Romans 8:20

Was subjected (upetagh). Second aorist passive indicative of upatassw (cf. verse Colossians 7 ). To vanity (th mataiothti). Dative case. Rare and late word, common in LXX. From mataio, empty, vain. Ephesians 4:17 ; 2 Peter 2:18 . Not of its own will (ouc ekousa). Common adjective, in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 9:27 . It was due to the effect of man's sin. But by reason of him (alla dia ton). Because of God. In hope that (ep elpidi oti). Note the form elpidi rather than the usual elpidi and so ep. Hoti can be causal "because" instead of declarative "that."