In this chapter are contained an account of the two righteousnesses of
faith and works, a summary of the Gospel of Christ, a description of
the grace of faith, in the nature, use, and means of it, and several
testimonies concerning the calling of the Gentiles; and whereas the
apostle knew that this, as well as what he had said in the latter part
of the preceding chapter, that the Jews had not attained to the law of
righteousness, but stumbled at the stumbling stone, would be offensive
to his countrymen the Jews; wherefore that it might appear that he said
this not out of disaffection and ill will to them, he declares his
sincere regard unto them, and the great respect he had for them, by
calling them "brethren", by expressing his good will to them, by
praying for the salvation of them, \\#Ro 10:1\\, by bearing testimony
of their zeal for God, \\#Ro 10:2\\, though he faithfully observes to
them, that it was an ignorant zeal, of which ignorance he gives an
instance, \\#Ro 10:3\\, particularly in the attribute of God's
righteousness; from which ignorance arose all their misconduct in
religious things, especially in the article of justification; hence
they sought to be justified by their own righteousness, and rejected
the righteousness of Christ, and then points out to them the true end
of the law, for righteousness which is Christ, \\#Ro 10:4\\, which if
they had known would have set them right, and which is another instance
of their ignorant and misguided zeal: this leads him on to what he had
in view, which was to give an account of the two righteousnesses he had
suggested in the latter part of the former chapter, the righteousness
of the law, which the Jews sought for and found not, and the
righteousness of faith, which the Gentiles without seeking for enjoyed;
and this account he gives in the words of Moses, for whom they had the
greatest regard: the description of the former is given in his words,
in \\#Ro 10:5\\, which suggest the impossibility of keeping the law,
and obtaining life by it, and therefore it is a vain thing to seek for
righteousness by the works of it; the latter is described,
\\#Ro 10:6,7\\, by the certainty of it, being wrought out by Christ,
who came down from heaven, fulfilled the law, and died, and rose again
from the dead; and by the plainness and evidence of it, as revealed in
the Gospel, \\#Ro 10:8\\, the sum of which Gospel is, that whoever
believes in Christ and confesses him shall be saved, \\#Ro 10:9\\,
which faith and confession, when genuine, are with the heart and mouth
agreeing together; the consequences of which are righteousness and
salvation, comfortably apprehended and enjoyed, \\#Ro 10:10\\, and that
the above is the sum of the Gospel, and that there is such a connection
between faith and righteousness, and between confession and salvation,
is confirmed, \\#Ro 10:11\\, by a testimony from the prophet,
\\#Isa 28:16\\, which being expressed in such a general manner, as to
extend to every believer, whether Jew or Gentile, reasons are given,
\\#Ro 10:12\\, in support of such an explanation of that passage, taken
from the equal condition of all, there being no difference between them
naturally, from the universal dominion of God over them, and from his
liberal communication of grace and goodness to all that call upon him;
which last reason is confirmed, \\#Ro 10:13\\, by a passage of
Scripture in \\#Joe 2:32\\, on occasion of which, the apostle proceeds
to treat of the calling of the Gentiles, and of the means of it, the
preaching of the Gospel, which was necessary to it, which is made out
by a train of reasoning after this manner; that seeing salvation is
only of such that call upon the name of the Lord, and there could be no
calling upon him without believing in him, and no believing without
hearing, and no hearing without preaching, and no preaching without
mission, which is proved by a citation out of \\#Isa 52:7\\, and no
success in preaching, when sent, without the exertions of efficacious
grace, as appears from the case of the Jews, who had the ministration
of the Gospel to them by Isaiah, and yet all did not believe it; as is
evident from \\#Isa 53:1\\, and seeing the conclusion of which is, that
faith comes by preaching, and preaching by the order and command of
God, \\#Ro 10:14-17\\, it follows, that it was proper that ministers
should be sent, and the Gospel preached to the Gentiles, and that
attended with power, in order that they should believe in the Lord, and
call upon his name and be saved; and which method God had taken, and
which he had foretold he would take, in the prophecies of the Old
Testament, and which were now fulfilling: that the Gospel was preached
to them, and they heard it, were matters of fact, and were no other
than what should be, or might be concluded, from \\#Ps 19:4\\, cited,
\\#Ro 10:18\\, and that the Jews could not be ignorant of the calling
of the Gentiles is clear, first from the words of Moses, \\#De 32:21\\,
which the apostle produces, \\#Ro 10:19\\, and from a passage in the
prophecy of \\#Isa 65:1\\. So that this was no other than what Moses
and the prophets said should be, \\#Ro 10:20\\, and the chapter is
closed, \\#Ro 10:21\\, with another passage out of the same prophet in
the next verse, showing the rejection of Christ and his Gospel by the
Jews, and which justifies their being cast off by him, of which the
apostle treats largely in the next chapter.