Romans 5

Chapter 5

5:7  For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.


See Ro 1: 1:19 (See Scofield "Romans 10:10") .

5:10  For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.


See Ro 5: 10,11 2 Corinthians 5:18-20 ; Colossians 1:21 .

5:12  Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:

The "wherefore" relates back to Romans 3:19-23 and may be regarded as a continuation of the discussion of the universality of sin, interrupted ; Romans 3:24-5:11 ; by the passage on justification and its results.

have sinned

The first sin wrought the moral ruin of the race. The demonstration is simple.

(1) Death is universal ( Romans 4:12 Romans 4:14 ), all die: sinless infants, moral people, religious people, equally with the depraved. For a universal effect there must be a universal cause; that cause is a state of universal sin ( Romans 5:12 ).

(2) But this universal state must have had a cause. It did. The consequence of Adam's sin was that "the many were made sinners" ( Romans 5:19 )--"By the offence of one judgment came upon all men unto condemnation" ( Romans 5:18 ).

(3) Personal sins are not meant here. From Adam to Moses death reigned ( Romans 5:14 ), although, there being no law, personal guilt was not imputed ( Romans 5:13 ). Accordingly, from Genesis 4:7 to Exodus 29:14 the sin-offering is not once mentioned. Then, since physical death from Adam to Moses was not due to the sinful acts of those who die ( Romans 5:13 ), it follows that it was due to a universal sinful state, or nature, and that state is declared to be out inheritance from Adam.

(4) the moral state of fallen man is described in Scripture Genesis 6:5 ; 1 Kings 8:46 ; Psalms 14:1-3 ; 39:5 ; Jeremiah 17:9 ; Matthew 18:11 ; Mark 7:20 Mark 7:23 ; Romans 1:21 ; 2:1-29 ; 3:9-19 ; 7:24 ; 8:7 ; John 3:6 ; 1 Corinthians 2:14 ; 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; 4:4 ; Galatians 5:19-21 ; Ephesians 2:1-3 Ephesians 2:11 Ephesians 2:12 ; 4:18-22 ; Colossians 1:21 ; Hebrews 3:13 ; James 4:14 ; 1 Corinthians 15:22 .

5:14  Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.

Adam to Moses

Broadly, the contrast is: Adam: sin, death; Christ: righteousness, life. Adam drew down into his ruin the old creation Romans 8:19-22 of which he was lord and head. Christ brings into moral unity with God, and into eternal life, the new creation of which he is Lord and Head. Ephesians 1:22 Ephesians 1:23 . Even the animal and material creation, cursed for man's sake. Genesis 3:17 will be delivered by Christ. ; Isaiah 11:6-9 ; Romans 8:19-22 .

5:15  But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

one many

the one the many died.

5:16  And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification.


Sin. (See Scofield "Romans 3:23") .

5:17  For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)

offence Sin. (See Scofield "Romans 3:23") .

righteousness See Romans 5:17 Romans 5:18 Romans 5:21 . (See Scofield "Romans 3:21") .

5:18  Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.


Sin. (See Scofield "Romans 3:23") .

5:19  For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.


Sin. (See Scofield "Romans 3:23") .

5:21  That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.


"Sin" in Rom 6., 7. is the nature in distinction from "sins," which are manifestations of that nature. Cf. 1 John 1:8 with 1 John 1:10 where this distinction also appears.

grace Grace (in salvation). Ro 5: 2,15- 1 John 2111:5 1 John 2111:6 ; 3:24 (See Scofield "John 1:17") .