Having put his hand to the plough (epibalwn thn ceira ep arotron). Second aorist active participle of epiballw, an old and common verb, to place upon. Note repetition of preposition epi before arotron (plough). This agricultural proverb is as old as Hesiod. Pliny observes that the ploughman who does not bend attentively to his work goes crooked. It has always been the ambition of the ploughman to run a straight furrow. The Palestine fellah had good success at it. And looking back (kai blepwn ei ta opisw). Looking to the things behind. To do that is fatal as any ploughman knows. The call to turn back is often urgent. Fit (euqeto). From eu and tiqhmi=well-placed, suited for, adapted to. "The first case is that of inconsiderate impulse, the second that of conflicting duties, the third that of a divided mind" (Bruce).