Canaan with his people wandering from Babylon after the confusion of languages, passed over Euphrates through Syria, and travelled towards Palestine, and the way led him straight into the northern part of it first. And that which the Jews say of Abraham travelling thither, may be said of this person also in this regard: "God said to Abraham (say they), To thee, to thee; the words being doubled by reason of a double journey, one from Aram Naharaim, the other from Aram Nachor. While Abraham lived in Aram Naharaim, and Aram Nachor, he saw men eating, drinking, and playing: he said therefore, Let not my portion be in that land. But after he came to the ladder of the Tyrians, he saw men labouring in digging their grounds, in gathering their vintage, and in husbandry: and then he said, Let my portion be in this land."
Note, how Abraham coming into the land of Canaan is first brought into the north part of it; for there was 'Scala Tyriorum,' 'The ladder of the Tyrians.' Canaan, in like manner with his sons, travelling from Babylon went the same way, and possesseth first the north parts, both those that were without the land of Canaan, and those that were parts of the land of Canaan itself.
First, let the seats of these his four sons without the land of Canaan be observed.
I. Arvadi, the Arvadites. Which word in all versions almost is read as Aradi, the Aradites. And their seats are easily discovered in Arad and Antarad. Jonathan for Arvadi, the Arvadites, reads [Lutasi] the Lutasites. Which people in what part of the world were they? When I search in the Aruch what the word Lutas means, he cites these words out of Bereshith Rabba; "A certain woman of the family of Tiberinus was married to one Lutas": and when, accordingly, I search Bereshith Rabba, I find it there written, "She was married to a certain robber"...
II. Zemari, the Zemarites. In the Targumists, both that of Jerusalem and of Jonathan, it is Chamatsi. So it is in the Arabic, and in the Jerusalem Gemarists; and also in Bereshith Rabba; which either supposeth them called Zemarites, or alludes to the word..."because they wrought in Zemar, woolen manufacture." But 'Chamats' and 'Apamia' are convertible terms in the Jerusalem Talmudists: "The sea of Apamia (say they) is the sea of Chamats." But not that Apamia we show elsewhere is the same with Sepham; on the utmost coast of the land of Israel, north and northeast.
III. Arki, the Arkites. "Arki is Arcas of Libanus." Pliny writes thus; "Paneas, in which is Caesarea with the spring before spoken, Abila, Arca," &c. Borchard thus, "On [or rather between] the borders of Libanus and Antilibanus, we found the strong-hold Arachas, and built by Aracheus the son of Canaan, when the deluge was over."
IV. Hamathi, the Hamathites. In the Jerusalem Targum it is Antioch. And Bereshith Rabba not much from that sense, though in very different words, "A Sinite (saith he) and Arethusia; Chamathi is Epiphania." Thus Pliny; "The rest of Syria hath these people, except what shall be said with Euphrates, the Arethusians, the Bereans, and the Epiphanians."
You see the Antiochian and Syrophoenician Syria possessed by the Canaanites; and yet we are not come as far as the land of Canaan.
Let us therefore proceed onwards with Canaan and the rest of his sons. The borders of the Canaanites, saith the Holy Scripture, "were from Sidon to Gerar, even unto Gaza," Genesis 10:19. You will say they were from Antioch, and utmost Phoenicia, and a great part of Syria. True, indeed, those countries, as we have seen, were planted by the sons of Canaan, but the Scripture doth not call them Canaanites; but where their coasts end towards the south, there the Canaanites' begin. The tract therefore, or region first possessed by them, is called by a peculiar name Canaan, as distinct from the rest of the land of Canaan, Judges 4:2; where "Jabin the king of Hazor" is called "the king of Canaan," that is, of the northern coast of the land of Canaan. And among the seven nations devoted by God himself to a curse and cutting-off, the Canaanites are always numbered, when all indeed were Canaanites: and that, as it seems, upon a double reason; partly, because that country was distinctly so called, as another country, and was of a peculiar difference from those countries inhabited by the sons of Canaan, of whom we have spoke: partly, because Canaan the father probably fixed his seat there himself; and thence both that country was called Canaan, and the whole land moreover called "The land of Canaan."