Revelation 7:11

the angels . . . and the elders
The elders are differentiated from the angels (cf. Rev. Rev. 5:11+). They are either a separate class of angelic beings (much like the living creatures), or they are redeemed men. See commentary on Revelation 4:4.

the four living creatures
See commentary on Revelation 4:6.

προσεκύνησαν [prosekynēsan] : “Used to designate the custom of prostrating oneself before a person and kissing his feet, the hem of his garment, the ground, etc.; the Persians did this in the presence of their deified king, and the Greeks before a divinity.”1 The frequent response of the elders and living creatures (Rev. Rev. 4:10+; Rev. 5:14+; Rev. 11:16+; Rev. 19:4+). An innumerable host worships before the throne (Rev. Rev. 5:11+).


1 Frederick William Danker and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 716.