- SECOND GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES. (Probably in Perea.) E. PARABLE OF THE UNRIGHTEOUS STEWARD. Luke 16:1-18
- And he said also unto the disciples. If we remember that many publicans were now taking their stand among Jesus' disciples, we willmore readily understand why Jesus addressed to them a parable about anunjust man, They would be more readily affected by such a story.
- There was a certain rich man, who had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he was wasting his goods. "Wasted" is the sameverb as found at Luke 15:13 . The attitude of the two brethren to theirfather's estate, as set forth in the previous parable, introducedthoughts as to the proper relation which a man bears to hispossessions, and these relations Jesus discusses in this parable. Whileno parable has been so diversely explained, yet the trend ofinterpretation has been in the main satisfactory. The Lord himselfgives the key to the parable in Luke 16:8 , which is that the childrenof light, in the conduct of their affairs, should emulate the wisdomand prudence of the children of the world in the conduct of theiraffairs. The difficulty of the parable is more apparent than real. Thewhole parabolic machinery is borrowed from worldly and irreligiouslife, where dishonest cunning and rascality are freely tolerated. Thechild of light is equally shrewd and wise in the management of hisaffairs; "using, however, only those means and methods which arepermissible in his sphere of action". God's word, of course, nowhereteaches that sinful methods are permitted to him whom it calls to leada sinless life. While the steward's conduct teaches valuable lessons,the steward himself is condemned as an "unrighteous" man in Luke 16:8 .
16:2 And he called him, and said unto him, What is this that I hear of thee1? render the account of thy stewardship; for thou canst be no longer steward2.
- What is this that I hear of thee? An indignant expression of surprise arising from abused confidence.
- Render the account of thy stewardship; for thou canst be no longer steward. Ordinarily the stewards were slaves; but this was evidentlya free man, for he was neither punished nor sold, but discharged.
16:3 And the steward said within himself, What shall I do, seeing that my lord taketh away the stewardship from me? I have not strength to dig1; to beg I am ashamed2.
- I have not strength to dig. Being too weak in body because of my luxurious living. Digging refers generally to agricultural labor.
- To beg I am ashamed. Being too strong in pride because of my exalted manner of life.
16:4 I am resolved what to do1, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they2 may receive me into their houses.
- I am resolved what to do. A way of escape comes to him in a sudden flash of discovery.
- They. The lord's debtors.
16:6 And he said, A hundred measures of oil1. And he said unto him, Take thy bond2, and sit down quickly and write fifty3.
- A hundred measures of oil. The measure mentioned here is the Hebrew "bath", which corresponded roughly to a firkin, or nine gallons.
- Take thy bond. Literally, writings.
- And sit down quickly and write fifty. The amount remitted here-- 450 gallons of olive oil--represented a large sum of money. Such areduction would put the debtor under great obligation to the steward.
16:7 Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, A hundred measures of wheat. He saith unto him, Take thy bond, and write fourscore2.
- An hundred measures of wheat. The measure here is the Hebrew "cor", which contains ten baths, or ephahs, or, more exactly, 86.7 gallons.
- Take thy bond, and write fourscore. The amount remitted was about two hundred sixty-seven bushels, and the debtor himself altered thewritings, that he might be in no uncertainty about it. Scholarsdisagree as to whether these debtors were tenants or traders; that is,purchasers of produce who had given their bonds or notes for the same.Meyer, Trench, Godet, and others favor this latter view, but thelanguage used and the customs of the land rather indicate that theformer is correct. In the East rents are in proportion to the crop, andhence they vary as it varies. It was natural, therefore, that thesteward should ask the amount of the rent; and also natural, sincerents were thus payable in kind, that the tenant should answer as tothe very thing owed. A traders would have been held, not for the"purchase", but for the "price", and would rather have specified themoney due than the quantity or thing bought. Since the price ofproduce varies, it has been the immemorial custom everywhere to fix theamount to be paid for it at the very time it is purchased, and theamount becomes the debt.
16:8 And his lord commended the unrighteous steward because he had done wisely1: for the sons of this world are for their own generation2 wiser than the sons of the light.
