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Jude 1


13. Raging--wild. Jude has in mind Isaiah 57:20
shame--plural in Greek, "shames" (compare Philippians 3:19
wandering stars--instead of moving on in a regular orbit, as lights to the world, bursting forth on the world like erratic comets, or rather, meteors of fire, with a strange glare, and then doomed to fall back again into the blackness of gloom.

15. This verse and the beginning of Enoch's prophecy is composed in Hebrew poetic parallelism, the oldest specimen extant. Some think Lamech's speech, which is also in poetic parallelism, was composed in mockery of Enoch's prophecy: as Enoch foretold Jehovah's coming to judgment, so Lamech presumes on impunity in polygamy and murder (just as Cain the murderer seemed to escape with impunity).
hard speeches--such as are noticed in Jude 1:8 Jude 1:10 Jude 1:16 ; Malachi 3:13 Malachi 3:14
ungodly sinners--not merely sinners, but proud despisers of God: impious.
against him--They who speak against God's children are regarded by God as speaking against Himself.

16. murmurers--in secret: muttering murmurs against God's ordinances and ministers in Church and state. Compare Jude 1:8 "speak evil of dignities"; Jude 1:15 Lord.
complainers--never satisfied with their lot ( Numbers 11:1 the penalty, Deuteronomy 28:47 Deuteronomy 28:48
walking after their own lusts--( Jude 1:18 murmuring and complaining is the restless insatiability of their desires.
great swelling words--( 2 Peter 2:18
men's persons--their mere outward appearance and rank.
because of advantage--for the sake of what they may gain from them. While they talk great swelling words, they are really mean and fawning towards those of wealth and rank.

17. But; beloved . . . ye--in contrast to those reprobates, Jude 1:20
remember--implying that his readers had been contemporaries of the apostles. For Peter uses the very same formula in reminding the contemporaries of himself and the other apostles.
spoken before--spoken already before now.
the apostles--Peter and Paul before Peter ( Acts 20:29 ; 1 Timothy 4:1 ; 2 Timothy 3:1 number of the apostles here, for in Jude 1:18 after, he says, "they told You," not us (rather as Greek, "used to tell you" implying that Jude's readers were contemporaries of the apostles, who used to tell them).

18. mockers--In the parallel, 2 Peter 3:3 translated, "scoffers." The word is found nowhere else in the New Testament. How ALFORD can deny that 2 Peter 3:2 2 Peter 3:3 least in part), I cannot imagine, seeing that Jude quotes the very words of Peter as the words which the apostles used to speak to his (Jude's) readers.
walk after their own ungodly lusts--literally, "after (according to) their own lusts of ungodliness."

19. These be they--showing that their characters are such as Peter and Paul had foretold.
separate themselves--from Church communion in its vital, spiritual reality: for outwardly they took part in Church ordinances ( Jude 1:12 understand it, "separate," cast out members of the Church by excommunication ( Isaiah 65:5 ; 66:5 ; Luke 6:22 ; John 9:34 them out of the Church;" 3 John 1:10 "themselves," which indeed is read in some of the oldest manuscripts as English Version has it. Arrogant setting up of themselves, as having greater sanctity and a wisdom and peculiar doctrine, distinct from others, is implied.
sensual--literally, "animal-souled": as opposed to the spiritual, or "having the Spirit." It is translated, "the natural man," 1 Corinthians 2:14 body, soul, and spirit, the due state in God's design is, that "the spirit," which is the recipient of the Holy Spirit uniting man to God, should be first, and should rule the soul, which stands intermediate between the body and spirit: but in the animal, or natural man, the spirit is sunk into subserviency to the animal soul, which is earthly in its motives and aims. The "carnal" sink somewhat lower, for in these the flesh, the lowest element and corrupt side of man's bodily nature, reigns paramount.
having not the Spirit--In the animal and natural man the spirit, his higher part, which ought to be the receiver of the Holy Spirit, is not so; and therefore, his spirit not being in its normal state, he is said not to have the spirit (compare John 3:5 John 3:6 completion of redemption the parts of redeemed man shall be placed in their due relation: whereas in the ungodly, the soul severed from the spirit shall have for ever animal life without union to God and heaven--a living death.

