christ is a divine Person, he must be a party offended by sin ; and if he has made satisfaction for it, he must have made satisfaction to himself; which is represented as an absurdity. But in case of public satisfaction, for a public offence to a commuity, of which he is a part; he may be said, by making satisfaction to the whole body, to make satisfaction to himself without any absurdity. A member ot parliament, having \iolated the rules and laws of the house, when he makes satisfaction for the same to it, he may be said to make satisfaction to himself, being a member of it. It is possible to a lawgiver to make satisfaction to his own law broken, and so to himself, as the lawgiver: thus Z leuous, a famous legislator, made a law which punished adultry with the loss of both eyes ; his own son first broke this law, and in order that the law might have full satisfaction, and yet mercy shewn to his son, he ordered one of his son's eyes, and one of his own to be put out; and so he might satisfy his own lasv, and to make satisfaction to himself, the lawgiver. But in the case before us, the satisfaction made by Christ, is made to the justice of God, subsisting in the divine nature, common to all the three Persons. 5. Once more, it is said that this doctrine of Christ's satisfaction for sin, weakens men's obligation to duty, and opens a door to licentiousness. But this is so far from being true, that, on the contrary, it strengthens the obligation, and excites a greater regard to duty.


Though the word satisfaction is not syllabically used, there are words and terms equivalent to it, and s onymous with it; as propitiation, atonement, and reconciliation: it may be proper to explain these terms

I. Propitiation: the first time we meet with this word, as app^'ed to Christ, is in Rom. iii. 25. Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation; either to be the author of propitiation ; for whose sake, and on account of what he was to do and suffer, God would be propitious to men : or else to be the propitiatory sacrifice for sin. Expiatory sacrifices were under the law, typical of the expiatory and propitiatory sacrifice of Christ; and as God in them, smelled a sweet savour of rest, as types of Christ; so his sacrifice was an offering of a sweet Bmc'liasf savour to him. The word used in the above text, Af/asterion, is the same which the Greek version of Exod. xxv. 12. and which the apostle, in Heb. ix. 5: uses of the mercy seat; was an emblem of his mercy and justice shining in the atonement made by Christ; a glimpse of this the poor publican had when hV said God be merciful, hilastketi, propitious to me a sinner! or be merciful to me, through the propitiation of the Messiah. Now Christ was set forth to be the propitiation in the purposes and decrees of God; he was fore-ordained to be the Lamb slain ; he was set forth in the promises and prophecies spoken of by all the holy prophets that were from the bezuningof the world; he was set forth in the types and shadows of the law; and he has been set forth in the fulness of time, in human nature, in which he was manifested to' take away sin.

There are two other places where Christ is spoken of as hiJasmos.xhe propitiation ; and these are in the first epistle of the apostle John, in one of them, chap. iv. 10. it is said, God sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins; and in the other it is said, chap. ii. 2. And he is the propitiationfor our sins; the sins both of Jews and Gentiles; for which he has become a propitiatory sacrifice.

II. The word Atonement, though often used in the Old Testament, of typical sacrifices, making expiation of sin, and which signifies to cover, is but once used in the New Testament, Rom. v. 11. By whom we have received the atonement. The word used properly signifies reconciliation ; and so it is elsewhere translated, Lev. vi. 30. atonement and reconciliation for sin, design the same thing, and both satisfaction for it. Which leads to observe,

III. The word Reconciliation is frequently used with respect to this doctrine ; all things are of God, Who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, 2 Cor. v. 18. This may be farther illustrated, i. By observing the character of the persons reconciled ; they are said to be enemies in their minds by wicked works; which is expressive, 1. Of the internal enmity there is in their minds and hearts; the carnal mind, as every man's mind is naturally carnal, is not only an enemy, but enmity itself, against God, Rom. viii. 7. to the Being of God, wishing there was no God, to the purposes and decrees of God, which they cannot bear, and to which they insolently teply ; and to the providences of God, which they charge with inequality and unrighteousness to Christ; and to his gospel, to the Spirit, to his Person, whom they know not, nor can receive ; ond to the saints. Paul, a chosen vessel of salvation, was, Whilst unregenerate, exceeding mad 'against the saints. 2. There is an external enmity, which appears by wicked works and sinful actions openly committed. 3. Men are not only enemies internally, and externally to God, but there is an enmity on the part of God to them ; there is a law enmity, or an enmity declared in the law against them. If there had been no other enmity than what is in the hearts of men against God, there would have been no need of the sufferings and death of Christ to make reconciliation; but there was a law enmity on the part of God, and his justice, which required the death of Christ to take it away. There was, in some sense,

a reciprocal enmity between God and men, which made a reconciliation necessary; which will further appear, u. By obsi rv» ing what reconciliation signifies and imports. Reconciliation between man and man, supposes a former state of friendship subsisting between them, a breach of that friendship, and a renewing and restoring of it: and there is something like it in reconciliation between God and man. Man, in his primaeval state, was in strict friendship with God; but man abode not long in this state; sin, that whisperer and make.bate, soon separated chief friends.

But here we must proceed warily, and observe some things to prevent mistakes and misreprentations; for perhaps there is not one thing in the whole scheme of evangelical truths more difficult rightly to fix than this. It should be considered, that properly speaking there are no passions nor perturbations of mind in God. When displeasure, anger, provocation, resentment, &c. are ascribed to him, it must be understood after the manner of men. Nor are we to imagine there is any change in God as in men, who are sometimes friends, then enemies, and then friends again; he changes not, there is no variableness nor shadow of turning in him. The reconciliation made by Christ was not to the love of God, which was never lost, but to the justice of God, offended by sin, Heb. ii: 17. in. The means by which this reconciliation is made, are the bloodshed and death of Christ;. he only is the reconciler and peace-maker; a sinner cannot make peace with God or reconciliation, that is, satisfaction for his sins ; not by his works of righteousness, which are impure and imperfect; nor by repentance, which the law does not admit of, nor is it any satisfaction to it; nor by faith, for that does not make, only receives the atonement jnade by Christ; nor by the death of ' the sinner himself. The Jews having lost the true notion of the atonement by the Messiah, fancy that a man's death atones for his sins; but it is a false notion, there is no other way of peace but by the death of the Son of God.

x X


TttE doctrine of pardon, properly follows the doctrine of satisfaction; for pardon of sin proceeds upon satisfaction made for it. Forgiveness of sin, under the law, followed upon typical atonement for it: four times, in one chapter, it is said, thi priest shall make atonement for sin, and it shall be forgiven, and as often in the next chapter, Lev. iv, v. and in other places. This doctrine is of pure revelation ; it is not to be known by the light of nature ; As many as have sinned without law. shell alst perish without law, Rom. ii. 12. Nor is this a doctrine oi the law, which gives not the least hint of pardon, nor any encouragement to expect it; As many as have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law, condemned without any hope of pardon, Rom. ii. 12. Nor does the law regard a mail's repentance, nor admit of any; He that despised Moses's iaw, died without mercy.' Heb. x. 28. But the doctrine of pardon is a pure doctrine of the gospel, Luke xxiv. 47. Con. cerning which may be observed,

I. The proof may be given of it, that there is such a thing as a pardon for sin: this is asserted in express words by David; There is forgiveness with thee, Psal. exxx. 4. and by Duniel, To the Lord our Godbekmg mercies andforgivenestest full and free pardon of sin, Dan. ix. 9. It is a blessing provided and promised in the covenant of grace, Heb. viii. 12. it is in the gracious proclamation the Lord has made of his name, Exod. xxxiv. 7. Christ is exalted to be a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance unto Israel, and forgiveness of sins, Acts v. 23. and it is, by his orders, published in the gospel; to which may be added, the numerous instances of it; as of the Israelites, and of David, Manasseh, and of Saul the blasphemer, the persecutor, and injurious person. It is in this wav God would have his people comforted, Isai. xl. 1,2. Matt. ix. 2.

II. The phrases by which the pardon of sin is expressed, and which will serve to lead into the nature of it. i. By lifting it up, and taking it away ; Blested is he whose transgression is forgiven ; the Hebrew word, is lifted up, taken off from him, and carried away, Psal. xxxii. 1. Sin lies upon the sinner, and lays him under obligation to punishment, unless it is taken off; and it lies upon the conscience of an awakened sinner, as a burden too heavy fur him to bear; and which is taken away by the application of the blood of Christ, Ii. By the covering of it; Blessed is he whose sin is covered, Psal. xxxii. 1. Thou hast forgiven the iniquity of thy people; thou hast covered all their sin, Psal. lxxxv. 2. Sin is something impure nauseous, and abominable in the sight of God, and must be covered out of sight; this cannot be done by any thing of man's ; not by his righteousness, Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works, Isai. lix. 6. Sin is ouly covered by Christ, whose atonement is the purple canopy in the chariot of the covenant of grace, under which his people ride safe to glory. in. By a non-imputation of it; Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity ! Psal. xxxii. 2, does not reckon it, or place it to his account iv. By a blotting of it out ; In such language David prays for the forgiveness ot sin ; Blot out my transgressionsand blot out mine iniquities. Psal. Ii. 1—9. Isai. xliii. 25. which language is used, either in alia, sion to the crossing of debt books, drawing a line over them; or to the blotting out of a man's hand writing to a bond or note, obliging to payment of money ; hence the phrase of blotting out the hand writing of ordinances that was against tts, Col. ii. 14. v. By a non-remembrance of it; And their iniquities will I remember no more! Heb. viti. 12. Isai, xliii. 25. God forgives and forgets. vi. By making sin, or rather sinners, white as snow; so David prays, Wash me, and I shaH be whiter than snow! Psal. Ii. jr. Isai, i. 18.

III. What sins are pardoned, i. For quality; they are called trespasses ; every kind and sort of sin. it. For quantity; all trespasiei, sins, and transgressions are forgiven, Col. ii. 13. Psal. ciii. 3. Original sin/ and all actual sins, which spring from thence ; some are more secret, some more open, some lesser, others greater, more daring and presumptuous: some sins of commission, other sins of omission ; but all are forgiven ; and not only daily failings and infirmities, but all backslidings, revoltings, and partial apostacies.

IV' The causes of the pardon of sin. i. The efficient Cause is God, and not to any creature, angels or men. 1. It is not in the power of men to forgive sin; one man may forgive another an offence, as committed against himself, but not as committed against God; saints ought to forgive one another's offences that arise among them; as God for Christ's sake, has forgiven them, Eph. iv. 32. Col. ii. 13. Ministers can remit sin ministerially and declarative!). but not authoritatively ; no man that goes under the name of a priest, or a minister of the word, has a power of absolution, or has authority to absolve men from their sins: all that a true and faithful minister of the gospel can do, is to preach remission of sins in the name of Christ; and to declare, that whoever repent of their sins and believe in Christ, shall receive the forgiveness of them; and which declaration of theirs, God abides by and confirms ; and whose sins, in this sense, they remit, they are remitted, John xx. 23. 2. There is nothing a man has, or can do, by which he can procure the pardon of sin, either for himself, or for others; no man by his riches and the multitude of his wealth, can give to God a ransom for himself, or for his brother, make atonement and satisfaction for sin, and obtain the pardon of it y Riches profit not in the Jay of wrath. Nor is pardon procured by repentance; thev are - both gifts of grace; and though given to the same persons, the one is not the cause of the other. The tears the woman a sinner, shed, and with which she washed Christ's feet, were not shed to procure the pardon of her sins, but flowed from a sense of pardoning love manifested to her, Luke vii. 37—47. Nor is pardon procured by faith, as the cause of it; faith does not obtain it by any virtue of its own, but receives it as obtained by the blood of Christ, Acts x. 43. Nor is it procured by a submission to the ordinance of water baptism: for though the three thousand are directed to be baptised in the name of Christ, for the remission of sins; and Saul was advised by Ananias, to arise, and be baptised, and wash away his sins, yet the meaning is not, as if remission of sin was to be obtained by baptism, or sinners to be cleansed from them by it; but that by means of this ordinance, they might be led to the sufferings, death, and bloodshed of Christ. 3. God can only forgive sin; it is his sole prerogative ; it belongs to him, and to no other, Mark ii. 7. This appears from the nature of sin itself. Besides, if there was any other that could forgive sin, then there would be one equal to God; whereas, Who is a God like unto Him, that pardoneth iniquity? Mic. vii. 18. 4. Yet all the three Persons, Father, Son, and Spirit, have a concern in it; the Father made an early provision for this blessing ; Christ as the Advocate of his people calls for it; and the holy Spirit pronounces the sentence of it, in the conscience, n. The impulsive moving cause of pardon, is the sovereign grace and mercy of God, through Christ, Eph. i. 7. Luke i. 77, 78. in. The meritorious cause of it, is the blood of Christ, Heb. ix. 14. 1 John i. 7.

