Ephesians 1:3

Blessed (euloghto). Verbal of eulogew, common in the LXX for Hebrew baruk (Vulgate benedictus) and applied usually to God, sometimes to men ( Genesis 24:31 ), but in N.T. always to God ( Luke 1:68 ), while euloghmeno (perfect passive participle) is applied to men ( Luke 1:42 ). "While euloghmeno points to an isolated act or acts, euloghto describes the intrinsic character" (Lightfoot). Instead of the usual eucaristoumen ( Colossians 1:3 ) Paul here uses euloghto, elsewhere only in 2 Corinthians 1:3 in opening, though in a doxology in Romans 1:25 ; Romans 9:5 ; 2 Corinthians 11:31 . The copula here is probably estin (is), though either estw (imperative) or eih (optative as wish) will make sense. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ (o qeo kai pathr tou Kuriou hmwn Ihsou Cristou). Kai is genuine here, though not in Colossians 1:3 . The one article (o) with qeo kai pathr links them together as in 1 Thessalonians 1:3 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:11 1 Thessalonians 3:13 ; Galatians 1:4 . See also the one article in 2 Peter 1:1 2 Peter 1:11 . In Ephesians 1:17 we have o qeo tou Kuriou hmwn Ihsou Cristou, and the words of Jesus in John 20:17 . Who hath blessed us (o euloghsa uma). First aorist active participle of eulogew, the same word, antecedent action to the doxology (euloghto). With (en). So-called instrumental use of en though in is clear. Every spiritual blessing (pash eulogiai pneumatikh). Third use of the root eulog (verbal, verb, substantive). Paul lovingly plays with the idea. The believer is a citizen of heaven and the spiritual blessings count for most to him. In the heavenly places in Christ (en toi epouranioi en Cristwi). In four other places in Eph. ( John 1:20 ; John 2:6 ; John 3:10 ; John 6:12 ). This precise phrase (with en) occurs nowhere else in the N.T. and has a clearly local meaning in John 1:20 ; John 2:6 ; John 3:10 , doubtful in John 6:12 , but probably so here. In John 2:6 the believer is conceived as already seated with Christ. Heaven is the real abode of the citizen of Christ's kingdom ( Philippians 3:20 ) who is a stranger on earth ( Philippians 1:27 ; Ephesians 2:19 ). The word epouranio (heavenly) occurs in various passages in the N.T. in contrast with ta epigeia (the earthly) as in John 3:12 ; 1 Corinthians 15:40 1 Corinthians 15:48 1 Corinthians 15:49 ; Philippians 2:10 , with patri (country) in Hebrews 11:16 , with klhsi (calling) in Hebrews 3:1 , with dwrea (gift) in Hebrews 6:4 , with basileia (kingdom) in 2 Timothy 4:18 .