When they found them not (mh euronte). Usual negative mh with the participle in the Koin, second aorist (effective) active participle, complete failure with all the noise and "bums." They dragged (esuron). Imperfect active, vivid picture, they were dragging (literally). See already Mark 8:3 ; Mark 16:19 . If they could not find Paul, they could drag Jason his host and some other Christians whom we do not know. Before the rulers of the city (epi tou politarca). This word does not occur in Greek literature and used to be cited as an example of Luke's blunders. But now it is found in an inscription on an arch in the modern city preserved in the British Museum. It is also found in seventeen inscriptions (five from Thessalonica) where the word or the verb politarcew occurs. It is a fine illustration of the historical accuracy of Luke in matters of detail. This title for city officers in Thessalonica, a free city, is correct. They were burgomasters or "rulers of the city." Crying (bownte). Yelling as if the house was on fire like the mob in Jerusalem ( Mark 21:28 ). These that have turned the world upside down (oi thn oikoumenhn anastatwsante). The use of oikoumenhn (supply gen or cwran, the inhabited earth, present passive participle of oikew) means the Roman Empire, since it is a political charge, a natural hyperbole in their excitement, but the phrase occurs for the Roman Empire in Luke 2:1 . It is possible that news had come to Thessalonica of the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius. There is truth in the accusation, for Christianity is revolutionary, but on this particular occasion the uproar (verse Luke 5 ) was created by the rabbis and the hired loafers. The verb anastatow (here first aorist active participle) does not occur in the ancient writers, but is in LXX and in Acts 17:6 ; Acts 21:38 ; Galatians 5:12 . It occurs also in Harpocration (A.D. 4th cent.) and about 100 B.C. exanastatow is found in a fragment of papyrus (Tebtunis no. 2) and in a Paris Magical Papyrus l. 2243 But in an Egyptian letter of Aug. 4, 41 A.D. (Oxyrhynchus Pap. no. 119, 10) "the bad boy" uses it = "he upsets me" or " he drives me out of my senses" (anastatoi me). See Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, pp. 84f. It is not a "Biblical word" at all, but belongs to the current Koin. It is a vigorous and graphic term.