Upon the throne of the beast (epi ton qronon tou qhriou). That is Rome ( 1 Timothy 13:2 ). The dragon gave the beast his throne ( 1 Timothy 2:13 ). Was darkened (egeneto eskotwmenh). Periphrastic past perfect passive with ginomai and skotow ( 1 Timothy 9:2 ). Like the darkness of the Egyptian plague ( Exodus 10:22 ) and worse, for the effects of the previous plagues continue. They gnawed their tongues (emaswnto ta glwssa autwn). Imperfect middle of masaomai, old verb (to chew), from maw (to knead), only here in N.T. For pain (ek tou ponou). "Out of distress" (cf. ek in Exodus 8:13 ), rare sense of old word (from penomai to work for one's living), in N.T. only here, Exodus 21:4 ; Colossians 4:13 . See Matthew 8:12 .