5:2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,
5:10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
And he opened his mouth
Having announced the kingdom of heaven as "at hand," the King, in Mat 5.-7., declares the principles of the kingdom. The Sermon on the Mount has a twofold application:
(1) literally to the kingdom. In this sense it gives the divine constitution for the righteous government of the earth. Whenever the kingdom of heaven is established on earth it will be according to that constitution, which may be regarded as an explanation of the word "righteousness" as used by the prophets in describing the kingdom (e.g.) Isaiah 11:4 Isaiah 11:5 ; 32:1 ; Daniel 9:24 In this sense the Sermon on the Mount is pure law, and transfers the offence from the overt act to the motive. Matthew 5:21 Matthew 5:22 Matthew 5:27 Matthew 5:28 . Here lies the deeper reason why the Jews rejected the kingdom. They had reduced "righteousness" to mere ceremonialism, and the Old Testament idea of the kingdom to a mere affair of outward splendour and power. They were never rebuked for expecting a visible and powerful kingdom, but the words of the prophets should have prepared them to expect also that only the poor in spirit and the meek could share in it (e.g.) Isaiah 11:4 . The seventy-second Psalm, which was universally received by them as a description of the kingdom, was full of this. For these reasons, the Sermon on the Mount in its primary application gives neither the privilege nor the duty of the Church. These are found in the Epistles. Under the law of the kingdom, for example, no one may hope for forgiveness who has not first forgiven. Matthew 6:12 Matthew 6:14 Matthew 6:15 . Under grace the Christian is exhorted to forgive because he is already forgiven. Ephesians 4:30-32 .
(2) But there is a beautiful moral application to the Christian. It always remains true that the poor in spirit, rather than the proud, are blessed, and those who mourn because of their sins, and who are meek in the consciousness of them, will hunger and thirst after righteousness, and hungering, will be filled. The merciful are "blessed," the pure in heart do "see God." These principles fundamentally reappear in the teaching of the Epistles.
5:14 Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.
(See Scofield "Matthew 3:2") .
5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.
"kosmos" = "mankind." (See Scofield "Matthew 4:8")
5:20 For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.
I am not come to destroy
Christ's relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized:
(1) He was made under the law Galatians 4:4 .
(3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Luke 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Romans 15:8 .
(4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Hebrews 9:11-26 .
(6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Galatians 4:1-7 .
(7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Romans 5:2 ; Hebrews 8:6-13 so establishing the "law of Christ" Galatians 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.
5:22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.
5:26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing.
Gr. "Geenna" = Gehenna, the place in the valley of Hinnom where, anciently, human sacrifices were offered. 2 Chronicles 33:6 ; Jeremiah 7:31 The word occurs, ; Matthew 5:22 Matthew 5:29 Matthew 5:30 ; 10:28 ; 18:9 ; Matthew 23:15 Matthew 23:33 ; Mark 9:43 Mark 9:45 Mark 9:47 ; Luke 12:5 ; James 3:6 . In every instance except the last the word comes from the lips of Jesus Christ in most solemn warning of the consequences of sin. He describes it as the place where "their" worm never dies and of fire never to be quenched. The expression is identical in meaning with "lake of fire". ; Revelation 19:20 ; Revelation 20:10 Revelation 20:14 Revelation 20:15 .
5:48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.
The word implies full development, growth into maturity of godliness, not sinless perfection. Ephesians 4:12 Ephesians 4:13 . In this passage the Father's kindness, not His sinlessness, is the point in question. Luke 6:35 Luke 6:36