- And his lord commended the unrighteous steward because he had done wisely. Shrewdly.
- For the sons of this world are for their own generation. Their own clan or class.
- Wiser than the sons of light. That is to say, the steward, a worldly-minded rascal, knew better how to deal with a worldly-mindedmaster above him and dishonest tenants beneath him, than a son of lightknows how to deal with the God over him and his needy brethren abouthim. The verse contrasts the sons of two households: the children ofthe worldly household exercise more forethought and prudence in gainingamong their brethren friends for the day of need, and in expendingmoney to that end, than do the children of the light. The "devil'smartyrs" in their skillful prudence, often shame the saints. If thelatter showed a wisdom in their affairs analogous to that which theunjust employed in his affairs, God would commend them as the lordcommended the steward.
16:9 And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends by means of the mammon of unrighteousness1; that, when it shall fail, they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles2.
- The mammon of unrighteousness. See Matthew 6:24.
- That, when it shall fail, they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles. Worldly possession are the Christian's stewardship. Ifhe has been wasting them in self-indulgence, he must take warning fromthe parable and so employ them in deeds of usefulness and mercy that,when the stewardship is taken from him, he may have obtained forhimself a refuge for the future. But how can those whom the Christianhad befriended receive him into heaven? The key to the difficulty isfound at Matthew 25:35-40 , where our Lord altogether identifies himselfwith his poor and unfortunate disciples, and returns on their behalf aheavenly recompense for any kindness which has been shown them on theearth. Only in this secondary and subordinate sense can those whom theChristian has benefited receive him into heaven. Nor does the passageteach that their is any "merit" in almsgiving, since the thing given isalready the property of another. See Luke 16:12 . Almsgiving is only aphase of the fidelity required of a steward, and the reward of asteward is not of merit but of grace. See Luke 17:7-10 ; Matthew 25:21 .
16:10 He that is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much1: and he that is unrighteous in a very little is unrighteous also in much2.
- He that is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much. In the administration of small properties entrusted to us on the earth, wereveal our disposition and temper as stewards quite as well as if weowned half the universe.
- And he that is unrighteous in a very little is unrighteous also in much. God does not judge by the magnitude of an act, but by thespiritual principles and motives which lie back of the act. A smallaction may discover and lay bare these principles quite as well as alarge one.
16:11 If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon1, who will commit to your trust the true [riches]2?
- If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon. The word "unrighteous" is here used to mean "deceitful", as opposed to"true".
- Who will commit to your trust the true [riches]? Worldly riches deceive us by being temporal and transitory, while the true riches areeternal. See 2 Corinthians 4:18 .
16:12 And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own1?
- And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own? We are all God's stewards, andthe perishing possessions of earth are not our own, but that which isgiven us "forever" is "our own". See 1 Corinthians 3:22 .
16:13 No servant can serve two masters1: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.
16:14 And the Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these things1; and they scoffed at him.
- And the Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these things;
- and they scoffed at him. The Pharisees derided him with open insolence ( Luke 23:35 ). This was a new phase of their opposition, and showedthat they no longer feared Jesus as formerly, being assured that heaimed at no earthly dominion. Because of his poverty they may haveregarded him as prejudiced against wealth. At any rate, they regardedthemselves as living contradictions of this to them ridiculousstatement that a man could not be rich and yet religious.
16:15 And he said unto them, Ye are they that justify yourselves in the sight of men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God1.
- For that which is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God. The Pharisees lived in such outward contrast to the publicansand made such pretensions and claims that men esteemed them righteous,but they were nonetheless abominable in God's sight. God approvesrighteousness when "inward", but despises the mere outward show of it.
16:16 The law and the prophets [were] until John: from that time the gospel of the kingdom of God is preached, and every man entereth violently into it1.
- And every man entereth violently into it. On "the violent take it by force", see Matthew 11:12.
16:17 But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away1, than for one tittle of the law to fall.
- It is easier for heaven and earth to pass away. See Matthew 5:18 .