V. The effects of pardon, that is, when applied, are, i. Peace of conscience ; a peace that passeth all understanding, and is better experienced than expressed. n. Cheerfulness of spirit: when the Lord says, Be of good cheer, thy sins arc forgiven thee! cheerfulness takes place; that countenance that looked dejected, smiles; and the bones that were broken, rejoice, in. Comfort of soul; Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem ; cry unto her, that her iniquity is pardoned! Isai. xl. 1, 2. Iv. Access to God with boldness and confidence, through the blood of Jesus: a soul has a boldness to enter into the holiest of all. v. Attendance on divine worship, with pleasure and delight :this flows from a sense of forgiveness of sin, and is one end of it; There isforgiveness with thee, that thou mayest be feared, that is, worshipped ; for fear is put for worship, both inward and outward; and especially denotes serving the Lord with reverence, Heb. ix. 14. vt. Love to God and Christ is raised and increased; the poor woman in the gospel loved much, many sins having been forgiven her, Luke vii. 47. vii. Evangelical repentance, and the exercise of it, are much influenced by pardon of sin being applied: faith first looks to Christ, and beholds pardon through him ; and then evangelical mourning and repentance follow upon it, Zech. xii. 10. vi ii. Thankfulness of soul for such mercy : than which there cannot be a greater, Psal. ciii. 2, 3. Think with what gratitude and thankfulness, a condemned milefactor,just ready to be executed, receives his pardon from the king! with that,and much more, souls, sensible of sin, the demerit of it, and danger by, receive pardon of all their sins, through the blood of Christ, from the King of kings.

VI. The properties of pardon. I. It is an act of God's free grace; it is according to the riches of it; that is the plenty of it, which is abundantly displayed in it; and according to the multitude of his Under mercies, mercy being rich'\ shewn forth in it, Psal. Ii. 1. it. It is a point of justice; If we confess our sins, he faithful and just to forgive us our sins, t John i. 9. Hi. It is a complete act; it is a forgiveness of all the sins and trespasses of God's people, not one is left untorgiven; and it is done simul and setnel, together and at once; through the manifestation and application, may be made at different times, as wanted by believers. iv. It is an act that Will never bt repealed; it is one of those gifts of grace which are without repentance : sins are removed from the pardoned tinner, as far as the East is from the West; God has cast them into the depths of the sea, and will never fetch them up again, v. It is one of the chief articles of faith, and blessings of grace ; it stands the first of those benefits, on account of which, the Psalmist called upon his soul to bless God for, Psal. ciii. 2, 3.

VII. Answer some questions, relating to pardon of sin; which do not so naturally fall under any of the above heads. i. Whether any sin is venial or pardonable in its own nature, and does not deserve eternal death I The reason of this question is the distinction the Papists make between venial and mortal sins. There is a difference of sins, some are greater, others lesser; see John xix. 11. yet every sin is martal, or deserving of death : every sin is committed against God, and is objectively infinite, it is a breach of his law, and every disobedience to that has a just recompence of reward, he that offends in one point, is guilty of all. ii. Whether any sin will be forgiven in the world to come ? The reason of this question is, because it is said of the sin against the Holy Ghost, that it shall net be forgiven, neither in this world, nor in the world to come; the meaning of the expression is, that it shall never be forgiven; it is a phrase expressive of endless duration, that that sin shall always remain unpardonable, and does not suppose any thing concerning other sins; and therefore the answer to be returned to the question is, that there will be no forgivness of any sin at all in the other world. As for the sins of God's people, the remission of them is perfect; and as for others, thr door will be shut. nl. Whether the sins of pardoned ones will be made known and exposed to others in the day of judgment? I think not; my reasons are because none but their good works are taken notice of in Matt. xxv. because it does not seem consistent with the nature of pardon; pardon of sin is expressed by a covering of it; it is a blotting them as a cloud ; and when a cloud is broke to pieces and scattered it can never be collected together any more; the church will now descend from heaven as a bride adorned and prepared for her husband, and it seems quite out of all character, that he should suffer her faults, failing?, sins, and transgressions to be exposed on her wedding-day. Iv. Whether it is now the duty of saints to pray for the pardon of sin? prayer itself is a moral duty, and incumbent on all, Acts viii. 22. But this comes not up to the question, which is, whether pardoned

sinners should pray for the pardon of sin ? to which it may be answered, that either these pardoned ones have a comfortable sense and perception of the pardon of their sins, or they have not; if they have, they have no need, at present at least, to pray even for the manifestation of it, if they have not a comfortable view of it, which is sometimes the case of pardoned ones, as it was of the church when she said, We have trans, gressed and rebelled, thou hast not pardoned, Lam. iii. 42. they will then see it both their duty and interest, Christ has directed to make a daily petition of it, that when we pray that God would give us day by day our daily bread, that he would also forgive us our sins, Luke xi. 3. 4. so David prayed, For thy name's.sake, O Lord, pardon mine iniquity, for it is great, Psal. xxv. 11. so Daniel prayed for himself and others, O Lord hear, O Lord forgive, Dan. ix. 19.


Pardon of sin, and justification from it, are very closely connected ; the one follows upon the other; according to the position of them in some passages of scripture, pardon is first and justification next; as in Acts xiii. 38, 39. and xxvi. 18. Though these are not to be separated, yet they are to be distinguished ; and I should choose to consider them, not as distinct parts of the same thing, but as distinct blessings of grace ; for though pardon and justification agree in some things, in others they differ. In some things they agree, i. In their efficient cause, God; Mark ii. 7. Hom. iii. 30. II. In their wieving,cause, the free grace of God, Eph. i. 7. in. In their procuring cause, the blood of Christ, Iv. In the objects of it the same persons that are pardoned are justified, Rom. iv.6— 8. v. In their commencement and completion; pardon and justification commence together, and both are finished at once, and are not carried on in a gradual and progressive way, as sanctification is, Acts xiii. 39. vi. In the manner of actual enjoying them, which is in a way of receiving, and that by faith, Rom. v. 1—18. But though they agree in these things, in others they differ, i. Pardon is of men that are sinners, and who remain such, and may be called so, though pardoned sinners; but justification is a pronouncing persons righteous, as if they had never sinned, it. Pardon takes away sin from the sinner but does not give him a righteousness, as justification does; pardon takes away the filthy garments; but it is justification that clothes with change of raiment, Zcch. iii. 4. in. Pardon frees from punishment, and an obligation to it, as it takes away guilt; The Lord hath put axvay thy sin; thou shali not die, 2 Sam. xii. 13. but does not entitle to everlasting life, happiness, and glory: that justification does,.Tit iii 7. iv. More is required for justification than for pardon; the blood of Christ was sufficient to procure pardon, and did pro. cure it: but to the justification of a sinner, the holiness of the human nature of Christ, the perfect obedience of his life, are and must be imputed, v. The righteousness of Christ, by which men are justified, is the fulfilling of the law ; not so pardon; that does not fulfil the law, as righteousness does Rom. x. 4. vr. Pardon lies in the non-imputation of sin; justification in the imputation of righteousness; righteousness is imputed, but pardon is not, Rom. iv. G, 7. Vit. Justification passed on Christ, as the head and representative of his people ; but not pardon, he was acquitted, discharged and justified, but not pardoned: such an expression would sound harsh, and be very unwarrantable, 1 Tim. iii. 16. vin. An innocent person, falsely charged, may be acquitted and justified, when he cannot be said to be pardoned ; yea, such who need no pardon, as Adam did not in his state of innocence, and the elect angels in heaven ; yet may be said to be justified, that is, declared to be just and righteous: the doers of the law are justified.

The doctrine of justification by the righteousness of Christ, is a doctrine of great importance, Gal. i. 6, 7. Luther used to call it, articulus stantis vel cadentis ecclesia, the article of the church, by which it stands or falls. This doctrine is the ground and foundation of all solid joy, peace, and comfort, in this life, and hope of eternal glory hereafter.

I. I shall consider the act of justification, and in what sense the word is to be taken. 1. It is not to be understood of instructing men in the scheme and method of justification, whether in a legal or evangelical way.-.^2. Nor is it to be understood of making men righteous, by infusing righteousness into them ; for this is to confound justification and sanctification together, which are two distinct things, 1 Cor. i. 30. The word justify is never used in a physical sense, for producing any real internal change in men; but in a forensic sense, and stands opposed, to a state of condemnation ; it is a law.term, and used of judicial affairs, transacted in a court of judicature, Deut. xxv. 1. Prov. xvii. 15. Isai. v. 22. 4his is the sense of the word whenever it is used in the doctrine under consideration. 3. Justification is to be understood in this doctrine, not of justification before men, before whom men may appear righteous. But of the justification of the persons of men before God ; and this is either legal or evangelical; legal, on condition of a person's fulfilling the whole law, which in man's present state and circumstances, is impossible, Rom. ii. 13. Evangelical; which is an act of God's grace accounting and pronouncing a person righteous, through the righteousness of Christ imputed to him, and received by faith, 1 Cor. i. 30. this is the justification we are treating of; concerning which farther observe.

II. The causes of it. The moving cause, is the grace of God ; the procuring, meritorious, or material cause of justification, is the righteousness of Christ imputed. At present I shall only attend to the efficient cause of justification, who is God ; It is God that justifies, Rom. viii. 33. which is marvelous; since, l. He is the Judge of all the earth, who will do right, and will by no means clear the guilty. The saints can come to God, the Judge of all, without fear and dread, Heb. xii. 23, 24. ; I . Whose law is the rule by which he judges, and that law broken by men, and yet he justifies them. God, who judges according to this law, justifies them, Rom. ii. 12. in. Sin, the breach of the law of God, is commited .against him, and is hateful to him, and yet he justifies from it; well might Bildad say, How then coin man he justifiedwith God? Job xxv. 4. and yet he is. iy. It js that God that justifies, who will not admit of an imperfect righteousness, in the room of a perfect one, and yet he justifies. v. That God who is the Lawgiver, and is able to save and to destroy, who has power to destroy both body and soul in hell, and would be just in so doing, and into whose hands it is a fearful thi ng to fall, yet he justifies. Now this act of justification, as described to God personally belongs to all the three persons in the Godhead ; tbey are all concerned in it, Father, Son, and Spirit.

First, God the Father; who, in many places where he is spoken of as a justifier, the justifier of Mm that hplieveth in Jesus, Rom. viii. 35. JL God the Father contrived the scheme and method of justification. 2. He sent his Son, in the fulness of time, to exequte this scheme. '3. A perfect righteousness being wrought out by Christ, God the Father approves of it, is well.pleased with it, and accepts of it as the justifying righteousness of them that believe in Christ. 4. He imputes this righteousness to believers as their own ; this is the Father's act of grace, Rom. iv. 6. 0f Him, are ye in Christ Jesus; who o/God(tht Father) is made unto us righteousness, 1 Cor. i. SO.

Secondly, the Son, the second Person, is concerned in the justification of men; By his knowledge, says Jehovah the Father, shall my righteous Servant justify many, Isai. liij. 11. 1. Christ, as a divine Person, as he has power to forgive sin, so to absolve and justify from it; lie said to the woman taken in adultery, Neither do I condemn thee.' and to his apostles, Ye are clean, every whit clean, free from sin, through the word I have spoken to you; the sentence of justification by his blood, Matt. ix. 2. John viii. 1,1. 2. As Mediator, Christ is the author of that righteous

ness by which sinners are justified, The Lord our Righteousness, the Sun of righteousness, and the end of the law for righteousness. 3. As the head and representative of his people,, they are justified in him ; as Adam's natural posterity, sinning in him, were condemed in him ; so all Christ's spiritual seed shill !e justified, and shall glory. 4. As Christ has wrought out a righteousness for his people, so he actually puts it upon them, clothes them with it: says the church, He hath covered mi xuith the robe of righteousnest. $. As it is to faith the righteousness of Christ is revealed, and by faith it is received, hence believers are said to be justified by faith ; so this faith, as well as righteousness, is of Christ ; as he is the object of it, Te believe in God, bdieve also in me; so he is the author and finisher of it,'John xiv. 1. Heb. xii. 2.

Thirdly, The holy Spirit of God, the third Person, has also a concern in the justification of sinners. 1. He convinces men of righteousness, of their want of righteousness, John xvi. 8. 2. He brings near the righteousness of Christ; not only externally, in the ministry of the word ; but internally, by the illumination of his grace. 3. He works faith in convincing and enlightening persons, to look at the righteousness of Christ; hence he is called the Spirit of faith, Col. ii. 13. 4. He bears witness to their spirits, that they are interested in the righteousness of Christ, and are justified by it, which is the meaning of their being justified in the name of the Lord jfexus, and by the Spirit of our God, i Cor. vi. 11.

III. The objects of justification; and they are the elect ( W''0 shall lay any thing to the charge of God!s elect ? It is God that justifietb ! that is, the elect, Rom. viii. 33. for who else can be meant? 1. Elect men, and not elect angels; whom God predestinates he calls and justifies; and whom he justifies he glorifies, Rom. viii. 30. u. Redeemed ones are the objects of justification; Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, Rom. iii. 24.. in. Pardoned ones; whose sins are forgiven, they are justi. <Led| Rom- iv. o, 7. iv. Hence it appears, that the objects of justification are not all men ; for, all men are not chosen; they are only a remnant, according to the election of grace; though there is an all that are justified, even all the seed and offspring of Christ, the seed of Israel, on whom the gift of righceousness comes to justification of life, Rom. v. 18. V. Yet they are many, for whom Christ gave his life a ransom; and whose blood was shed for the remission of their sins, Matt. xx. 28. and xxvi. 28. vi. The objects of justification, are described as sinners, and ungodly : sinners, Gal. ii. 17. ungodly, Rom. iv. 5. So they are, in their ungenerate state; but when converted, they are described as believers in Christ, for the righteousness of Christ, is unto all, and upon all tUem that believe.

