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1 John 3


13. Marvel not--The marvel would be if the world loved you.
the world--of whom Cain is the representative ( 1 John 3:12 ).
hate you--as Cain hated even his own brother, and that to the extent of murdering him. The world feels its bad works tacitly reproved by your good works.

14. We--emphatical; hated though we be by the world, we know what the world knows not.
know--as an assured fact.
passed--changed our state. Colossians 1:13 , "from the power of darkness . . . translated into the kingdom of His dear Son."
from death unto life--literally, "out of the death (which enthrals the unregenerate) into the life (of the regenerate)." A palpable coincidence of language and thought, the beloved disciple adopting his Lord's words.
because we love the brethren--the ground, not of our passing over out of death into life, but of our knowing that we have so. Love, on our part, is the evidence of our justification and regeneration, not the cause of them. "Let each go to his own heart; if he find there love to the brethren, let him feel assured that he has passed from death unto life. Let him not mind that his glory is only hidden; when the Lord shall come, then shall he appear in glory. For he has vital energy, but it is still wintertime; the root has vigor, but the branches are as it were dry; within there is marrow which is vigorous, within are leaves, within fruits, but they must wait for summer" [AUGUSTINE].
He that loveth not--Most of the oldest manuscripts omit "his brother," which makes the statement more general.
in death--"in the (spiritual) death" (ending in eternal death) which is the state of all by nature. His want of love evidences that no saving change has passed over him.

15. hateth--equivalent to "loveth not" ( 1 John 3:14 ); there is no medium between the two. "Love and hatred, like light and darkness, life and death, necessarily replace, as well as necessarily exclude, one another" [ALFORD].
is a murderer--because indulging in that passion, which, if followed out to its natural consequences, would make him one. "Whereas, 1 John 3:16 desires us to lay down our lives for the brethren; duels require one (awful to say!) to risk his own life, rather than not deprive another of life" [BENGEL]. God regards the inward disposition as tantamount to the outward act which would flow from it. Whomsoever one hates, one wishes to be dead.
hath--Such a one still "abideth in death." It is not his future state, but his present, which is referred to. He who hates (that is, loveth not) his brother ( 1 John 3:14 ), cannot in this his present state have eternal life abiding in him.

16. What true love to the brethren is, illustrated by the love of Christ to us.
Hereby--Greek, "Herein."
the love of God--The words "of God" are not in the original. Translate, "We arrive at the knowledge of love"; we apprehend what true love is.
and we--on our part, if absolutely needed for the glory of God, the good of the Church, or the salvation of a brother.
lives--Christ alone laid down His one life for us all; we ought to lay down our lives severally for the lives of the brethren; if not actually, at least virtually, by giving our time, care, labors, prayers, substance: Non nobis, sed omnibus. Our life ought not to be dearer to us than God's own Son was to Him. The apostles and martyrs acted on this principle.

17. this world's good--literally, "livelihood" or substance. If we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren ( 1 John 3:16 ), how much more ought we not to withhold our substance?
seeth--not merely casually, but deliberately contemplates as a spectator; Greek, "beholds."
shutteth up his bowels of compassion--which had been momentarily opened by the spectacle of his brother's need. The "bowels" mean the heart, the seat of compassion.
how--How is it possible that "the love of (that is, 'to') God dwelleth (Greek, 'abideth') in him?" Our superfluities should yield to the necessities; our comforts, and even our necessaries in some measure, should yield to the extreme wants of our brethren. "Faith gives Christ to me; love flowing from faith gives me to my neighbor."

18. When the venerable John could no longer walk to the meetings of the Church but was borne thither by his disciples, he always uttered the same address to the Church; he reminded them of that one commandment which he had received from Christ Himself, as comprising all the rest, and forming the distinction of the new covenant, "My little children, love one another." When the brethren present, wearied of hearing the same thing so often, asked why he always repeated the same thing, he replied, "Because it is the commandment of the Lord, and if this one thing be attained, it is enough" [JEROME].
in word--Greek, "with word . . . with tongue, but in deed and truth."

19. hereby--Greek, "herein"; in our loving in deed and in truth ( 1 John 3:18 ).
we know--The oldest manuscripts have "we shall know," namely, if we fulfil the command ( 1 John 3:18 ).
of the truth--that we are real disciples of, and belonging to, the truth, as it is in Jesus: begotten of God with the word of truth. Having herein the truth radically, we shall be sure not to love merely in word and tongue. ( 1 John 3:18 ).
assure--literally, "persuade," namely, so as to cease to condemn us; satisfy the questionings and doubts of our consciences as to whether we be accepted before God or not (compare Matthew 28:14 , Acts 12:20 , "having made Blastus their friend," literally, "persuaded"). The "heart," as the seat of the feelings, is our inward judge; the conscience, as the witness, acts either as our justifying advocate, or our condemning accuser, before God even now. John 8:9 , has "conscience," but the passage is omitted in most old manuscripts. John nowhere else uses the term "conscience." Peter and Paul alone use it.
before him--as in the sight of Him, the omniscient Searcher of hearts. Assurance is designed to be the ordinary experience and privilege of the believer.

