Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and the leaven of Herod (Horate, blepete apo th zumh twn Parisaiwn kai th zumh Hhrwidou). Present imperatives. Note apo and the ablative case. Zumh is from zumow and occurs already in Matthew 13:33 in a good sense. For the bad sense see 1 Corinthians 5:6 . He repeatedly charged (diestelleto, imperfect indicative), showing that the warning was needed. The disciples came out of a Pharisaic atmosphere and they had just met it again at Dalmanutha. It was insidious. Note the combination of Herod here with the Pharisees. This is after the agitation of Herod because of the death of the Baptist and the ministry of Jesus ( Mark 6:14-29 ; Matthew 14:1-12 ; Luke 9:7-9 ). Jesus definitely warns the disciples against "the leaven of Herod" (bad politics) and the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees (bad theology and also bad politics).