IV. The charges or sins, such are justified from. L. They are chargeable with original sin; but God justifies and acquits them from that offence, it. They are chargeable with impurity of nature, and a want of original righteousness; but God justifies from this charge through the imputation of the holiness of Christ's human nature to them, which is thought, by some divines, to be the law of the Spirit of life in him. in. They are chargeable with actual sins, before conversion, and those many, and some very heinous ; and yet God justifies from them all. The Corinthians were guilty of some of the blackest crimes, and most enormous sins; vet were justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God. iv. They are chargeable with a multitude of sins, after conversion ; yet all are forgiven, and they are cleansed and justified from them, James iii. 2. Hos. xiv. 4. v- They are justified from all their sins ; they that believe in Christ are justified from all things; his blood cleanses from all sin, 1 John i. 7. vi. They are justified by the righteousness of Christ, from all things, from which they could not be justified by the law of Motes, Acts xiii. 39. vn. God justifies his elect from all charges brought against them, from what quarter soever, and whether true or false. Do saints bring charges one against another ? Does the world bring charges against them, as they frequently do ? Every tongue that riseth up in judgement ugainst them God will condemn ; for their righteousness is of tne, saith the Lord, Isai. liv. 17. Does Satan go about the earth to pick up charges ? Jehovah rebukes him for them ; an • instance of this we have' in the vision of Zechariah, chap. Iii. 1—*.

V. The matter and form of justification.

First, The matter of justification, the righteousness of Christ; every thing else must be removed from it, and denied of it. As, i. Man's own righteousness, or Jiis disobedience to the law. The reason why a man's own righteousness cannot be the matter of his justification before God, are,

1. Because it is imperfect, and the law will not admit of an imperfect righteousness for justification ; There is not a just man upon earth, tiiat dotih good and sinnetb not, Eccles. vii. 20.

2. If justification was by the works of men., it could not be by grace . but justification is by grace, and therefore not by ■works; Being justified freely by his grace, Rom. iii. 24. 3. If justification was by man's obedience, it would not be by a righteousness without work,; whereas the blessedness of justification, lies in,the imputation of a righteousness without ■works, Rom. iv. 6. 4. If justification could be by men's obedience to the law, then there would have been no need of the righteousness of Christ; If righteousness came by the law, ■then Christ is dead in vain, Gal. ii. 21. 5. If justifitwtioncame by the works of men, boasting would be encouraged ; whereas, God's design is to prevent it, Rom. iii. 27. ii. Nor is man's obedience to the gospel, as if .a new and milder law, the matter of his justification before God. It was a notion, that some years ago obtained, that a relaxation of the law, has been obtained by Christ; but

1. The law is not relaxed, nor is the sanction of it removed.

2. Nor is the gospel a new law. 3. Nor are faith, repentance, and new obedience the terms of it; as doctrines, they are gospel doctrines; as graces they are blessings, and both are pro

•yided for in the covenant of grace, Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27.

4,. If these were terms and conditions, required of men, in the

gospel, to be performed by them, the gospel would not be a remedial (aw : men never will nor can repent of their sins; and faith is not of a man's self. 5. Nor is it true, that God will accept of an imperfect righteousness, whose judgment is according to truth, and can never account that a righteousness, which is not one. in. Nor is a profession of religioa, the matter of justification before God ; men may have" a form of godliness, without the power of it. iv. Sincerity itself in any religion, is not a justifying righteousness. There may be sincerity in a bad religion, as well as in a good one. But taking sincerity in the best sense, as a grace of the Spirit of God ; it belongs to sanctification, and is not the whole, nor any part of justifying righteousness. v. Nor faith the to credere, or act of believing ; this is by some, said to be imputed for righteousness ; but is not so ; for, 1. Faith, as a man's act, is his own, Hab. ii. 5. Matt. ix. 22. James ii. 18. whereas, the righteousness by which a man is justified, is not his own, but another's. 2. Faith is imperfect; whereas, a righteousness to justify must be perfect. 3. Faith is not everlasting; it will be changed into vision ; but the righteousness by which sinners are justified before God, is everlasting righteousness, Dan. ix. 24. 4. Faith and righteousness are manifestly distinguished ; The righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith, and therefore faith cannot be that righteousness. 5. Something else, and not faith, is said to be that by which men are made righteous, and justified; as the obedience of one, Kom. v. 9. 19. 6. The passages produced to establish this notion, that faith is a man's righteousness, are insufficeint; Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness, Rom. iv. 3. Now this cannot be understood of the act of Abraham's faith, but of the object of it: the same it which was imputed to Abraham for righteousness, is imputed to all those who believe in God, who raised up Christ from the dead, verse 22—24. vi. Nor is the whole of sanctification the matter of justification; these two are distinct things, and. not to be confounded^ '

But that for the sake of which, a sinner is justified before God, is the righteousness of Christ; and which is, 1. Not his essential righteousness, as God, for this would be to deify die saints. 2. Nor his righteousness, integrity, and fidelity, which he exercised in the discharge of his mediatorial office ; which was personal, and respected himself. 3. Nor does it consist of all the actions and works he did here on earth, nor of what he is doing in htaven; it wholly consists of those he wrought in his state of humiliation here on earth, yet not all of these. But, 4. What he did and suffered in their nature on earth, and in their room and stead, and as their substitute and representative, commonly called his active and passive obedience; to which may be added the purity and holiness of his nature, and which altogether made up the righteousness of the law, which \vas fulfilled by him, as their head and representative, Rom. viii. 4. all which meet in Christ, the representative of his people, in whom they are justified. 1. Holiness of nature ; this not only fitted him for his work, but made him suitable to us. 2. The obedience of Christ's life, commonly called his active obedience, which was sinless and perfect. Some suppose that Christ was obliged to this obedience for himself as a creature, and that it is unnecessary to his people, because his sufferings and death are sufficient for their justification. But, 1. Though the human nature of Christ being a creature, and so considered, was subject to a law, and obliged to obedience; yet it was not obliged to a course of Obedience in such a low, mean, and suffering state: this was voluntary. 2. Without the active obedience of Christ, the law would not be satisfied, the language of which is, Do and the. 3. It is by a righteousness that men are justified ; This shall he our righteousness, if we observe to do, &c. Deut vi. 25. 4. It is expressly said, that by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous, Rom. v. 19. which cannot be meant of the sufferings and death of Christ; because properly speaking, they are not his obedience but the effect of it. 5, The reward of life is not promised to suffering, but to doing ; the Iaw9ays, Do this and live; it promises life, not to him that suffers the penalty, but to him that obeys the precept; " there never was a law," as Dr. Goodwin observes, " even among men, either promising or declaring a reward due to the criminal because he had undergone the punishment of his crimes."

3. Nevertheless the sufferings and death of Christ, or what is commonly called his passive obedience, are requisite to our justification before God. For, 1. Without these the law would not be satisfied, and all its demands answered. For, 2. The law, in case of disobedience to ir, threatened with death, and death is the just wages and due merit of sin ; and therefore this must be endured. 3. The justification of a sinner is expressly ascribed to be by the blood of Christ, which is put for the whole of his sufferings and death, Rom. v. 9.

4. Justification proceeds upon redemption, being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ jfestts, Rom. iii. 24. 5. It is upon the foot of Christ's satisfaction, that justification takes place; his death is a sweet smelling savour to God, Col. i. 20. Rom. v. 10. 6. The complete justification of a sinner, does not seem to be finished by Christ until his resurrection, after his obedience, and sufferings of death; for he was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification, Rom. iv. 25. Tn short, the righteousness by which we are justified, as Dr. Ames says," is to be sought from his whole obedience."

Secondly, The form of it, is imputation. The manner in which the righteousness of Christ is made over to a sinner, ' and it becomes his, is by imputing it to him ; Urtto whomt God imputeth righteousness without works, Rom. iv. 6. The words used in Hebrew and Greek, signify to reckon, repute, estimate, attribute, and place something to the account of another ; as when the apostle said to Philemon, concerning Onesimus, If he hath wronged thee, or oweththee ought, put that on my account, let it be reckoned, or imputed to me. That it is . by the righteousness of Christ, imputed to his people, is clear when it is observed, 1. That those whom God justifies, are,

in themselves, ungodly; for God justifieth the ungodly, Rom, iv. 5. if ungodly, then without righteousness; and if without a righteousness, then, if they are justified, it must be by a righ. teousness placed to their account. 2. They that are justified, are justified either by an inherent, or by an imputed righteousness ; not by an inherent one, for that is imperfect; then it must be by one imputed to them, for there remains no other. 3. The righteousness by which any are justified, is the righteousness of another, Phil. iii. 9. Now the righteousness of another cannot be made a man's, any other way than by imputation. 4. The same way that Adam's sin, became the sin of his posterity, or they were made sinners by it, the same way Christ's righteousness becomes his people's: the former is by imputation, and so the latter, Rom. v. 19. 5. The same way that the sins of Christ's people became his, his righteous. ness becomes their's Now their sins became Christ's by imputation only, 2 Cor. v. 21. Now there are several things which are said of this imputed righteousness of Christ, which serve greatly to recommend it; as,—That it is called the righteousnesss of God, Rom. i. 17. and iii. 22. the righteousness of One, Rom. v. 18. the obedience of One, Rom. v. 19. the righteousness of the law\ Rom. viii. 3. the righteousness of faitht Rom. iv. 13. the gift of righteousness,and the free gift, and the gift by grace, Rom. v .15—17. a robe of righteousness, Isai. lxi. 10. Rev. i. 13. and the wedding garment, Matt. xxii. 12.. IV. The effects of justification by the righteousness of Christ may be next considered, which are as follow.—1. An entire freedom from all penal evils, in this life and in that Which is to come. 2. Peace with God, Rom. v. 1. a comfortable sense and perception of an interest in the righteousness of Christ, which brings peace and quietness. 3. Access to God through Christ, we have boldness and access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, access to God as the God of grace on a throne of grace. 4. Acceptance with God through Christ follows upon justification by his righteousness ; acceptance both of persons and services > first of persons and then of services. S. The well-being of God's people here and hereafter depends upon their justification, and is a consequent of it; Say ye to the righteous, one that is justified by the righteousness of Christ, that it shall be well with him, Isai. iii. 10. it is well with the justified ones in life ; and it is well with him at judgment, he has a righteousness that will answer for him in that time to come: and he shall have an abundant entrance into the everlasting kingdom and glory of our Lord Jesus . Christ; and it will be well with him to all eternity; he that is righteous will then be righteous still, and ever continue so, and shall go into everlasting life.—6. Glorying, or boasting is another effect of justification ; not in a man's self, but in this, that he is of God, made to them righteousness, 1 Cor. i. 30. 7. Justified ones have an undoubted tide to eternal life, Rom. v. 18. Tit. iii. 7. For, 8. Certainty of salvation may be coneluded from justification, Whom he justified, them he also glori~ fed, Rom. viii. 30.

VII. The properties of justification.—1. It is an act of God's grace, of pure grace, without any consideration of merit, worthiness, and works of men. 2. It is an act of justice, as well as of grace ; God \sjust, and the justifier of him that beheveth in Jesus, Rom. iii. 26. 3. It is universal, as to persons sins and punishment: as to persons, all the seed of Israel are justified, with respeet to sins, they are justified from all sins whatever, and as to punishment, they are entirely secure from it, even to the least degree. 4. It is an individual act, done at once, and admits of no degrees. 5. It is equal to all or all are alike justified, that are justified, price of redemption , is the same, the precious blood of Christ, the weakest believer is as much justified, as the strongest believer. 7. Though by the act of justification, persons are freed from sin, and from obligation to punishment for it, sin is not thereby taken out of them. 8. Through justification by the righteousness of Christ, neither the law is made void and of none effect, nor is the performance of good works discouraged, nor does this

doctrine discourage duty, but animates to it; and is to be con. stantly preached for this end, That they which have believed in God, might be careful to maintain-good works. Tit. iii. 7, 8.


I Have treated already, of adoption as an immanent act of the divine will and shall therefore now consider it as openly bestowed upon believing in Christ, and as manifested, applied and evidenced by the Spirit of God.

