Hebrews 13:1-25 . EXHORTATION TO VARIOUS GRACES, ESPECIALLY CONSTANCY IN FAITH, FOLLOWING JESUS AMIDST REPROACHES. CONCLUSION, WITH PIECES OF INTELLIGENCE AND SALUTATIONS.
13. therefore--This "therefore" breathes the deliberate fortitude of believers [BENGEL].
without the camp--"outside the legal polity" [THEODORET] of Judaism (compare Hebrews 13:11 ) "Faith considers Jerusalem itself as a camp, not a city" [BENGEL]. He contrasts with the Jews, who serve an earthly sanctuary, the Christians to whom the altar in heaven stands open, while it is closed against the Jews. As Jesus suffered without the gate, so spiritually must those who desire to belong to Him, withdraw from the earthly Jerusalem and its sanctuary, as from this world in general. There is a reference to Exodus 33:7 , when the tabernacle was moved without the camp, which had become polluted by the people's idolatry of the golden calves; so that "every one who sought the Lord went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation (as Moses called the tabernacle outside the camp), which was without the camp"; a lively type of what the Hebrews should do, namely, come out of the carnal worship of the earthly Jerusalem to worship God in Christ in spirit, and of what we all ought to do, namely, come out from all carnalism, worldly formalism, and mere sensuous worship, and know Jesus in His spiritual power apart from worldliness, seeing that "we have no continuing city" ( Hebrews 13:14 ).
bearing--as Simon of Cyrene did.
his reproach--the reproach which He bare, and which all His people bear with Him.
14. here--on earth. Those Hebrews who clung to the earthly sanctuary are representatives of all who cling to this earth. The earthly Jerusalem proved to be no "abiding city," having been destroyed shortly after this Epistle was written, and with it fell the Jewish civil and religious polity; a type of the whole of our present earthly order of things soon to perish.
one to come--( Hebrews 2:5 , Hebrews 11:10 Hebrews 11:14 Hebrews 11:16 , 12:22 , Philippians 3:20 ).
15. As the "altar" was mentioned in Hebrews 13:10 , so the "sacrifices" here (compare 1 Peter 2:5 , namely, praise and doing good, Hebrews 13:16 ). Compare Psalms 119:108 , Romans 12:1 .
By him--as the Mediator of our prayers and praises ( John 14:13 John 14:14 ); not by Jewish observances ( Psalms 50:14 Psalms 50:23 , Psalms 69:30 Psalms 69:31 , 107:22 , 116:17 ). It was an old saying of the rabbis, "At a future time all sacrifices shall cease, but praises shall not cease."
of praise--for salvation.
continually--not merely at fixed seasons, as those on which the legal sacrifices were offered, but throughout all our lives.
fruit of our lips--( Isaiah 57:19 , Hosea 14:2 ).
giving thanks--Greek, "confessing." BENGEL remarks that the Hebrew, "todah," is beautifully emphatic. It literally means "acknowledgment" or "confession." In praising a creature, we may easily exceed the truth; but in praising God we have only to go on confessing what He really is to us. Hence it is impossible to exceed the truth, and here is genuine praise.
16. But--But the sacrifice of praise with the lips ( Hebrews 13:15 ) is not enough; there must be also doing good (beneficence) and communicating (that is, imparting a share of your means, Galatians 6:6 ) to the needy.
with such--and not mere ritualistic sacrifices.
17. Obey them that have the rule over you--(Compare Hebrews 13:7 Hebrews 13:24 ). This threefold mention of the rulers is peculiar to this Epistle. In other Epistles Paul includes the rulers in his exhortations. But here the address is limited to the general body of the Church, in contrast to the rulers to whom they are charged to yield reverent submission. Now this is just what might be expected when the apostle of the Gentiles was writing to the Palestine Christians, among whom James and the eleven apostles had exercised a more immediate authority. It was important he should not seem to set himself in opposition to their guides, but rather strengthen their hands; he claims no authority directly or indirectly over these rulers themselves [BIRKS]. "Remember" your deceased rulers ( Hebrews 13:7 ). "Obey" your living rulers; nay, more, not only obey in cases where no sacrifice of self is required, and where you are persuaded they are right (so the Greek, for "obey"), but "submit yourselves" as a matter of dutiful yielding, when your judgment and natural will incline you in an opposite direction.