- Than one tittle of the law to fail. See Matthew 5:18. The law and the prophets had been used of God to set up the old dispensation,and it had been so perverted and abused that in it the Pharisees couldpass for righteous men, though abominable according to its truestandard. Since the days of John the old dispensation has been merginginto the new, and this also has been subjected to violence. But despiteall the changes made, approved, and justified by men, the God-given lawhad never changed. Its smallest letter could no more be eliminated thanthe universe could be obliterated. But, of course, the Lawgiver couldwith notice modify his law.
16:18 Every one that putteth away his wife, and marrieth another1, committeth adultery: and he that marrieth one that is put away from a husband committeth adultery.
- Every one that putteth away his wife, and marrieth another,
- committeth adultery, etc. This precept is inserted here as an illustration of a flagrant violation of the law of God, bothcountenanced and practiced by these Pharisees. See Matthew 5:32.
16:19 Now1 there was a certain rich man2, and he was clothed in purple3 and fine linen4, faring sumptuously every day5:
- SECOND GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES. (Probably in Perea.) F. PARABLE OF THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS. Luke 16:19-31
- Now. The parable we are about to study is a direct advance upon the thoughts in the previous section. We may say generally that if theparable of the unjust steward teaches how riches are to be used, thisparable sets forth the terrible consequences of a failure to so usethem. Each point of the previous discourse is covered in detail, aswill be shown by the references in the discussion of the parable.
- There was a certain rich man. For convenience's sake, this rich man has been commonly called Dives, which is simply Latin for "richman", and is therefore not truly a name, for it is not fitting to namehim whom the Lord left nameless.
- And he was clothed in purple. Along the coast of Tyre there was found a rare shell-fish (Murex purpurarius) from which a costly purpledye was obtained, each little animal yielding about one drop of it.Woolen garments dyed with it were worn by kings and nobles, and idolimages were sometimes arrayed in them. This purple robe formed theouter, and the linen the inner garment.
- And fine linen. The "byssus", or fine linen of Egypt, was produced from flax, which grew on the banks of the Nile. It was dazzlinglywhite, and worth twice its weight in gold ( Genesis 41:42 ; Exodus 26:31-33 ; Exodus 28:5 1 Chronicles 15:27 ; Ezekiel 27:7 ).
- Faring sumptuously every day. The mention of these garments and a continual banqueting indicates a life of extreme luxury.
16:20 and a certain beggar1 named Lazarus2 was laid at his gate3, full of sores,
- And a certain beggar. Literally, one who crouches. The Greek word "ptochos" is used thirty-four times in the New Testament, and iseverywhere translated "poor", save here and Luke 16:22 ; Galatians 4:9 . In thelast stages of life Lazarus had become an object of charity, but thereis nothing to indicate that he had been an habitual beggar.
- Named Lazarus. This is the only name which occurs in our Lord's parables. It is derived from Eleazar, which means "God a help". Thename is symbolic of destitution, and many words indicative of beggaryare derived from it.
- Was laid at his gate. In the East, the gates of the rich are still the resorts of the poor.
16:21 and desiring to be fed with the [crumbs] that fell from the rich man's table1; yea, even the dogs come and licked his sores2.
- And desiring to be fed with the [crumbs] that fell from the rich man's table. The contrast here is sharp. Lazarus is naked and clothedwith sores instead of rich apparel, and desires crumbs instead of abanquet. That he limited his desire to crumbs suggests a freedom fromboth worldly lust and envy. Whether he got the crumbs is not stated.His sufferings may have been as unmitigated on earth as those of therich man were in Hades ( Luke 16:24 ), and it is certain that even ifhe received the crumbs they did not count as a gift, being mere refuse,utterly worthless in the sight of the rich man. The very point of theparable is that the rich man "gave" him nothing.
- Yea, even the dogs come and licked his sores. The dogs also suggest a contrast. The rich man is surrounded by the loyal brethren andattentive servants, while Lazarus is the companion of dogs, thescavengers of the streets, who treat him with rude compassion as one oftheir number, soothing his sores with their saliva.
16:22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels into Abraham's bosom1: and the rich man also died, and was buried2.
- And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels into Abraham's bosom. It is the office of angels tominister to the heirs of salvation ( Matthew 24:31 ; Mark 13:27 ; Hebrews 1:14 ).