I. I shall consider, in what sense believers are the sons of God; which is by adoption. There is a civil and a religious adoption. A civil adoption has obtained among all nations; among the Egyptians, so Moses was adopted by Pharaoh's daughter; and among the Hebrews, so Lsther by Mordecai; and it obtained much among the Romans, to which, as used by them, the allusion is in the New Testament in a religious sense ; it is sometimes used of the whole people of the Jews, to whom belonged the adoption, Rom. ix. 4. and at other times, of some special and particular persons, both among Jews and Gentiles ; for of the former, all were not the children of God; and of the latter, if they were believers in Christ, they were Abraham's spiritual seed, and heirs according to the promise, Gal. iii. 26—29. Between civil and spiritual adoption, in some things there is an argreement, and in some things a difference, i. In some things they agree.-—I. In the name and thing uiothesia a putting among the children ; so spiritual adoption is called, Jer. iii. 19. 2. As civil adoption is of one to an inheritance, who has no legal right to it; so is special and spiritual adoption. 3. Civil adoption is the voluntary act of the adopter. Among the Romans, when a man adopted one for his son, they both appeared before a proper magistrate, and the adopter declaring his will and pleasure to adopt the person presented, he consented to it. Special and spiritual adoption, is an act of the sovereign good-will and pleasure of God. 4. In civil adoption, the adopted took and bore the name of the adopter: so the adopted sons of God have a new name. 5. Such who are adopted in a civil sense, are taken into the family of the adopter, and make a part of it, so those who are adopted of God, Eph. iii; 15, 19. 6. Persons adopted in a civil sense, as they are considered as children, provision is made for their education, their food, their clothing, their protection, and attendance, and for an inheritance and portion for them: all the children of God, his adopted ones, are taught of God, they are trained up in the school of the church, and are fed with hidden manna. 7. Such as are adopted by men, come under the power, and are at the command of the adopter, and are under obligation to perform all the duties of a son to a parent, A son honoureth his father If I then be a father, where is mine honour ? Mai. i. 6. n. In some things civil and spiritual adoption differ.—1. Civil adoption could not be done without the consent of the adopted, his will was necessary to it. Among the Romans the adopter and the person to be adopted, came before a proper magistrate, and in his presence the adopter asked the person to be adopted, whether he was willing to be his son; and he answered, lam willing. But in spiritual adoption, it may be said as of every other blessing of grace, that it is not of him that willeth. 2. Civil adoption was allowed of, and provided for the relief and comfort of such who had no children, and to supply that defect in nature ; but in spiritual adoption this reason does not appear ; God did not adopt any of the sons of men for want of a son and heir; he had one, and in a higher class of sonship than creatures can be. 3. In civil adoption there are generally some causes and reasons in the adopted, which influence and move the adopter to take the step he does. Moses was a goodly child, which, moved the daughter of Pharaoh to take him up out of the water, Esther was also a fair and beautiful maid, and besides was related to Mordecai, which were reasons why he took her to be his daughter: but in divine adoption,

there is nothing in the adopted that could move the adopter to bestow such a favour. There were so many objections to their adoption, and so many arguments against it, and none for it in themselves, that the Lord is represented as making a difficulty of it, and saying, How shall I put them among' the children? Jer. iii. 19. 4. In civil adoption, the adopter, though he takes one into his family, and makes him his heir, he cannot give him the nature of a son, but the divine adopter ' makes his sons partakers of the divine nature. 5. Persons adopted in a civil sense cannot enjoy the inheritance whilst the adoptive father is living, but in spiritual adoption the adopted enjoy the inheritance, though their father is the everlasting and everliving God. 6. In some cases civil adoption might be made null and void ; as among the Romans, when against the right of the pontifex, and without the decree of the college; but spiritual adoption is never made void on any account.

There is a difference also between adoption and regeneration, though divines usually confound these two together. Adoption is before regeneration ; the one is an act of God's will in eternity, the other is an act and work of his grace in time; the one is the cause, the other the effect; men are not adopted because regenerated, which would seem unnecessary, but they are regenerated because adopted ; because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, Gal. iv. 6.

II. The efficient cause, God; none can adopt any into the family of God, but God himself; but he can do it, who says, Iwill be his God, and he shall be my Son, Rev. xxi. 7. 1. God the Father ; What manner of love the Father hath bestowed up. on us, that we should be called the sons of God, 1 John iii. 2. Eph. i. 11. it is one of the spiritual blessings of the covenant; J will be a Father unto you, andye shall be my sons and daughters, sailh the Lord Almighty ! 2 Cor. vi. 18. 2. The Son of God has a concern in adoption; for, as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, John i. 12. It is the Son who makes free; that is, by making them children ; for the children only are free ; not servants, John viii. 36. 3. The Spirit of God has also a concern in adoption ; the sons of God are described as bornofGrjd, John i. 13. for except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, that is, of the grace of the Spirit, comparable to water, he cannot enter into the king' dom of God, John iii. 5. Moreover, it is the Spirit who witnesses the truth of adoption ; For because ye are sons, God hath sent forth tie Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying. Abb,., Father, Rom. viii. 15, 16. Gal. iv. 6. As many as are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of God. n. The moving cause of adoption, is the love, grace, free-favour and Good will of God. There was nothing in the creature that could move him to it; but all the reverse,

III. The objects of Adoption. And they are such who are the objects of the love of God ; for since Adoption flows from the love of God, such who are the children of God must be interested in it.

IV. The nature and excellency of this privilege. 1. It is an act of surprising and distinguishing grace ; it will appear so, when the adopter and the adopted are put in a contrast; the adopter is the King of kings and Lord of lords, they are by nature, lost and undone, poor and miserable, beggars and bankrupts, the foolish things of this world, and thing* that are not. 2. It is a blessing of grace, which exceeds other blessings a man may be redeemed out of a state of slavery, and acquitted from high crimes laid to his charge, and yet not be a king's son, 3. It is a blessing of grace, which makes men exceeding honourable. David observed, that it was no light thing to be a king's; it certainly cannot be, to be a son of the King of kings; it makes a man more honourable than Adam was in his state of honour, and than the angels are in their high estate in heaven. 4. It brings men into the highest connections alliances, relations, and offices ; such are the brethren of Christ, fellow citizens with the saints, and kings and priests unto God. 5. The inheritance they are adopted to transcends all others; it is a most comprehensive one ; He that overcometh, shall inherit all things ; and I will be his God, and he shall be my Son, Rev. xxi. 7. 6. All other inheritances are subject to corruption, and liable to be lost; but this is an incorruptible crown that fadeth not away. ". Adoption is a blessing and privilege that always continues. The love of God which is the source of it, always remains. Union with Christ is indissoluble : the Spirit, as a Spirit of adoption abides forever: the children of God may be corrected for their faults, but never turned out of doors, nor disinherited, much less unchilded, which is impossible.

V. The effects of adoption. 1. A share in the pity, compassion, and care of God, their heavenly Father, If a son, &c. Luke xi. 11—13. 2. Access to God with boldness ; they caa come to him as children to a father, use freedom with him, tell him all their complaints and wants. 3. Conformity to the image of Christ, the first born among many brethren. 4. The Spirit of adoption, given to testify their sonship to them, Gal. iv. 6. 5. Heirship ; for if children, then heirs, heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ, Kom. viii. 17. heirs of the grace of life, for which they are made meet by the grace of God.


Among the several effects, or privileges of adoption, liberty is one, and a principal one ; and requires to be treated of particularly and distinctly ; -f the Son shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed, John viii. This is called, the glorious liberty of the children of God, Rom. viii. 21.

I. The liberty of grace ; which lies, 1. In a freedom from sin, Satan, and the law. 1. From sin; it is a liberty not to sin ; but from it: liberty to sin is licentiousness, and cannot be that liberty wherewith Christ makes free. 2. From the power of Satan, who has usurped a dominion over the sons of men, and leads them captive at his will, until the Spirit of God com es and dispossesses him, and turns men from the power of Satan to God. 3. From the law, and from the bondage of it. From the moral law, as a covenant of works^ •bliging to work for life; but not from it as a rule, walk, and conversation ; from it as the ministration of Moses; but not from it as in the hands of Christ. 2. Christian liberty, consists in a freedom from all traditions of men; such as those of the Pharisees among the Jews, which were before the limes of Christ, Matt. xvi. 1^—6. and such as among heathens, and false teachers, which the apostles exhorts to beware of, and calls philosophy and vain deceit, Col. ii. 3, 20—23. and such as the unwritten traditions of the Papists, respecting their hierarchy ; doctrines and practices, which have no foundation in the word of God. 3. Christian liberty lies in the free use of the creatures, which God has provided for food and nourishment: Peter, by the vision, was taught to call nothing common and unclean : we may be persuaded with the apostle Paul, that there is nothing common and unclean of itself; but that every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving. The injunction by the synod of Jerusalem, to abstain from blood, and things strangled, was only pro tempore, for the peace of the churches, till things could be settled in them, between Jews and Gentiles, to mutual satisfaction. 4, Another part of christian liberty, respects things indifferent; for the kingdom of God, true, real religion, and godliness is not meat and drink ; it does not lie in what a man eats, or drinks, or wears, provided, moderation, decency^ and circumstances, are attended to, Rom. xiv. 17. Care should be taken, on the one hand, lest such things should be reckoned indifferent, which jre not so ; and on the other hand, such as are indifferent, should not beimposed as necessary. 5. Christian liberty lies in the use of gospel ordinances which God has enjoined, it is a privilege to come to mount 2ion, the city of the living God ; to have a place and a name in the church of Christ; to be of the family and houshold of God, and partake of the provisions which are there made for spiritual refreshment. Christian liberty does not lie in a neglect of gospel ordinances, or in an attendance on them ai will and pleasure; men are not to come into a church, and go out when they please, or attend an ordinance now and then, or when they think well: this is not liberty, but litt utiousness. The ordinances of Christ, particularly the supper, are perpetual things, to be observed frequently and constantly, unto the second coming of Christ. 6. Christian liberty lies in worshipping God according to his word, atid the dictates of conscience, without the fear of men, which indulged, brings a snare, and leads to idolatry, superstition, and will-worship. The apostles, martyrs, and confessors, in all ages chose rather to suffer imprisonment, confiscation of goods, and death itself, than part with this branch of christian liberty. 7. Another glorious part of christian liberty, is freedom of access to God, through Christ the Mediator, under the influence of the blessed Spirit, ii. 18. 8. It also lies in a freedom from the fear of death, both corporal and eter. nal: the believer can sit and say, O death where is thy sting! O grave where is thy victory!

II. The liberty of glory, or that which the sons of God will be possessed of in the world to come; and this will be entire, ly perfect.

The author, or efficient cause, of this liberty, is Christ: it is a liberty with which Christ has made his people free, Gal. V. 1. it is of his procuring, he has obtained it with the price of his blood, by which he has redeemed them from sin, Satan, and the law.

The instrumental cause, or the means by which liberty is conveyed to the sons of God, is the word of God, the truth of the gospel; which is not only a proclamation of this liberty made by Christ, the great Prophet, in the church, and by his apostles, and ministering servants ; and was prefigured by the jubilee. But is the means, attended with the Spirit and power of God, of freeing souls from the bondage they are in by nature, and when first under a work^of the law ; Te shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free, John viii. 32.

Both from the nature of this liberty, and from the influence the spirit of God has in it, it may be with great propriety call, ed spiritual liberty ; as well as from its having its seat in the spirits, or souls of men; and may be distinguished from corporeal liberty, and from civil liberty. It is a real liberty and not a shadow, an appearance of one; If the Son make you , free, ye shall be free indeed: and it is perpetual; such who are once made free, shall never more come into a state of bont dage.


Concerning regeneration, the following things may be in*

quired into.

I.What regeneration is, or what is meant by it, the mature of it; it maybe the better understood by observing the ph ases, and terms, by which it is expressed. 1. It is express? d by

being born again, which regeneration properly signifies; see John iii. 3, 7. and this supposes a prior birth, a first birth, to which regeneration is the second : the birth is of sinful parewts, and in their image ; the second birth is of God ; the first birth is of corruptible, the second birth of incorruptible seed ; the first birth is in sin, the second birth is in holiness ; by the first birth men are unclean, by the second birth they become holy ; the first birth is of the flesh, the second birth is of the Spirit; by the first birth men are foolish and unwise, by the second birth they become wise unto salvation; by the first birth men are children of wrath, at the second birth they appear to be the objects of the love of God. 2. It is called a being born from above, John iii. 3, 7. The author of this birth is from above ; the grace given in regeneration is from above, John iii. 27. such that are born again, are partakers of the heavenly and high calling of God in Christ Jesus, 1 Pet. i. 3,4. 3. It is commonly called the new birth, and with great propriety; since the washing of regeneration and the renewing of the holy Ghost, are joined together as meaning the same thing; and what is produced in regeneration is called the new crea.

ture and the new man, Tit. iii. 5. Epli. iv. 24. it is a new man, in distinction from the old man, or the principal of corrupt nature, which is as old as a man is. In this new man, are new eyes to see with ; to some God does not give eyes to see divine and spiritual things; but to regenerated ones he does; they have a seeing eye, made by the Lord, Deut. xxix. 4. New ears to hear with, Matt. xiii. 16, IT, new hands to handle and work with ; new feet to walk with, to flee to Christ, the city of refuge, to run and not be weary, and to walk and not faint. 4. Regeneration is expressed by being quickened; You hath he quickened, Eph. ii. 1. Previous to regeneration, men are dead whilst they live ; dead in a moral sense : Christ is the resurrection and life unto them, and the spirit of life, from Christ, enters into them. So the spirit of God breaths on dry bones, apd they live, and breathe again. Prayer is the spiritual breath of a regenerate man ; Behold he prayeth. A regenerate man pants after Christ; sometimes these breathings and desires are only expressed by sighs and groans; yet if a man groans, it is plain he is alive. There are in a regenerate man, cravings after spiritual food ; a spiritual taste for spiritual things ; the word of Christ is sweeter to their taste, than honey, or the honey comb. 5. Regeneration is signified by Christ being formed in the heart, Gal. iv. 12. his image is enstamped in rfgeneration ; yea, Christ himself lives in them; Not /, says the apostle, but Christ lives in trie. 6. Regeneration is said to be a partaking of the, divine, nature, 2 Pet. i. 4. In regeneration there is that wrought in the soul, which bears a resemblance to the divine nature, in spirituality, holiness, goodness, kindness, &c. and therefore is so called. 7. There are also several terms, or words, by which the grace of regeneration is expressed ; as by grace itself, 1 Pet. i. 3. It is called spirit, John iii. 6. It is also sigpified by seed, 1 John iii. 9. Whosoever is born of Godhis seed remaineth in him ; as seed contains it virtually, all that after proceeds from it, the blade, stalk, ear, and full corn in the ear; so the first principal of grace implanted in the heart, seminally contains all the grace which afterwards appears, and all the fruits, effects, acts, and exercises of it.