they--on their part; so the Greek. As they do their part, so do you yours. So Paul exhorts, 1 Thessalonians 5:12 1 Thessalonians 5:13 .
watch--"are vigilant" (Greek).
for--Greek, "in behalf of."
must give account--The strongest stimulus to watchfulness ( Mark 13:34-37 ). CHRYSOSTOM was deeply struck with these words, as he tells us [On the Priesthood, 6], "The fear of this threat continually agitates my soul."
do it--"watch for your soul's eternal salvation." It is a perilous responsibility for a man to have to give account for others' deeds, who is not sufficient for his own [ESTIUS, from AQUINAS]. I wonder whether it be possible that any of the rulers should be saved [CHRYSOSTOM]. Compare Paul's address to the elders, Acts 20:28 , 1 Corinthians 4:1-5 , where also he connects ministers' responsibility with the account to be hereafter given (compare 1 Peter 5:4 ).
with joy--at your obedience; anticipating, too, that you shall be their "joy" in the day of giving account ( Philippians 4:1 ).
not with grief--at your disobedience; apprehending also that in the day of account you may be among the lost, instead of being their crown of rejoicing. In giving account, the stewards are liable to blame if aught be lost to the Master. "Mitigate their toil by every office of attention and respect, that with alacrity, rather than with grief, they may fulfil their duty, arduous enough in itself, even though no unpleasantness be added on your part" [GROTIUS].
that--Grief in your pastors is unprofitable for you, for it weakens their spiritual power; nay, more, "the groans (so the Greek for 'grief') of other creatures are heard; how much more of pastors!" [BENGEL]. So God will be provoked to avenge on you their "groaning" (Greek). If they must render God an account of their negligence, so must you for your ingratitude to them [GROTIUS].
18. Pray for us--Paul usually requests the Church's intercessions for him in closing his Epistles, just as he begins with assuring them of his having them at heart in his prayers (but in this Epistle not till Hebrews 13:20 Hebrews 13:21 ), Romans 15:30 . "Us," includes both himself and his companions; he passes to himself alone, Hebrews 13:19 .
we trust we have a good conscience--in spite of your former jealousies, and the charges of my Jewish enemies at Jerusalem, which have been the occasion of my imprisonment at Rome. In refutation of the Jews' aspersions, he asserts in the same language as here his own conscientiousness before God and man, Acts 23:1-3 , Acts 24:16 Acts 24:20 Acts 24:21 (wherein he virtually implies that his reply to Ananias was not sinful impatience; for, indeed, it was a prophecy which he was inspired at the moment to utter, and which was fulfilled soon after).
we trust--Greek, "we are persuaded," in the oldest manuscripts. Good conscience produces confidence, where the Holy Spirit rules the conscience ( Romans 9:1 ).
honestly--"in a good way." The same Greek word as "good conscience." Literally, "rightly," "becomingly."
19. the rather--Greek, "I the more abundantly beseech you."
to do this--to pray for me.
that I may be restored to you--( Philemon 1:22 ). It is here first in the letter he mentions himself, in a way so unobtrusive, as not to prejudice his Hebrew readers against him, which would have been the result had he commenced this as his other Epistles, with authoritatively announcing his name and apostolic commission.
20. Concluding prayer.
God of peace--So Paul, Romans 15:33 , 16:20 , 2 Corinthians 13:11 , Philippians 4:9 , 1 Thessalonians 5:23 , 2 Thessalonians 3:16 . The Judaizing of the Hebrews was calculated to sow seeds of discord among them, of disobedience to their pastors ( Hebrews 13:17 ), and of alienation towards Paul. The God of peace by giving unity of true doctrine, will unite them in mutual love.
brought again from the dead--Greek, "brought up," &c.: God brought the Shepherd; the Shepherd shall bring the flock. Here only in the Epistle he mentions the resurrection. He would not conclude without mentioning 'the connecting link between the two truths mainly discussed; the one perfect sacrifice and the continual priestly intercession--the depth of His humiliation and the height of His glory--the "altar" of the cross and the ascension to the heavenly Holy of Holies.