20. LUTHER and BENGEL take this verse as consoling the believer whom his heart condemns; and who, therefore, like Peter, appeals from conscience to Him who is greater than conscience. "Lord, Thou knowest all things: thou knowest that I love Thee." Peter's conscience, though condemning him of his sin in denying the Lord, assured him of his love; but fearing the possibility, owing to his past fall, of deceiving himself, he appeals to the all-knowing God: so Paul, 1 Corinthians 4:3 1 Corinthians 4:4 . So if we be believers, even if our heart condemns us of sin in general, yet having the one sign of sonship, love, we may still assure our hearts (some oldest manuscripts read heart, 1 John 3:19 , as well as 1 John 3:20 ), as knowing that God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things. But thus the same Greek is translated "because" in the beginning, and "(we know) that" in the middle of the verse, and if the verse were consolatory, it probably would have been, "Because EVEN if our heart condemn us," &c. Therefore translate, "Because (rendering the reason why it has been stated in 1 John 3:19 to be so important to 'assure our hearts before Him') if our heart condemn (Greek, 'know [aught] against us'; answering by contrast to 'we shall know that we are of the truth') us (it is) because God is greater than our heart and knoweth all things." If our heart judges us unfavorably, we may be sure that He, knowing more than our heart knows, judges us more unfavorably still [ALFORD]. A similar ellipsis ("it is") occurs in 1 Corinthians 14:27 , 2 Corinthians 1:6 , 8:23 . The condemning testimony of our conscience is not alone, but is the echo of the voice of Him who is greater and knoweth all things. Our hypocrisy in loving by word and tongue, not in deed and truth, does not escape even our conscience, though weak and knowing but little, how much less God who knows all things! Still the consolatory view may be the right one. For the Greek for "we shall assure our hearts" is gain over, persuade so as to be stilled, implying that there was a previous state of self-condemnation by the heart ( 1 John 3:20 ), which, however, is got over by the consolatory thought, "God is greater than my heart" which condemns me, and "knows all things" (Greek "ginoskei," "knows," not "kataginoskei," "condemns"), and therefore knows my love and desire to serve Him, and knows my frame so as to pity my weakness of faith. This gaining over the heart to peace is not so advanced a stage as the having CONFIDENCE towards God which flows from a heart condemning us not. The first "because" thus applies to the two alternate cases, 1 John 3:20 1 John 3:21 (giving the ground of saying, that having love we shall gain over, or assure our minds before Him, 1 John 3:19 ); the second "because" applies to the first alternate alone, namely, "if our heart condemn us." When he reaches the second alternate, 1 John 3:21 , he states it independently of the former "because" which had connected it with 1 John 3:19 , inasmuch as CONFIDENCE toward God is a farther stage than persuading our hearts, though always preceded by it.

21. Beloved--There is no "But" contrasting the two cases, 1 John 3:20 1 John 3:21 , because "Beloved" sufficiently marks the transition to the case of the brethren walking in the full confidence of love ( 1 John 3:18 ). The two results of our being able to "assure our hearts before Him" ( 1 John 3:19 ), and of "our heart condemning us not" (of insincerity as to the truth in general, and as to LOVE in particular) are, (1) confidence toward God; (2) a sure answer to our prayers. John does not mean that all whose hearts do not condemn them, are therefore safe before God; for some have their conscience seared, others are ignorant of the truth, and it is not only sincerity, but sincerity in the truth which can save men. Christians are those meant here: knowing Christ's precepts and testing themselves by them.

22. we receive--as a matter of fact, according to His promise. Believers, as such, ask only what is in accordance with God's will; or if they ask what God wills not, they bow their will to God's will, and so God grants them either their request, or something better than it.
because we keep his commandments--Compare Psalms 66:18 , 34:15 , Psalms 145:18 Psalms 145:19 . Not as though our merits earned a hearing for our prayers, but when we are believers in Christ, all our works of faith being the fruit of His Spirit in us, are "pleasing in God's sight"; and our prayers being the voice of the same Spirit of God in us, naturally and necessarily are answered by Him.

23. Summing up of God's commandments under the Gospel dispensation in one commandment.
this is his commandment--singular: for faith and love are not separate commandments, but are indissolubly united. We cannot truly love one another without faith in Christ, nor can we truly believe in Him without love.
believe--once for all; Greek aorist.
on the name of his Son--on all that is revealed in the Gospel concerning Him, and on Himself in respect to His person, offices, and atoning work.
as he--as Jesus gave us commandment.

24. dwelleth in him--The believer dwelleth in Christ.
and he in him--Christ in the believer. Reciprocity. "Thus he returns to the great keynote of the Epistle, abide in Him, with which the former part concluded" ( 1 John 2:28 ).
hereby--herein we (believers) know that he abideth in us, namely, from (the presence in us of) the Spirit "which He hath given us." Thus he prepares, by the mention of the true Spirit, for the transition to the false "spirit," 1 John 4:1-6 ; after which he returns again to the subject of love.

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