If I am a wrong-doer (ei men oun adikw). Condition of the first class with ei and the present active indicative of adikew (a privative and dikh): "If I am in the habit of doing injustice," assuming it to be true for the sake of argument. And have committed anything worthy of death (kai axion qanatou pepraca). Same condition with the difference in tense (pepraca, perfect active indicative) of a single case instead of a general habit. Assuming either or both Paul draws his conclusion. I refuse not to die (ou paraitoumai to apoqanein). Old verb to ask alongside, to beg from, to deprecate, to refuse, to decline. See on "Lu 14:18". Josephus (Life, 29) has qanein ou paraitoumai. Here the articular second aorist active infinitive is in the accusative case the object of paraitoumai: "I do not beg off dying from myself." But if none of these things is (ei de ouden estin). De here is contrasted with men just before. No word for "true" in the Greek. Estin ("is") in the Greek here means "exists." Same condition (first class, assumed as true). Whereof these accuse me (wn outoi kathgorousin mou). Genitive of relative on by attraction from a (accusative with kathgorousin) to case of the unexpressed antecedent toutwn ("of these things"). Mou is genitive of person after kathgorousin. No man can give me up to them (oudei me dunatai autoi carisasqai). "Can" legally. Paul is a Roman citizen and not even Festus can make a free gift (carisasqai) of Paul to the Sanhedrin. I appeal unto Caesar (Kaisara epikaloumai). Technical phrase like Latin Caesarem appello. Originally the Roman law allowed an appeal from the magistrate to the people (provocatio ad populum), but the emperor represented the people and so the appeal to Caesar was the right of every Roman citizen. Paul had crossed the Rubicon on this point and so took his case out of the hands of dilatory provincial justice (really injustice). Roman citizens could make this appeal in capital offences. There would be expense connected with it, but better that with some hope than delay and certain death in Jerusalem. Festus was no better than Felix in his vacillation and desire to curry favour with the Jews at Paul's expense. No doubt Paul's long desire to see Rome ( 1 Corinthians 19:21 ; Romans 15:22-28 ) and the promise of Jesus that he would see Rome ( Acts 23:11 ) played some part in Paul's decision. But he made it reluctantly for he says in Rome ( Acts 28:19 ): "I was constrained to appeal." But acquittal at the hands of Festus with the hope of going to Rome as a free man had vanished.