- And the rich man also died, and was buried. In death as well as in life, the two men stand in contrast. The rich man passes from view withthe pomp and pagentry of a burial ( 2 Chronicles 16:13 2 Chronicles 16:14 ), an earthly honorsuited to a worldly life. But Lazarus passes hence with the angels, aspiritual triumph suited to one accepted of God.
16:23 And in Hades1 he lifted up his eyes, being in torments2, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom3.
- And in Hades. Hades (Greek) or Sheol (Hebrew) was the name given to the abode of the dead between death and the resurrection.
- He lifted up his eyes, being in torments. In it the souls of the wicked are in torment ( Revelation 14:10 ), and those of the righteous enjoya paradise ( Luke 23:43 ).
- And seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. The joys of Paradise were conceived of as those of a feast, and the expression"Abraham's bosom" is taken from the custom of reclining on couches atfeasts. As a guest leaned upon his left arm, his neighbor on his leftmight easily lean upon his bosom. Such a position of respect to themaster of the house was one of special honor, and indicated greatintimacy ( John 1:18 ; John 13:23 ). What higher honor or joy could the Jewconceive of than such a condition of intimacy and fellowship withAbraham, the great founder of their race ( Matthew 8:11 )?
16:24 And he cried and said1, Father Abraham2, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am in anguish in this flame.
- And he cried and said. In earnest entreaty.
- Father Abraham. The claim of kindred is not denied, but it is unavailing ( Luke 3:8 ).
- Have mercy on me, and send Lazarus that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am in anguish in this flame.The smallness of the favor asked indicates the greatness of thedistress, as it does in Luke 16:21 , where crumbs are desired. There isa reciprocity also between the desired "crumbs" and the prayed-for"drop", which contains a covert reference to Luke 16:4 Luke 16:5 . Had the richman given more, he might now have asked for more. The friendship ofLazarus might have been easily won, and now the rich man needed thatfriendship, but he had neglected the principle set forth in Luke 16:9 ,and had abused his stewardship by wasting his substance upon himself.Again, the former condition of each party is sharply reversed. Lazarusfeasts at a better banquet, and the rich man begs because of a moredire and insatiable craving. Thus the life despised of men was honoredby God, and the man who was exalted among men is found to have beenabominable unto God ( Luke 16:15 ).
16:25 But Abraham said, Son1, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and Lazarus in like manner evil things2: but now3 here he is comforted and thou art in anguish4.
- But Abraham said, Son. A tender word ( Joshua 7:19 ).
- Remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and Lazarus in like manner evil things. See Proverbs 5:11-14 .
- But now. When a different order pertains from that of the earth.
- Here he is comforted and thou art in anguish. The woes received by Lazarus are not spoken of as "his". He neither earned nor deservedthem ( Revelation 7:13-17 ). His was the stewardship of suffering ( 1 Corinthians 4:9 2 Corinthians 4:7 ), and in its small details he had shown great faithfulness.The rich man had the stewardship of wealth, with its accompanyingobligation of generosity. The obligation he had esteemed as toocontemptibly small to deserve his notice; but in neglecting it, he hadinadvertently been unfaithful in much. See Luke 16:10 . This has beenthe sin of omission on the part of the rich man, and his sin ofcommission answered as a complement to it, for he had been guilty ofthat money-loving self-indulgence which was condemned by Jesus andjustified by the Pharisees ( Luke 16:14 Luke 16:15 ). No other crime is chargedagainst the rich man, yet he is found in torment. But the rich manduring his lifetime had been so deceived by his wealth that he hadfailed to detect his sin. Moreover, as he indicates in ( Luke 16:28 ),a like deception was now being practiced upon his brethren. Thus theparable justifies the term "unrighteous" which Jesus had given tomammon at Luke 16:9 Luke 16:11 .