20. Resuming Jude 1:17
building up yourselves--the opposite to the "separate themselves" ( Jude 1:19 Spirit."
on--as on a foundation. Building on THE FAITH is equivalent to building on Christ, the object of faith.
praying in the Holy Ghost--( Romans 8:26 ; Ephesians 6:18 teaches what we are to pray for, and how. None can pray aright save by being in the Spirit, that is, in the element of His influence. CHRYSOSTOM states that, among the charisms bestowed at the beginning of the New Testament dispensation, was the gift of prayer, bestowed on someone who prayed in the name of the rest, and taught others to pray. Moreover, their prayers so conceived and often used, were received and preserved among Christians, and out of them forms of prayer were framed. Such is the origin of liturgies [HAMMOND].

21. In Jude 1:20 Jude 1:21 Holy Ghost: and faith, hope, and love.
Keep yourselves--not in your own strength, but "in the love of God," that is, God's love to you and all His believing children, the only guarantee for their being kept safe. Man's need of watching is implied; at the same time he cannot keep himself, unless God in His love keep him.
looking for--in hope.
the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ--to be fully manifested at His coming. Mercy is usually attributed to the Father: here to the Son; so entirely one are they.

22, 23. None but those who "keep themselves" are likely to "save" others.
have compassion--So one oldest manuscript reads. But two oldest manuscripts, Vulgate, &c., read, "convict"; "reprove to their conviction"; "confute, so as to convince."
making a difference--The oldest manuscripts and versions read the accusative for the nominative, "when separating themselves" [WAHL], referring to Jude 1:19 Greek is translated, Jude 1:9

23. save with fear--The oldest manuscripts do not read "with fear" in this position: but after "snatching them out of the fire" (with which, compare Amos 4:11 ; 1 Corinthians 3:15 ; Zechariah 3:2 escape), they add the following words, forming a THIRD class, "and others compassionate with (IN) fear." Three kinds of patients require three kinds of medical treatment. Ministers and Christians are said to "save" those whom they are made the instruments of saving; the Greek for "save" is present, therefore meaning "try to save." Jude already ( Jude 1:9 three classes are: (1) those who contend with you (accusative case in oldest manuscripts), whom you should convict; (2) those who are as brands already in the fire, of which hell-fire is the consummation: these you should try to save by snatching them out; (3) those who are objects of compassion, whom accordingly you should compassionate (and help if occasion should offer), but at the same time not let pity degenerate into connivance at their error. Your compassion is to be accompanied "with fear" of being at all defiled by them.
hating--Even hatred has its legitimate field of exercise. Sin is the only thing which God hates: so ought we.
even the garment--a proverbial phrase: avoiding the most remote contact with sin, and hating that which borders on it. As garments of the apostles wrought miracles of good in healing, so the very garment of sinners metaphorically, that is, anything brought into contact with their pollution, is to be avoided. Compare as to lepers and other persons defiled, Leviticus 13:52-57 ; 15:4-17 polluted; and anyone touching them was excluded, until purified, from religious and civil communion with the sanctified people of Israel. Christians who received at baptism the white garment in token of purity, are not to defile it by any approach to what is defiled.

24, 25. Concluding doxology.
Now--Greek, "But."
you--ALFORD, on inferior authority, reads, "them." You is in contradistinction to those ungodly men mentioned above.
keep . . . from falling--rather, "guard . . . (so as to be) without falling," or stumbling.
faultless--Greek, "blameless."
before the presence of his glory--that is, before Himself, when He shall be revealed in glory.
with exceeding joy--literally, "with exultation" as of those who leap for joy.

25. To the only . . . God our Saviour--The oldest manuscripts add, "through Jesus Christ our Lord." The transcribers, fancying that "Saviour" applied to Christ alone, omitted the words. The sense is, To the only God (the Father) who is our Saviour through (that is, by the mediation of) Jesus Christ our Lord.
dominion--Greek, "might."
power--authority: legitimate power. The oldest manuscripts and Vulgate, after "power," have "before all the age," that is, before all time as to the past: "and now," as to the present; "and to all the ages," that is, for ever, as to the time to come.

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