II. The springs and causes of regeneration; efficient, moving, meritorious, and instrumental.

First, The efficient cause of it. i. Not man ; he cannot regenerate himself ; his case, and the nature of the thing itself, shew it; and it is indeed denied of him. 1. The case in which men before regeneration are, plainly shews that it is not, and cannot be of themselves ; they are quite ignorant of the thing itself. 2. The nature of the work clearly shews that it is not in the power of men to do it; it is represented as a creation; it is called a new creature, the workmanship of God created in Christ, the new man after God, created in righteousness. Now creation is a work of almighty Power: it is spoken of as a resurrection from the dead; this requires a power equal to that which raised Christ from the dead, and is done by the same. Its very name, regeneration, shews the nature of it, and clearly suggests, that it is not of the power of man to effect it: as men contribute nothing to their first birth, so neither to the second. It is an implantation of that grace in the hearts of men, which was not there before ; faith is one part of it, said to be not of ourselves, but the gift of God. He who sits upon the throne, and says, Behold I make all things new. To say no more, it is a transforming of men, by the renewing of their minds, making them other men than they were before; the change of an Ethiopian's skin,and of the leopard's spots, is not greater, nor so great, as the change of a man's heart, which indeed is not a change of the old man or corruption of nature, which remains the same; but the production of the new man, or a new principle, which was not be. fore. 3. Regeneration is expressly denied to be of men; it is said to be nut of blood, the blood of circumscision, which availeth not any thing, but a new creature is of avail, when that is not. Wherefore, ii. The efficient cause of regeneration is God only ; hence so we often read, which were horn of God, and whosoever and whatsoever is born of God, John i* 13% 1. God the Father, who is the Father of Christ; he as such begets men again according to his abundant mercy, 1 Pet. i. 3. 2. The Son has also a concern in regeneration, and so great a concern, that they who are born again are said to be born of him, that is, Christ; for no other is spoken of in the context, 1 John ii. 29. It is by virtue of his resurrection that they are begotten to a lively hope of the heavenly inheritance, I. Pet. i. 3,4.—3. The holy spirit of God is ihe author of regeneration, and to him it is ascribed by our Lord; Except a man be born of water and of the spirit, John iit. 5. by water is not meant the ordinance of water baptism, that is never ex. pressed by water only, without some other word with it in ihe text or context which determines the sense ; nor is regeneration by it; Simon Magus was baptized, but not regenerated ; regeneration ought to precede baptism : but the grace of the Spirit is meant by water, so called from its cleansing and purifying use.

Secondly, The impulsive cause, is the free grace, love, and mercy of God ; God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith lie loved us, hath quickened us, h ph. ii. 4, 5. It is according to his abundant mercy, God hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, 1. Pet. i. 3. What were there in the three thousand, some of whom had been concerned in the death of Christ, converted under Peter's sermon? what were in the jailor, who had just before used me apostles in a cruel manner? what were there in Saul, the blasphemer, persecutor, and injurious person, between these characters and his obtaining mercy ? no, it is not according to the will and works of men that they are regenerated, but God, of his own will begat he us, James i. 18.

Thirdly, The resurrection of Christ from the dead is the virtual or procuring cause of it; there is a power of virtue in Christ's resurrection, which has an influence on our regeneration. Christ's resurrection was his first step to his glorification, so is regeneration to seeing and entering into the kingdom of God,

Fourthly, The instrumental cause of regeneration, if it may be so called, are the word of God, and the ministers of it; hence, regenerate persons are said to be born again by the word of God, fcrV. 1 Pet. i. 23. and again, of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, James i. 18. Though ministers of the gospel are not only represented as ministers and. instruments by whom others believe, but as spiritual fathers; though you have ten thousand instructors in Christ, ~says the apostle to the Corinthians, yet have ye not many fathers, for in Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the gospel; so he speaks of his son Onesimus, whom he had begotten in his bonds, Philtm. 10. It seems plain that the ministry of the word is the vehicle in which the spirit of God conveys himself, and his grace into the hearts of men; receive ye the Spirit, says the apostle, by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith, Gal. iii. 2.

III. The subjects of regeneration are next to be enquired into, or who they are God is pleased to bestow this grace upon. These are men, and not angels; good angels have no need of regeneration: the evil angels never will have any share in it. They are men, God regenerates, and not brutes, nor stocks nor stones. Those whom the apostle speaks of as begotten again into a lively hope, are first described as elect according to the fore knowledge, 1 Pet. i. 2, 3.

IV. The effects of regeneration, or the ends to be answered, and which are answered by it, and which shew the importance and necessity of it. 1. A principal effect of it; or, if you will a concomitant of it, is a participation of every grace of the Spirit. The grace of repentence then appears; the stony, hard, obdurate, and impenitent heart beingf taken away, and an heart of flesh, susceptible of divine impressions being given ; on which follow, a sense of sin, sorrow for it after a godly sort. Faith in Christ which is not of a man's self, but the gift of God, and the operation of the Spirit of God, is now given and brought into exercise ; which being an effect, is an evidence of regeneration ; for whosoever belicveth that Jesus is the Christ, and especially that believes in Christ, as his Saviour and Redeemer,/* born of God, 1 John v. 1. and such have hope of eternal life by Christ. Regenerated persons have their hearts circumcised, which is but another phrase for regenerating grace, to love the Lord their God with all their heart and soul, Deut. xxx. 6. and by this it is known. that they have paused from death to life, because they love the brethren, I John Hi. 14. In short, regenerate persons are partakers of all the fruits of the Spirit; and they are blessed with such measures of grace and spiritual strength, as to be able to resist sin and Satan, and to overcome the world, and every spiritual enemy ; For whosoever is born of God, overcometh the world: he that is begotten of God, keepeth himself from Satan,

1 John v. 4, 18. 2. Knowledge, and actual enjoyment of the several blessings of grace, follow upon regeneration. Now it js that an awakened sinner has the application of pardoning grace and mercy. God blesses his people with peace, with peace of conscience, flowing from the blood, righteousness, and sacrifice of Christ. 3. Another effect of regeneration is, a fitness and capacity for the performance of good works. In regeneration men are created in Christ Jesus unto good workst Eph. ii. 10. such who are born again, are sanctified and meet for the Master's use, and prepared unto every good work<

2 Tim. ii. 21. whereas, an unregenerate man is to every good work reprobate. God has promised to put his Spirit in his people, to cause them to walk in his statutes, and to keep his

judgments, and do them, Ezek. xxxvi. 27. A very heathen could say, " Whatever good thing thou dost, ascribe it t» God." 4, Regeneration gives a meetr.ess for the kingdom of God ; without this, no man can see, nor enter into it, John iii. 3 5. Unregenerate men have not the proper qualifications'^ the church of God, and the ordinance of it; these particularly, are faith and repentance ; these are required to a person's admission to baptism, Matt. iii. 2—8. Acts. ii. 38.

and viii. 12 37. and so to the ordinance of the Lords supper t

let a man examine himself, and so let him eat, 1 Cor. si. 28.

V. The properties of regeneration; and which may serve to throw more light on the nature of it.—l. Regeneration is a passive work, or rather, men are passive in it; men no more contribute to their spiritual birth, than infants do to their natural birth. 2. It is an irresistible act of God's grace ; no more resistance can be made unto it, than there could be in the first matter to its creation; it is of the will of God, the Spirit, in regeneration, is like the wind which blowelh where it iisteth, John iii. 8. 3. It is an act that is instantaneously done, at once; for indeed one man cannot be said to be more regenerated than another, though he may be more sanctified. 4. As it is done at once, so it is perfect; some persons speak of a regenerate and an unregenerate part in men; and that they are partly regenerate and partly unregenerate. I must confess I do not understand this; the whole old man is unregenerate, he remains untouched, and the new man is wholly regenerate, no unregenerate part in him; there is no sin in him, nor done by him, he cannot commit sin. 5. The grace of regeneration can never be lost; once regenerated and always so ; such are kept by the power of God, through faith, unto salvation, 1 Pet. i. 3—5. 23. To which may be added,—6. An adjunct which always accompanies regeneration, a spiritual warfare between the old and the new man, the principle of sin, and the principle of grace ; the flesh lusting against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh; the law in the members, warring against the law of the mind ; which are, as j it were, a company of two armies engaged in war with each other, which always issues in a victory on the side of the new creature.


Effectual Calling may be distinguished from Regeneration, taken more strictly, for the first infusion and implantation of grace in the heart; yet it is closely connected with it,

3 fl

and the consideration of it naturally follows upon it. Concerning it, the following things may be observed.

I. What it is, and the nature of it. It is not of a civil kind, of which there are various sorts ; as a call to an office in state ; so Saul and David were called to take upon them the government of the people of Israel: nor a call to do some particular service, as Bezaleel was called to devise and do some curious work for the tabernacle, and Cyrus was raised up, and called from a far country, to let the captive Jews go free. Every ordinary occupation, men are brought up in, is a calling; hence the apostle says, Let every man abide in the same calling wherein he in called, 1 Cor. vii. 20.24. The calling now to be treated of, is of a religious kind ; and of which also there are various sorts; as a call to an ecclesiastical office, so. Aaron and his sons were called to officiate in the priesthood ; for no man takctli this honour to himself, but he that is cailed of God, as was Aaron, Heb. v. 4. so the twelve disciples of Christ were called to apostleship ; and Paul; a servant of Christ, is said to be called to be an apostle. There is likewise an universal call of all men, to serve and worship the one true and living God ; this call is made by the light of nature, displayed in the works of creation, which demonstrate the Being of God ; and by the law of nature, written on the hearts of all men ; besides this there is a more special and particular call of men, and not so general, and is either external or internal: the external call is by the ministry of the word ; by the ministy of the prophets under the Old Testament, of John the Baptist, the forerunner of Christ, of Christ himself in human nature, and of his apostles under the New; and of all succeeding ministers in all ages. The internal call is by the Spirit and grace of God to the hearts and consciences of men ; as this external call is a matter of moment, it is necessary to be a little more large and explicit upon it. 1. This may be considered either as a call to saints, to such who have a work of grace already begun in them ; and to such it is a call, not only to the means of grace, but to partake of the blessings of grace ; and these as labouring under a sense ofsin^ and under a spirit of bondage, to come

to Christ for rest, peace, pardon, life, and salvation, Matt. xi. 2S. such were the three thousand converts under Peter's sermon, and the jailor, who were under a previous work of the Spirit of God, but then it is not a call to them to regenerate and convert themselves, of which'there is no instance; and which is the pure work of the Spirit of God: nor to make their peace with God, which they cannot make by any thing they can do ; and which is only made by the blood of Christ: nor to get an interest in Christ, which is not gotten, but given ; nor to the exercise of evangelical grace, which they have not, and therefore can never exercise ; nor to any spiritual vital acts, which they are incapable of, being natural men and dead in trespasses and sins. Nor is the gospel-ministry an offer of Christ, and of his grace and salvation by him, which are not in the power of the ministers of it to give, the gospel is a proclamation of the unsearchable riches of grace. Yet there is something in which the ministry of the word, and the call by it, have to do with unregenerate sinners; they may be, and should be called upon, to perform the natural duties of religion : to a natural faith, to repent of sin committed; to pray to God for forgiveness, as Simon Magus was directed by the apostle to attend the outward means of grace, to read the holy scriptures, which have been the means of the conversion of some ; to hear the word, and wait on the ministry of it, which may be blessed unto them, for the effectual calling of them. It is a part of the ministry of the word to lay before men their fallen, miserable, lost and undone estate by nature; to inform them of their incapacity to make atonement, and they are to be made acquainted, that salvation is alone by Christ, the fulness, freeness, and suitableness of this salvation, are to be preached before them; and the whole to be left to the Spirit of God, to make application of it as he shall think fit. n. This external call by the ministry, is not universal, nor ever was: under the former dispensation, God sent his word unto Jacob, and his statutes unto Israel; as for other nations, they knew him not. When the gospel.dispensation took place, the apostles of Christ were forbid, by the'rr first commission, to go to the Gentiles, or to any of the cities of the Samaritans i and though, upon Christ's resurrection from the dead, their commission was enlarged, yet before they could reach to the extent of their commission, multitudes must be dead, to whom the gospel-call, or the sound of it, never reached. To say nothing of the new world, or America, supposed not then to be discovered. iit. The external call is frequently rejected, and for the most part, and by the greater numbers of those that hear it; I have called, and ye have refused, mam that are called and invited to attend the gospel-ministry, refuse to come. Others do it in a careless and negligent manner, not minding what they hear, but like leaking vessels, let it slip, or run out, and others, as the Jews, contradict and blaspheme when God goes forth w'nh his ministers, working with them, then the work is done, but not otherwise, iv. The external ministry of the word has its usefulness, and various ends are answered by it. All things are for the elect's sake, and particularly the ministration of the gospel, the condemnation of men is aggravated by it; inasmuch as though they are surrounded with light, they love darkness rather than light. By the external ministry of the word, many, though not effectual* , \y called, become more civilized, and more moral in their conversation, and others are brought by it to a temporary faith, to believe for a while, to embrace the gospel notionally, by which means they become serviceable to support the interest of it. It comports with the wisdom of God that there should be such an outward call of many who are not internally called : Wherefore, when the ministry of the word is slighted, and the gospel-call rejected, it is most righteously resented by the Lord ; and such are justly punished with everlasting destruction by hitp, 1 Pet. iv. 17. 2 Thess. i. 8, 9.