- Between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, that they that would pass from hence to you may not be able, and that none may cross overfrom thence to us. We have here a clear statement of the separationwhich parts the good from the evil in the future state. But it has beenurged that the coloring and phraseology of this parable is derived fromrabbinical teaching, that our Lord made use of a current but erroneousJewish notion to teach a valuable lesson, and that therefore it is notsafe to draw any inferences from the narrative relative to the futurestate. But it should be noted that the parables of Jesus neverintroduce fictitious conditions, nor do they anywhere violate the orderand course of nature. It is hardly possible that he could have madethis an exception to his rule, especially since it is in a field whereall the wisdom of the world is insufficient to make the slightestcorrection. Moreover, it is certainly impossible that he couldexaggerate the differences between the states of the lost and saved inthe hereafter. Nor can the teaching of the parable be set aside on theground that it represents merely the intermediate and not the finalcondition of things. If the intermediate condition of things is fixedand established, the final condition must, a fortiori, be more so.Moreover, the teaching here differs from that of the old rabbis, for,according to Lightfoot, a wall and not a gulf separated between thejust and the unjust, and they were not "afar off" from each other, thedistance being but a handbreadth. The passage therefore confirms thedoctrine that the righteous are neither homeless nor unconscious duringthe period between death and the resurrection ( Philippians 1:23 ), and refutesthe doctrine of universalism, for the gulf is (1) fixed, and (2) cannotbe passed or bridged. The gulf of pride and caste between the rich manand Lazarus while on earth was easy to cross.
16:27 And he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house1;
- I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house. The double attempt of the rich man to use Lazarus ashis servant shows how hard it was for him to adjust himself to his newcondition.
16:28 for I have five brethren1; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment2.
- For I have five brethren. There is no typical significance in the number.
- That he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. Deceived by his wealth, the rich man looked upon hisearthly possessions as real and substantial, and, like rich sinners oftoday, had simply disregarded the affairs of the future life. Arousedby the sudden experience of the awful realities of the future state, hedesires to make it as real to his brethren as it had now become to him.In endeavoring to carry out his desire, he proceeds on the theory thatthe testimony of the dead in reference to the realities of the futurestate are more trustworthy and influential than the revelations of Godhimself, given through his inspired spokesmen. This dishonoring of Godand his law was to be expected from one who had made mammon his realmaster, even though professing (as the context suggests) to serve God.The singleness of his service is shown in that he, though practicallydischarged by one master (mammon), cannot even now speak respectfullyof God. Some commentators make much of the so-called repentance of therich man, manifested in this concern for his brethren; but the Lord didnot count kindness shown to kindred as evidence of goodness, much lessof repentance ( Luke 6:32-35 ). Besides the natural feeling for hisbrothers, he knew that their presence in torment would add to his own.His concern for his brethren is not told to indicate repentance. It ismentioned to bring out the point that the revealed will of God ofitself and without more makes it inexcusable for a man to lead aselfish life.
16:29 But Abraham saith, They have Moses and the prophets1; let them hear them2.
- They have Moses and the prophets. That is, the entire Old Testament.
- Let them hear them. See Luke 24:27 ; John 1:45 ; John 5:39-46 . The Scriptures are a sufficient guide to godliness ( 2 Timothy 3:16 2 Timothy 3:17 ), and afailure to live rightly when possession them is due to lack of will,and not to lack of knowledge.
16:30 And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one go to them from the dead, they will repent1.
- But if one go to them from the dead, they will repent. With the spirit of a true Pharisee, he sought a sign for his brothers.See Matthew 12:38. But the guidance of Scripture is better than anysign.
16:31 And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, if one rise from the dead1.
- If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, if one rise from the dead. These words might sound likean overstatement of the obduracy of unbelief were they not amplyverified by the literal facts. Jesus had already raised at least twofrom the dead as witnesses to his divine power, and he was about toraise a third, who, with startling suggestiveness, would bear this veryname of Lazarus. But despite all these witnesses the majority of theJews disbelieved and continued to disbelieve in him; nay, they evenwent so far as to seek the death of Lazarus that they might be rid ofhis testimony ( John 12:10 ). This is also a reference to Jesus' ownresurrection. It is true that he did not appear in person to those whodisbelieved in him, but they had clear knowledge of his resurrection( Matthew 28:11-15 ), and it was considered as proved to all men( Acts 17:31 ).