Revelation 2:13

Where (pou--opou). Pou is interrogative adverb used here in an indirect question as in John 1:39 . Hopou is relative adverb referring to pou. Satan's throne (o qrono tou Satana). Satan not simply resided in Pergamum, but his "throne" or seat of power of king or judge ( Matthew 19:28 ; Luke 1:32 Luke 1:52 ). The symbol of Asklepios was the serpent as it is of Satan ( Revelation 12:9 ; Revelation 20:2 ). There was, besides, a great throne altar to Zeus cut on the Acropolis rock, symbol of "rampant paganism" (Swete) and the new Caesar-worship with the recent martyrdom of Antipas made Pergamum indeed a very throne of Satan. Holdest fast my name (kratei to onoma sou). Present active indicative of kratew, "dost keep on holding," as in Revelation 2:25, 3:11 Rev 3:11 . This church refused to say Kurio Kaisar (Martyrd. Polyc. 8f.) and continued to say Kurio Ihsou ( 1 Corinthians 12:3 ). They stood true against the emperor-worship. Didst not deny (ouk hrnhsw). First aorist middle second person singular of arneomai. Reference to a specific incident not known to us. My faith (thn pistin mou). Objective genitive, "thy faith in me." Of Antipas (Antipa). Indeclinable in this form. It is possible that Antipa (genitive) was really written, though unimportant as the nominative follows in apposition. Nothing is really known of this early martyr in Pergamum before the writing of the Apocalypse. One legend is that he was burnt to death in a brazen bull. Other martyrs followed him at Pergamum (Agathonice, Attalus, Carpus, Polybus). My witness (o martu mou). Nominative in apposition with a genitive as in 1 Corinthians 1:5 (with ablative), common solecism in the Apocalypse. "Witness" as Jesus had said they should be ( Acts 1:8 ) and Stephen was ( Acts 22:20 ) and others were ( Revelation 17:6 ). The word later (by third century) took on the modern meaning of martyr. My faithful one (o pisto mou). Nominative also, with mou also. Jesus gives Antipas his own title (Swete) as in Revelation 1:5 ; Revelation 3:14 . Faithful unto death. Was killed (apektanqh). First aorist passive indicative of apokteinw, this passive form common in the Apocalypse ( Revelation 2:13 ; Revelation 6:11 ; Revelation 5:9 Revelation 5:13 ; Revelation 13:10 Revelation 13:15 ; 18, 20; Revelation 19:21 ). Among you (par umin). By your side. Proof of the throne of Satan, "where Satan dwells" (opou o Satana katoikei), repeated for emphasis.