Lord Jesus--the title marking His person and His Lordship over us. But Hebrews 13:21 , "through Jesus Christ." His office, as the Anointed of the Spirit, making Him the medium of communicating the Spirit to us, the holy unction flowing down from the Head on the members (compare Acts 2:36 ).
great--( Hebrews 4:14 ).
shepherd of the sheep--A title familiar to his Hebrew readers, from their Old Testament ( Isaiah 63:11 ; Septuagint): primarily Moses, antitypically Christ: already compared together, Hebrews 3:2-7 . The transition is natural from their earthly pastors ( Hebrews 13:17 ), to the Chief Pastor, as in 1 Peter 5:1-4 . Compare Ezekiel 34:23 and Jesus' own words, John 10:2 John 10:11 John 10:14 .
through the blood--Greek, "in," in virtue of the blood ( Hebrews 2:9 ); it was because of His bloody death for us, that the Father raised and crowned Him with glory. The "blood" was the seal of the everlasting covenant entered into between the Father and Son; in virtue of the Son's blood, first Christ was raised, then Christ's people shall be so ( Zechariah 9:11 , seemingly referred to here; Acts 20:28 ).
everlasting--The everlastingness of the covenant necessitated the resurrection. This clause, "the blood of the everlasting covenant," is a summary retrospect of the Epistle (compare Hebrews 9:12 ).
21. Make you perfect--properly said of healing a rent; join you together in perfect harmony [BENGEL].
to do his will, working in you--( Hebrews 10:36 ); rather as Greek, "doing in you." Whatever good we do, God does in us.
well-pleasing in his sight--( Isaiah 53:10 , Ephesians 5:10 ).
through Jesus Christ--"God doing (working) in you that . . . through Jesus Christ" ( Philippians 1:11 ).
to whom--to Christ. He closes as he began ( Hebrews 1:1-14 ), with giving glory to Christ.
22. suffer the word--The Hebrews not being the section of the Church assigned to Paul (but the Gentiles), he uses gentle entreaty, rather than authoritative command.
few words--compared with what might be said on so important a subject. Few, in an Epistle which is more of a treatise than an Epistle (compare 1 Peter 5:12 ). On the seeming inconsistency with Galatians 6:11 , compare Note,
23. our brother Timothy--So Paul, 1 Corinthians 4:17 , 2 Corinthians 1:1 , Colossians 1:1 , 1 Thessalonians 3:2 .
is set at liberty--from prison. So Aristarchus was imprisoned with Paul. BIRKS translates, "dismissed," "sent away," namely, on a mission to Greece, as Paul promised ( Philippians 2:19 ). However, some kind of previous detention is implied before his being let go to Philippi. Paul, though now at large, was still in Italy, whence he sends the salutations of Italian Christians ( Hebrews 13:24 ), waiting for Timothy to join him, so as to start for Jerusalem: we know from 1 Timothy 1:3 , he and Timothy were together at Ephesus after his departing from Italy eastward. He probably left Timothy there and went to Philippi as he had promised. Paul implies that if Timothy shall not come shortly, he will start on his journey to the Hebrews at once.
24. all--The Scriptures are intended for all, young and old, not merely for ministers. Compare the different classes addressed, "wives," Ephesians 5:22 ; little children, 1 John 2:18 ; "all," 1 Peter 3:8 , 5:5 . He says here "all," for the Hebrews whom he addresses were not all in one place, though the Jerusalem Hebrews are chiefly addressed.
They of Italy--not merely the brethren at Rome, but of other places in Italy.
25. Paul's characteristic salutation in every one of his other thirteen Epistles, as he says himself, 1 Corinthians 16:21 1 Corinthians 16:23 , Colossians 4:18 , 2 Thessalonians 3:17 . It is found in no Epistle written by any other apostle in Paul's lifetime. It is used in Revelation 22:21 , written subsequently, and in CLEMENT OF ROME. Being known to be his badge, it is not used by others in his lifetime. The Greek here is, "The grace (namely, of our Lord Jesus Christ) be with you all."