The internal call is next to be considered, which is sometimes immediately, and without the ministry of the word; as seems to be the case of the disciples of Christ, of the apostle Paul, and of Zatcheus, and others ; and sometimes mediately by the word; for faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word ; and which call is, 1. Out of great and gross darkness, into marvellous and surprising light, 1 Pet. ii. 9. 2. The internal call, is a call of men cut of bondage, out of worse than Egyptian bondage, into liberty, even the glorious liberty of the children of God ; Brethren ye have been called unto liberty, Gal. v. 13. 3. The internal call, is a call of persons from fellowship with the men of the world, to fellowship with Christ; God is faithful, by whom ye were called unto the fellow, ship of Christ Jesus our Lord, 1 Cor. i. 9. it is like that of the call of Christ to his church. Cant. iv. 8. Come with me from Lebanon, &rV. a call to forsake the vanities, oieasures, and pro. fits of the world, and go along with hine, and enjoy communion with him. 4. Such as are effectivdly called by the Spirit and grace of God, are called to; God hath, called us to. peace, 1 Cor. vii. 15. to internal j»eace, to peace of mind and conscience; which men, in a Mate of nature, are sirangers to; for there is no peace to the .ticked; and to peace among themselves ; Let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the .which also ye are called in one body, Col. iii. 15. 5. They are called Out of a state of sinfulness, into a state of holiness; God hath not called us unto uncleanness, but unto holiness, I Thes. iv. 7. and hath called us to glory and virtue, 2 Pet. i. 3. As he which halh called you is holy, &?''. 1 Pet. i. 15. 6. The internal call, is a call of persons into the Grace of Christ, Gal. i. 6. 7. It is a call of them to a state of happiness and bliss in another ^ world; Who lutth called you unto his kingdom and glory, 1 Thes* ii. 12. The obtaining of the glory of the Lord Jesus Christ, 2 Thes. ii. 14. and to eternal glory by Christ Jesus, 1 Pet. v, 10. and to lay holdon eternaUife, 1 Tim. vi. 12.

II. The author andjcauses of effectual calling, efficient, impulsive, instrumental, and final. 1. The efficient cause is God; Walk worthy of God, who hath called you; God hath not called us, &?c. 2. The impulsive, or moving cause of effectual calling, are not the works of men, but the sovereign will, pleasure, purpose, and grace of God; as in 2 Tim. i. 9. 1. The works of men are not the moving or impulsive cause of their being called of God; for those must be either such as are done before calling, or after it: not before calling; for works done then are not good works. Good works after calling are fruits and effects of effectual vocation; and therefore cannot be ranked among the causes of it. 2. The sovereign will, pleasure, and purpose of God, is what moves and determines him to call, by his gTace, any of the sons of men : not their wills ; for it is net of him that willtth, but of his own good will and pleasure; t'ney that are called, are called according to his purpose, Rom. viii. .28. He has, in his eternal purpose, fixed upon the particular persons, the time, the place, and the means. 3. The free grace of GoJ, in a sovereign, distinguishing way and manner, may truly be s^id to be the grand, impuhive, moving cause of effectual vocation; to this the apostle ascribed his own. 3. The instrumental ouse, or rather means of effectual vocation, is the ministry of tht word. Men are called both to grace and glory by the gospel, Gal. i. 6. 2 Thes. ii. 14. 4. The final causes, or rather the ends of effectual vocation, which are subordinate and ultimate: the subordinate end, is the salvation of God's elect; and the ultimate end is the glory o£ the grace of God.

III. The subjects of effectual vocation, or who they are whom God calls by his grace, i. They are such whom God has chosen to grace and glory ; Whom he did predestinate, them he also called, Rom. viii. 30. 2. They are such whet arc in Christ, and secured in him; for they are called according to grace given them in Christ Jesus before the world began. 3. They are such who are redeemed by Christ; I have redeemed thee ; I have called thee by thy name ; thou art mine, Isai. xliii. J. 4. Those that are called, are, for the most part, either the meanest, or the vilest among men ; the meanest, as to their outward circumstances; Not many mighty, not many noble are railed; and the meanest, as to their internal capacities ; Not many wise men after the flesh; the things of the gospel, and of the grace of God, are hid from the wise and prudsnt, and revealed to babes, 1 Cor. i. 26. James ii. 5. Matt. xi. 25. and

oftentimes some of the worst and vilest of sinners are called by grace; publicans and harlots went into the kingdom of God, when scribes and Pharisees did not.

IV. The properties of effectual calling. 1. It is a fruit of the love of God ; because he has loved them with an everlasting love, therefore with loving kindness he draws them to himself, and to his Son, in effectual vocations, Jer. xxxi. 3. 2. It is an act of efficacious grace, Eph. i. 18—20. 3. This call is an holy calling, 2 Tim. i. 9. He that hath called you is holy, 1 Pet. i. 15. 4. It is an high calling, Phil. iii. 14. 5. It is stiled an heavenly calling, Heb. iii. 1. 6. This is one of the gifts of God's special grace, and is without repentance, Rom. xi. 29. it is unchangeable, irreversible, and irrevocable; faithful is he that has called them, who also will do it, 1 Thes. v. 23, 24. whom he called, them he also justified.


Conversion, though it may seem in some respects, to fall in with Regeneration, and Effectual Vocation, yet may be distinguished from them both. Regeneration is the motion of God towards and upon the heart of a sinner; conversion is the movement of a sinner towards God. Concerning which may be observed,

I. What conversion is, and wherein it lies. The conversion to be treated of is not, 1. An external one, or what lies only in an outward reformation of life and manners, such as that of the. Ninevites. 2. Nor is it a mere doctrinal one, or a conversion from false notions before imbibed to a set of doctrines and truths which are according to the scriptures; so men of old were converted from Judaism and heathenism to Christianity. 3. Nor the restoration of the people of God from backslidings to which they are subject, Jer. iii. 12. so Peter, when he fell through temptation, and was recovered from it by a look from Christ, it is called his conversion, Luke, xxii. 32. But, 4. The conversion under consideration, is a true, real, internal work of God upon the souls of men; there is a


counterfeit of it, or there is that in some men who are not really converted ; as, a sense of sin, an apprehension of the divine displeasure, great distress about it, and an abstinence from it; something that bears a resemblance to each of these may be found in unconverted persons: but yet in all this, there is no heart work ; whereas, 'rue genuine conversion lies, In the turn of the heart to God. Conversion is a turn of the mind from carnal things to spiritual ones ; it lies in a man's be. ing turned from darkness to light, Acts xxvi. i8. in the turning of men from the power of Saian to God, Acts xxvi. 18. In turning men from idols to serve the living God ; not merely from idols of silver and gold, of wood and stone, as formerly, but from the idols of a man's own heart, his lusts and corruptions: with respect to which, the language of a converted sinner is, What have I to do any more with Ido.s ? It lies in turning men from their own righteousness to the righteousness of Christ; not from doing works of righteousness, but from depending upon them for justification before God. Conversion lies in a man's turning to the Lord actively, under the influence of divine grace ; and by this phrase it is often exprrssed in scripture, as in 2 Cor. iii. 16. The prodigal spn is a lively picture of the state of unconverted men ; and in his return there are all the symptoms of a true and real conversion ) as a sense of his starving, famishing, and perishing state by nature ; his coming to his right mind, his sense of ain, confession of it, and repentance for it; his faith and hope of meeting with a favourable reception by his father, which encouraged him to return, and which he met with.

II. The causes of conversion, efficient, moving, and instrumental, i. The efficient cause, which is not man but God. Not man, it is neither by ihe power nor will of man. 1. Not . by the power of man ; what is said of the conversion of turning of the Jews from their captivity, is true of the conversion of a sinner, that it is not by might, nor by power, that is, not of man, but by my Spirit, as saith the Lord of hosts, Zech. iv. 6. Conversion is such an alteration in a man, as is not in his

power to effect; it is like that of an Ethiopian changing his skin, and a leopard his spots; such things are never heard of, as a black more becoming white, and a leopard becoming clear of his spots, Jer. xiii. 23. Make the tree good, says our Lord ; but the tree cannot make itself good; another hand must be employed about it; no man, says Christ, can come unto me, except the Father, which hath sent me, draw him John vi. 44. 2. Nor is conversion owing to the willol men; the will of man before conversion, is in a bad state, it chooses its own abominations ; Luther rightly called it, servum arbi. trium, a wilful servitude ; as the whole of salvation is not of him that willeth, so this part of it in particular, regeneration, with which conversion, in the first moment of it, agrees, is not of the willofthefeshy nor of the wit' of man, but of God, John i. 13.

But it may be said, if conversion is not in the power and will of men, to what purpose are such exhortations as these ; Repent, and turn yourselves from all your transgressionsturn yo rselves, and live? and again, Rtptnt ye therefore, and be converted, Ezek. xviii. 30. 32. Acts iii. 19. to which may be replied,, that these passages have no respect to spiritual and internal conversion; but to an external reformation of life and manners. In the first instance the Jews were then in a state of captivity, which was a kmd of Death, as sometimes sore afflictions are said to be, 2 Cor. i. 10. But what has this to do with the spiritual and internal c n crsion of a sinner unto God ? with respect to the latter case, the Jews were threatened with the destruction of their city and nation; and now the apostle advises those to whom he directs his discourse, to relinquish their wrong notions of Christ, and repent of their ill usage of him. But supposing these, and such like exhortations to respect internal conversion of the heart to God; such exhortations may be only designed to shew men the necessity of such conversion, in order to salvation ; and when men are convinced of this, they will soon be sensible of their impotence to convert themselves, and will pray, as Ephraim did, Turn thou me, and I shall be turned immediately and effectually. For, 2. God only is the author and efficient cause of conversion; he only can turn the heart; he can take away the hardness ; he can break the rocky heart in pieces; he powerfully persuades Japhet to dwell in the tents of Shem; he makes his people willing in the day of his power.

The power of divine grace, put forth in conversion, is irresistible ; a stop cannot be put to the work, though opposition made unto it, from within and from without. If it was in the power of the will of men to hinder the work of conversion, so as that it should not take place, when it is the design of God it should, then God might be disappointed of his end. Besides, if conversion was to stand or lall according to the will of men, it would rather be ascribed to the will of men, than to the will of God ; and it would not be true what is said, It is net of him that willtth ; yea, as the will of men then would have the greatest stroke in conversion ; in answer (o that question, Who maketh thee to differ from another? it might be said, as it has been said by a proud and haughty free-wilier, Grevinchovious, I have made myself to differ.

To all this may be objected, the words of Christ; How often would I have gathered thy children together, and ye would not? Matt, xxiii. 37. but it should be observed, that this gathering is not to be understood of conversion : but of at. tendance on the ipinistry of the word under John the Baptist; and it should also be observed, that they are not the same persons whom Christ would have gathered, and those of whom he says, and ye would not; by whom are meant, the ruiers and governors of the people, who would not suffer them to attend the gospel ministry, but threatened them with putting them out of the synagogue if they did. n. The moving cause of conversion, is the love, grace, mercy, favour, and good will of God. in. The instrumental cause or means of •vonvtrsiori, is usually the ministry of the word; hence ministers are said to turn many to righteousnes; Tht law of the Lord is perfect, conv rting the soul, Psal. xix. 7.

