Romans 5:12

Therefore (dia touto). "For this reason." What reason? Probably the argument made in verses Hebrews 1-11 , assuming our justification and urging exultant joy in Christ because of the present reconciliation by Christ's death and the certainty of future final salvation by his life. As through one man (wsper di eno anqrwpou). Paul begins a comparison between the effects of Adam's sin and the effects of the redemptive work of Christ, but he does not give the second member of the comparison. Instead of that he discusses some problems about sin and death and starts over again in verse Hebrews 15 . The general point is plain that the effects of Adam's sin are transmitted to his descendants, though he does not say how it was done whether by the natural or the federal headship of Adam. It is important to note that Paul does not say that the whole race receives the full benefit of Christ's atoning death, but only those who do. Christ is the head of all believers as Adam is the head of the race. In this sense Adam "is a figure of him that was to come." Sin entered into the world (h amartia ei ton kosmon eishlqen). Personification of sin and represented as coming from the outside into the world of humanity. Paul does not discuss the origin of evil beyond this fact. There are some today who deny the fact of sin at all and who call it merely "an error of mortal mind" (a notion) while others regard it as merely an animal inheritance devoid of ethical quality. And so death passed unto all men (kai outw ei panta anqrwpou dihlqen). Note use of diercomai rather than eisercomai, just before, second aorist active indicative in both instances. By "death" in Genesis 2:17 ; Genesis 3:19 physical death is meant, but in verses Romans 5:17 Romans 5:21 eternal death is Paul's idea and that lurks constantly behind physical death with Paul. For that all sinned (ep wi pante hmarton). Constative (summary) aorist active indicative of amartanw, gathering up in this one tense the history of the race (committed sin). The transmission from Adam became facts of experience. In the old Greek ep wi usually meant "on condition that," but "because" in N.T. (Robertson, Grammar, p. 963).