Luke 4:1

Full of the Holy Spirit (plhrh pneumato agiou). An evident allusion to the descent of the Holy Spirit on Jesus at his baptism ( Luke 3:21 ). The distinctness of the Persons in the Trinity is shown there, but with evident unity. One recalls also Luke's account of the overshadowing of Mary by the Holy Spirit ( Luke 1:35 ). Matthew 4:1 says that "Jesus was led of the Spirit" while Mark 1:12 states that "the Spirit driveth him forth" which see for discussion. "Jesus had been endowed with supernatural power; and He was tempted to make use of it in furthering his own interests without regard to the Father's will" (Plummer). Was led by the Spirit (hgeto en toi pneumati). Imperfect passive, continuously led. En may be the instrumental use as often, for Matthew 4:1 has here upo of direct agency. But Matthew has the aorist passive anhcqh which may be ingressive as he has ei thn erhmon (into the wilderness) while Luke has en twi erhmwi (in the wilderness). At any rate Luke affirms that Jesus was now continuously under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Hence in this same sentence he mentions the Spirit twice. During the forty days (hmera tesserakonta). Accusative of duration of time, to be connected with "led" not with "tempted." He was led in the Spirit during these forty days (cf. Deuteronomy 8:2 , forty years). The words are amphibolous also in Mark 1:13 . Matthew 4:2 seems to imply that the three recorded temptations came at the close of the fasting for forty days. That can be true and yet what Luke states be true also. These three may be merely specimens and so "representative of the struggle which continued throughout the whole period" (Plummer).

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