III. The subjects of conversion; these are not all men, for all in fact, are not converted; nor does it appear to be the design and purpose of God to convert all men. They are redeemed ones who are converted ; and the reason why they are converted is, because they are redeemed ; J will hiss for them, by the ministry of the word, and gather them, which is another phrase for conversion, because I have redeemed them, Zfch. x. 8. they whom God converts, are the same persons for whom he has provided forgiveness of sins in the covenant of his grace, and an eternal inheritance in his divine purpose ; for the apostle says, he was sent by Christ to turn men unto God, that they may receive the forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified, byfaHh in Christ, Acts xxvi. 18. In a word, they are described as sinners; Sinners shall be converted unto thee, Psal. li. 13.


That holiness which is begun in regeneration, and is manifest in effectual calling and conversion is carried on in sanctification.

There is a sanctification which is more peculiarly ascribed to God the Father; and which is no other than his eternal election of men to it: under the law, persons and things were separated and devoted to holy uses. Hence those who are set apart by God for his use and service are said to be sanctified by God the Father, Jude 1. There is a sanctification also that is more peculiar to Christ the Son of God; hence he is said to be made to them sanctification, 1 Cor. i. 30. As the expiation of their sins is made by his blood and sacrifice, this is called a sanctification; Jesus, that he might sanctify the people with kis blood, 6fc. Heb. xiii. 12. But there is another sanctification, which is more peculiar to the holy Spirit of God, and is called the sanctif cation of the Spirit, 2 Thes. ii. 13. 1 Pet. ii. 2. and this is the sanctification to be treated of. Concerning which may be enquired,

1. What it is, and the nature of it. It is something that is holy, both in its principle, and in its actings. It does not lie in a conformity to the light of nature ; nor in a bare external conformity to the law of God ; or in an outward reformation of life and manners. Nor is what is called restraining grace, sain :tificaiion. Nor are gifts, ordinary or extraordinary, sanctifying grace. A man may have all gifts, and all knowledge, and speak with the tongue of men and angels, and not have grace ; thtre may be a silver tongue where there is an unsanction u heart. Nor is sanctification a restoration of the lost image of Adam, or a new vamping upon the old principles of nature : but it is something entirely new.

Some make sanctification to lie in the deposition, or putting off, of the old man, and in the putting on of the new man. This has a foundation in the word of God, and belongs to sanctification, and may be admitted, if understood of the actings of* it; see Col. iii. 12, 13.

Others distinguish sanctification into vivification and mortis Jieation: and both these are to be observed in sanctification; Sanctification, as a principle, is a holy, living principle, infused ; by which a man that was dead in trespasses and sins, is quickened ; and from whence flow living acts. And there is such thing as mortification; not in a literal and natural sense, of the body by fasting, scourging, &c. but the weakening of the power of sin, Rom. viii. 13. But leaving these things, I shall more particularly consider sanctification as an holy principle, and the holy actings of it. i. As an holy principle. It is a work, not of men: none can say, I have made my heart clean. It is a good work; some good thing towards the Lord God of Israel. It is commonly called, a work of grace, and with great propriety ; since it flows from the abundant grace of God in Christ. In scripture it is called, the work of faith ; hence saints are said to be sanctified by faith, which is in Christ, Acts xxvi. 18. It is an internal work. It is called, the inward man, and the hidden man of the heart, which has its place there, and is not obvious to every one, Rom.vii. 22.

1 Pet. iii. 4. Sometimes it is compared to a root, which lies under ground, is not seen, and is the cause of fruit being brought forth upwards. It is called, truth in the inward parts*, Psal. I. 6. 10. It is sign.fird by oil in the vessel of the heart, had with the lamp of an external profession, Matt. xxxv. 4. n. To consider sanctificaiion in its holy actings. i. With respect to God. 1. In a holy reverence of him, on account of his nature, perfections, works, and blessings of goodness. 2. la love to God, and delight in him. Job says of the hypocrite, Will he delight himself in the Almighty? will he ahuays call upon God? 3. It appears in submission to the will of God in all things, even in the most adverse dispensations of providence ; as the instances of Aaron, Eli, David, and others shew. That holy man Bishop Usher, said of it, " Sanctification is nothing less than for a man to be brought to an entire resignation of his will to the will of God, and to live in the offering up of his soul continually in the flames of love, and as a whole burnt offering to Christ." 4. It is to be seen in religious exercises, and in acts of devotion to God. 5. The holy actings of sanctification may be discerned in the earnest pantings, and eager desires of the soul after communion with God, both in private and in public. 6. A soul that is sanctified by the Spirit of God, seeks the glory of God in all it does, whether in things civil or religious. 2. Sanctification discovers itself with respect to Christ. 1. In apply ing to him for cleansing; it goes to him as the leper did, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean! 2. In subjection to him, as King of saints; esteeming his precepts, concerning all things, to be right. 3. In setting hi m id ways before them, as an example to copy after: being desirous of walking even as he walked. 4. In a desire of a greater degree of conformity to the image of Christ, sanctified souls desire to be with Christ, that they might be perfectly like him, as well as see him as he is. 3. Sanctification is discovered in its actings, with respect to the Holy Spirit. 1. In minding, savouring, and relishing the things of the Spirit of God. They thr.t are after the Spirit, mind the things of the Spirit, Rom. viii. 5. 2. Sanctified persons are described as such who walk not after the fesh, but after the Spirit, Rom. viii. 1. 3. In a desire and carefulness not to grieve the holy Spirit of God, by whom they have their present grace and experience, by any disagreeable behaviour to him, to one another, and in the world, Eph. iv. 30. 4. In a desire to live and walk in the Spirit; to live in a spiritual manner, and to wait for the hope of righteousness by faith. 4. The actings of sanciification are apparent, with respect t» tin. i. In delighting in the law of God, which forbids it, and condemns for it; How Hove thy law ! says David ; he delights in it, after the inward man. 2. In a dislike of sin, as it is in its own nature exceeding sinful. 3. In a loathing sin, and in abhorrence of it. 4. In an hatred of sin, not only sinful actions, but vain thoughts also, Psal. cxix. 113. 5. In an opposition to sin; a sanctified man acts the part of an antagonist to it, striving against sin. 6. In an abstinence from it, even from every appearance of it, and avoiding every avenue that leads to it. 7. Sanctitication appears in lamenting sin; sanctified persons are like doves of the valley, every one mourning for his own iniquities. 8. In earnest desires to be wholly freed from sin ; weary of a body of sin and death, they groan under the burden of it, and cry, O wretched men that we are! who shall deliver us from it ?

II. The subjects of sanctification are next to be enquired into; who they are that are sanctified, and what of them. t. Who are sanctified; not all men. They are the elect of God ; the redeemed ones: of the same persons it is said, They shall call them the holy peopls, the redeemed of the Lord, Isai. Ixii. 12. n. What of those persons are sanctified ; The whole of them ; The God of peace sanctify you wholly; that is, as next explained, in soul, body, and spirit, 1 Thess. v. 23. 1. The soul, or spirit, is the principal seat, or subject of sanctification. 2. The body also is influenced by sanctifying grace : its sensual appetite and carnal lusts are checked and restrained, Rom. vi. 12, 13'

III. The causes of sanctification, by whom it is affected, from whence it springs, and by what means it is carried on, and at last finished. 1. The efficient cause is God, Father, Son, and Spirit: sometimes it is ascribed to the Father, 1 Pet. i. 16, Christ is not only our sanctification, but our sanctifier, Heb. ii. 11. Though this work of sanctification is more commonly attributed to the holy Spirit, who is therefore called, the Spirit of holiness. 2. The moving cause is the grace and good will of God ; This is the will of God, even your sanctification, 1 Thess. iv. 3. 3. The instrumental cause, or means, is the word of God ; Faith comes by hearing. Various providences of God, even afflictive ones, are designed of God, and are means, in his hand, of making his people more and more partakers of his holiness, Heb. xii. 10. of this use afflictions were to holy David, Psal. cxix. 67. 71.

IV. The adjuncts or properties of sanctification. t. It il imperfect in the present state, though it will, most certainly, be made perfect: this appears, 1. From the continual wanes of the saints; from their disclaiming perfection in themselves; from indwelling sin, and from the several parts of sanctifica? tion, and the several graces of which it consists, being imperfect. Faith is imperfect; Lord increase our faith, or add to it, Luke xvii. 5. Hope sometimes is low, the mouth is put in the dust with an if so be there may be hope, Lam. iii. 18. Jt. Though sanctification is imperfect, it is progressive, it is going on gradually till it comes to perfection; this is clear from the character of the saints; from the similes by which the work of grace is illustrated; as that in general by seed sown in the earth, which springs up first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the year. Yet, in. Though it is imperfect, it will certainly be perfected: grace in the soul is a well of living water, springing up unto everlasting life. XV. Sanctification is absolutely necessary to salvation. It is necessary to the saints, as an evidence of their election. It is necessary to church.fellowship, 2 Cor. vi. 14—16. It is necessary as a meetness for heaven, and for the beatific vision of God in a future state s Without holiness no man shall see the Lord. To say no more, it it necessary for the work ol heaven: how can unholy persons join with the saints in such a work and service as this ? yea, it would be irksome and disagreeable to themselves, could they be admitted to it, and were capable of it; neither of which can be allowed.


This truth may be confirmed.

I. From various passages of scripture, it is written as with a sun beam in the sacred writings ; to give the whole compass of the proof of it, would be to transcribe great part of the Bible. I bhall only select some passages, Job. chap. xvii. 9. The righteous also shall hold on his way; and he that hath clean hands shall be stronger end stronger ! Psal. xciv. 14. For the Lord will not cant off"his people, is'c This doctrine may be concluded from Psal. exxv. 1, 2. the persons described are such who trust in the Lord, these are like mount Zion, that cannot be removed. This truth will receive further proof from Jer. xxxii. 40. And I will make an everlasting coVenant with them, fcfe. This may be concluded from the perpetuity of the covenant made with them, and from the promise made in the covenant, that God will not turn away from them to do them good! This is further strengthened by what follows; I will put my fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me. Another passage of scripture, which clearly expresses this truth, is in John x. 28. / give ■ Unto them eternal life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand! The words of Christ in his prayer to his Father, are another proof of the preservation of his people by him ; and of their final perseverance through that, John xvii. 12. Those that thou gavestmc I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition* £?e. When the apostle says of God, 1 Cor. i. 8, 9. Who shali confirm you to the end, &c.—faithful is God, &?c. to do it j with other passages of the same kind, these are so many proofs of the saints' final perseverance. He which establisheth us with you in Chrht-*-is God, 2 Cor. i. 21. vin. It is said of those who are elect, and are begotten again, that they are kept by the power of God, through faith, unto salvation, 1 Pet. i. 5. Many other passages of scripture might be produced in proof of this doctrine ; but these are sufficient. I pass on,

II. To observe those arguments in proof of the saints* final perseverance, taken from various sacred and divine things. i. From the perfections of God. 1. The immutability of God. God is unchangeable ; this is asserted by himself, lam the Lord; I change not i and he himself drew this inference from it, therefore ye sons of Jacob are not consumed. 2. The wisdom of God appears in this doctrine ; where would be his wisdom to appoint men to salvation, and not save them at last ? 3. The ptwer of God is greatly concerned in this affair. Such who are elect, according to the foreknowledge of God, and are regenerated by his grace, are kept by his power to sal. vation. 4. The goodness, grace, and mercy of God, confirm this truth. The mercy of God is from everlasting to everlasting, %fc. His compassions fail not, Psal. exxxviii. 8. 5. The justice of God makes the perseverance of the saints necessary. Where could be his justice, to punish those for whose sins Christ has made satisfaction, and God himself has discharged upon it» 6. The faithfulness of God secures the final perseverance of the saints; God is faithful to his counsels, and will confirm them to the end. li. The final perseverance of the saints, maybe concluded from the purposes and decrees of God: which are infrustrable, and are always accomplished ; The Lord of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it, Isai. jtiv. 4. Whom he did predestinatethem he also glorified, Rom. ix. 12,13. nl. The argument in favour of the saints' final perseverance receives great strength from the promises of God, which are sure, and are all yea and amen in Christ, and are always fulfilled, iv. This truth may be farther confirmed ftom the gracious acts of God. 1. The adoption of th« children of God into his family ; can a child of God become a child of the devil ? shall an heir of heaven be seen in the flames of hell ? or shall one that is a joint-heir with Christ, come short of the incorrupitble inheritance i 2. Justification is another act of God's free grace, and the fruit of his ancient love, Hum. iii. 24. and v. 17. how would this righteousness of his be unto justification of life, if after all they perish eternally ? 3. Pardon of sin is another act of the riches of divine grace, is it possible that a man should go to hell with a full arH free pardon of all his sins in his hands ? v. The saints' final perseverance in grace to glory, and security from ruin and destruction, may be concluded from the kve of Christ to them, his interest in them, and theirs in him. Having. loved his ownH which were in the world, he loves them to the endt John xiii. 1. to the end of ther lives, and to all eternity; and therefore they can never perish. They are not only the objects of his love, dear unto him, but they are his care and charge, who are committed to him to be kept by him ; and he has undertook the care of them, has eternal life to give them and does give it to them, and they shall never perish, but have it; yea they have it already, a right unto it and earnest of it; and as they are his Father's gift to him, to be preserved by him, so they are the purchase of his blood, the flock he has purchased with it, and he will not lose one of them ; should he, so far his blood would be shed for nought, and his death be in vain. They are members of his body, they are his spouse and bride, they are his portion, and the lot of his inheritance. They are interested in his intercession, and Christ is making preparations in heaven for them. vi. A further proof of this doctrine may be taken from the work of grace, and the nature of it. Faith ever remains ; it is more precious than gold that perisheth. Hope, though a lowly grace, is a lively one, a living one. Love, though it sometime waxes cold, and the first love may be left, yet not lost. I proceed,

