This chapter is connected with the former, respects the same times, and
is full of prophecies and promises of spiritual blessings; of the
coming of Christ; of the multiplication of his people, and the increase
of their joy; of the conversion of the Gentiles; of the covenant of
grace; and of the stability of the saints. It begins with the principal
promise of the covenant, confirmed by past experience, of divine
goodness, and with a fresh declaration of God's everlasting love,
\\#Jer 31:1-3\\; an instance of which would appear, in planting vines or
churches in Samaria, the metropolis of Ephraim or the ten tribes, under
the ministry of the apostles, the watchmen, on Mount Ephraim; whereby
the Israel of God would be built, beautified, and made to rejoice,
\\#Jer 31:4-6\\; yea, it would be matter of joy to all that heard of it;
since, notwithstanding distance and other difficulties, a great number
should come to Christ, and to his church, drawn by the Father's love to
them, and as owing to the relation he stands in to them, \\#Jer 31:7-9\\;
redemption out of the hands of Satan, and every spiritual enemy, must
be published among the Gentiles; which would cause great joy, and give
great satisfaction to the priests and people of the Lord, expressed by
various metaphors, \\#Jer 31:10-14\\; and though, upon the birth of the
Redeemer, there would be an event, which might tend to damp the joy of
saints on account of it, the murder of the infants at Bethlehem; yet
some things are said to encourage faith, hope, and joy, and to abate
sorrow and weeping, \\#Jer 31:15-17\\; Ephraim's affliction, and
behaviour under it, his repentance and reception, are recorded,
\\#Jer 31:18-20\\; backsliding Israel are called upon to return, in
consideration of the birth of the Messiah, \\#Jer 31:21,22\\; the happy
and flourishing estate of the people of God is promised; all which were
made known to the prophet by a dream in the night, \\#Jer 31:23-26\\;
and fresh promises are made, that the Lord would do them good, and not
punish the children for their fathers' sins, but everyone for their
own, \\#Jer 31:28-30\\; and then an account is given of the new
covenant of grace, as distinct from the old, and of the articles of it;
the inscription of the law in the heart, spiritual knowledge of the
Lord, and remission of sin, \\#Jer 31:31-34\\; then follow assurances of
the everlasting continuance of the true Israel and church of God,
\\#Jer 31:35-37\\; and the chapter is concluded with a promise of
rebuilding the city of Jerusalem, and of the holiness of it, and of its
abiding for ever, \\#Jer 31:38-40\\.