III. To answer to, and remove the objections made, to this doctrine.

First, From some passages of scripture which may seem to be contrary unto it; or however, are brought to disprove it. i. The first passage of scripture, and which is usually set in the front of those that are brought against the saints' final perseverance, is Ezek. xviii. 24. But when the righteous turneth away from his righteousness. 1. The scope of the chapter should be attended to, which is to vindicate the justice it" God, in the dispensations of his providence towards the people of Israel. 2. This chapter, and the context of it, only relate to the land of Israel, and to the house of Israel, the inhabitants of it. 3. By the righteous man in the text, is not meant one truly righteous. There is not a word in the text, nor context, of the obedience and righteousness of Christ. 4. The death here spoken of, and in other passages in this chapter, is not an eternal death, or the death of the soul and body in hell: for this was now upon them, of which they were complaining; but of some severe judgment which is called a death; as in Exod. x. 17. 5. After all, the words are only a supposition; when, or if, a righteous man, turn from his righteousness; and a supposition proves nothing, n. Another passage of scripture brought against the saints' final perseverance, and to prove their falling from grace, is the case of the stoney ground hearer; who is said to hear the word, and anon with joy re~ ceiveth it; yet hath he not root in himself, but durcthfor awhile; for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the wordy by and by he is offended, Matt. xiii. 20, 21. But it should be observed, that those persons thus described, were not truly good and gracious persons; they were a rock, stoney ground still. Though they received the word with joy, this is what a wicked man, a very wicked man, may do. Herod heard Jonn gladly, though he afterwards took off his head. The faith they had was but jor a while, as it is expressed, Luke viii. 13. it was a temporary faith, like that of Simon Magus. Those persons had no root in themselves, and therefore withered. They are manife#tly distinguished from the good ground; wherefore the withering and falling away of those, are no proofs and instances of the saints so falling as to perish ever* lastingly, in. Another passage of scripture produced to invalidate the doctrine of the saints' final perseverance, is io John xv. 2. 6. Every branch in me that beareth not fruit, he tuketh away-—If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered, and mm gather them, and cast them into the fir**, and they are turned. Now it should be observed, that there is a two.fold being in Christ, and two sorts of branches in him, 1. There are some who are truly and really in him, and have a vital union with him. 2. There are others who are in him only by profession; which must be supposed of many of the members of external visible churches, which are said to be in Christ, Gal. i. 21. 1 Thes. i. 1. such wither in their profession, and are cast out of the churches. But what is this to real saints ? t v. Another supposed instance of saints falling from grace, is that of the broken branches from the olive tree; and threatening of such who are grafted into it, with being cut off, if they continue not in goodness, Rom. xi. 17—22. But, by the good olive tree, is not meant the spiritual and invisible church j but is to be understood of the outward gospe! church state,or the outward visible church, under the gospel dispensation; the national church of the Jews, which is compared to an olive tree, Jer. xi. 16. Those who are signified by the broken branches, were never true believers in Christ; but because of their unbelief in him, and rejection of him, were broken off. Those who are grafted in, are threatened to be cut off, in case they continued not in good. ness; meaning, not the goodness, grace, and love of God; but the goodness of the good olive, the gospel church ; not from the grace and favour of God ; but from the church, and the privileges of it; and who might be grafted in again, being restored by repentance, v. The passage of the apostle Pau) concerning himself, is wrested to such a purpose; I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection ; lest that by any means, when I have preached to others, I myself should bi a cast away, 1 Cor. ix. 27. The word adokimos, is not to be rendered reprobate, as it sometimes is ; but signifies disapproved. The eense of the apostle seems to be this, that he was careful not to indulge in sensual gratifications, lest whilst he preached the gospel of the grace of God to others, he might stand reproved himself, and be disapproved by men, and his ministry become contemptible and useless. The fears and jealousies of the saints over themselves, are not inconsistent with their perseverance in grace, much less disprove it; but are means of their perseverance in it. iv. When the apostle says, Whoso* ever of you are justified by the law, ye art fallen from grace. Gal. v. 4. It is not meant of falling from the grace of God in the heart; but of falling from the doctrines of grace. la like sense are we to understand other similar passages, 3 Cor. vi. 1. Heb. xii. 15. vu. What the apostle says of Hymeneus and Alexander, is produced as a proof of the apostacy of real saints; Holding faith and a govd conscience; which some, having put away, etneerning faith, have made shipwreck; of whom is Hymeneus and Alexander, 1 Tim. i. 19. But, i. It does not appear that these men were ever truly good men; of Hymeneus it is said, that he was a vain babbler, and increased to more and more ungodliness; and of Alexander, who is supposed to be the same with Alexander the copper-smith, that he did the apostle much evil. 2. Nor is it manifest that they ever had a good conscience; putting it away does not suppose it: persons may put away that with disdain and contempt, as the word here used signifies, which they never received and had: so the Jews put away the gospel from them, which they never embraced, Acts xiii. 45,46. where the same word is used as here. Besides, 3. Persons may have a conscience good in some sense, in an external shew, and yet not have a conscience purged by the blood of Christ. 4. The faith of these men made shipwreck of, was not the grace, but the doctrine of faith ; for this phrase, concerning the faith, is only used of the doctrines of faith, Acts Xmv. 24. and the particular doctrine made shipwreck of, was the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, 2 Tim. ii. 18. 5. Supposing the grace of faith was meant, the phrase of making shipwreck of it, is not strong enough to express the entire loss of it; since a person may be shipwrecked and not lost; the apostle Paul thrice suffered shipwreck, and yet was saved each iime. vin. Another passage usually brought to prove the apostacy of real saints, and against their final perseverance, is Heb. vi. 4—6. But, i. The persons here spoken, are distinguished from the believing Hebrews ; Beloved, we are penuadtd better things of you. 2. Admitting true believers are meant, the words are only conditional ; If they fall away; and prove no matter of fact. 3. The words are, in some versions, so rendered, as to assert the impossibility of their falling ; so the Syriac version, It is impossible they should sin again; which sense agrees with the words of the apostle, 1 John Hi. 9. And he cannot sin, because. he is born of God: and this is confirmed by the Arabic version. 4. There is nothing said of them that is peculiar to believers. What is said of them, is what may be found in persons destitute of the grace of God. Now when such persons as these fall away from a profession of religion, and into sin, they are no instances of true believers falling from real grace, ix. Another scripture brought as a proof of falling from grace, is Heb. x. 26. 29. For if we sin wilfully, &rc. but these words are not said of true believers ; for though ihe persons described are such who, i. Had knowledge of the truth; yet persons may have a notional, and not a saving knowledge of these things; the apostle says, men may have all knowledge, and all faitht which is historical, and yet be without grace, 1 Cor. xiii. 2. 2. Though said to be sanctified by the blood of the covenant, this is not to be understood of the expiation of their sins; but of their profession of their being thus sanctified. After all, it ia

the Son of God himself that is intended, and not the apostate; for the immediate antecedent to the relative be, is the Son of God ; who was sanctified, or set apart, by the blood and sacrifice of himself.

The sins ascribed to the persons spoken of, are such as are never committed by true believers. x. The following passage though it makes clearly for the doctrine of the saints' final perseverance, is brought as an objection to it, Heb. x. 38. Now the just shall live by faith, but if any man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in htm. He that is truly a just man, can never die spiritually and eternally ; Whosoever l;veth and believeth in me, says Christ, John xi. 26. thall never die. The just man, and he that draws back, are not the same; as is clear from the next verse ; But we are not of them that draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving of the soul. The passage in Hab. ii. 4. which is referred to, plainly shews who the man is that draws back, as opposed to the just man that lives by faith: he is one whose soul is lifted up, and is not upright in him. God's taking no pleasure in him that draws back, does not intimate that he took pleasure in him before his drawing back, since it is not said, my soul shall have no more or no further pleasure in him; but shall have no pleasure in him. Such who are the objects o£ God's delight and pleasure, are always so; he rests in his love towards them &c. Zeph. iii. 17. xi. To the doctrine of the saints' final perseverance, is objected the passage in 2 Pet. ii. 20—22. But 1. There isnothingsaid in those words which shew that the persons spoken of were true believers. The knowledge they had of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, was not a spiritual knowledge of him, for then they would have followed on to have known him. 2. Escaping the pollutions of the world through it, designs no other than an external reformation of life. 3. Nor does it appear that they ever were any other than dogs and swine; their case seems to be the same that is observed by Christ, Matt. xii. 43* xii. The falling away of real believers is argued, and their perseverance objected to, from various exhortations, cautions, &c. given unto them. As, 1. When he that thinks he stands, is exhorted to take heed lest he fall, 1 Cor. x. 12. but supposing a true believer is here meant, which yet is not clear and certain, since it is one, who seemeih to himself, and others, to stand; but admitting it, the exhortation is not superfluous: he may so fall as that God may be dishonoured by it: he should take care of falling, for though there is, no danger of his perish* ing eternally ; yet if he falls to the breaking of his bones, and wounding his own soul, it behoves him to take heed. 2. When believers are cautioned, to take heed, lest there be in them an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God, Heb. iii. 12. And, 3. When the apostle Peter exhorts thost he wrote to, who had obtained like precious faith with him, to beware, lest beingledaway with the error of the wicked, they should fall from their own steadfastness, 1 Pet. iii. IT- the mtaning is not as though there was a possibility of their falling from the precious grace of faith they had obtained; but from some degree of the steady exercise of it. 4. When the apostle John exhorts, saying, Look to yourselves, that ye Use not those things which we have wrought^ 2 John 8. he refers to what the ministers of the gospel, had wrought. S. And when the apostle Jude says, Keep yourselves in the love of God, 21. it is not to be understood of the love which God has in his heart towards his people; but rather of the love which they bare to him*

Secondly, Objections are raised against the doctrine of the the saints' final perseverance, from the sins and falls of persons eminent for faith and holiness; as Noah, Lot, Oavid, Solomon, Peter, and others. But these are no proofs of their final and total falling away. As to Noah and Lot, though guilty of great sins, they have after this, the character of truly good and righteous men. As for David, the spirit of God was not taken from him, Psal. li. 11,12. As for Solomon, though his backsliding was great, yet not total, see 1 King xi. 4. 6< Some persons, after his death, are spoken of with commendation, for walking in the way of Solomon, as well as in the way of David, 2 Chron. xi. 17. As for Peter, his fall was not total ; Christ prayed for him, that his faith failed not; nor final* for he was quickly restored by repentance : these several instances are recorded in scripture, for our caution and instruction, to take heed lest we fall.

Thirdly, Some ill consequences,' supposed to follow the doctrine of the saints' final perseverance, are urged against it. As, 1. That it tends to make persons secure and indifferent but this is not true in fact, any more than in other cases similar to it. Joshua was assured that no man should be able to stand before him, but this did not make him secure, nor hinder him from taking all the proper precautions against his enemies. HeZekiah, though he was assured of his restoration from his disorder; yet this did not hinder him from making use of proper means for the cure of it. Paul had a certainty of the saving of the lives of all ihat were in the ship, yet he told them, that except they abode in the ship, they could not be saved. 2. It is said, that this doctrine gives encouragement to indulge in sin, and to commit such gross sins as Lot, David, and others. The above instances of sin are recorded, not to encourage sin, but to caution against it: and whatsoever ill use persons may make of these instances; such who are really the children of God by faith in Christ, neither can, nor will make such an use of them. 3. It is objected, that this doctrine lessens the force of the prohibitions of sin. But these prohibitions of sin, and motives to holiness, are used by the Spirit of God as means of perseverance. Nothing tan be more stronger motives to holiness and righteousness, than the absolute and unconditional promises of God to his people. 4. Whereas, we argue that the doctrine of the saints apostacy, obstructs the peace and comfort of believers, it may be answered, that our argument does not proceed upon the comfortableness of the doctrine we plead for; but upon the urn.

3 F.

comfortableness of the opposite to it; for though a doctrine may not be true which is seemingly comfortable to a carnal mind; yet that doctrine is certainly not true, which is really uncomfortable to a sanctified heart. This is certain, that the doctrine of the saints falling away from grace finally and totally, is a very uncomfortable one, and therefore to be rejected.