God informs Joshua what parts of the land were yet unconquered, and orders him to divide what was conquered, ver. 1 - 7.
A repetition of the division made by Moses, first, in general, ver. 8 - 14.
then in particular: the lot of Reuben, ver. 15 - 23.
Of Gad, ver. 24 - 28.
Of the half tribe of Manasseh, ver. 29 - 33.
|13:1||Thou art old - Therefore delay not to do the work which I have commanded thee to do. It is good for those that are stricken in years, to be remembered that they are so: that they may be quickened to do the work of life, and prepare for death which is coming on apace.|
|13:2||Remaineth - Unconquered by thee, and to be conquered by the Israelites, if they behave themselves aright. All Geshuri - A people in the northeast of Canaan, as the Philistines are on the southwest.|
|13:3||Counted to the Canaanites - That is, which though now possessed by the Philistines, who drove out the Canaanites the old inhabitants of it, 2:23 jos 13: , 9:7 , yet is a part of the land of Canaan, and therefore belongs to the Israelites. The Avites - Or, the Avims, as they are called, 2:23 , who though they were expelled out of their ancient seat, and most of them destroyed by the Caphtorims or Philistines, as is there said, yet many of them escaped, and planted themselves not very far from the former.|
|13:4||From the south - That is, from those southern parts of the sea - coast, now possessed by the Philistines, all the more northern parts of the sea - coast being yet inhibited by the Canaanites, almost as far as Sidon. The Amorites - The Amorites were a very strong and numerous people, and we find them dispersed in several parts, some within Jordan, and some without it, some in the south and others in the north, of whom he speaks here.|
|13:6||Will I drive out - Whatever becomes of us, however we may be laid aside as broken vessels, God will do his work in his own time. I will do it by my word; so the Chaldee here, as in many other places: by the eternal word, the captain of my host. But the promise of driving them out from before the children of Israel, supposes that the Israelites must use their own endeavours, must go up against them. If Israel, thro' sloth or cowardice let them alone, they are not likely to be driven out.We must go forth on our Christian warfare, and then God will go before us.|
|13:8||Which Moses gave them - By my command, and therefore do not thou disturb them in their possessions, but proceed to divide the other possessions to the rest.|
|13:9||Medeba unto Dibon - Two cities anciently belonging to the Moabites, and taken from them by the Amorites, Numbers 21:30 , and from them by the Israelites; and after the Israelites were gone into captivity, recovered by the first possessors, the Moabites.|
|13:11||And Maacathites - Whose land God had given to the Israelites without Jordan, though they had not yet used the gift of God, nor taken possession of it, as is noted, ver. 13 .|
|13:12||These did Moses smite - Not all now mentioned, but Sihon and Og, and their people, and the generality of them.|
|13:14||He gave - That is, Moses. None inheritance - Namely, in the land beyond Jordan, where yet a considerable part of the Levites were to have their settled abode. This is mentioned as the reason both why Moses gave all that land to the Reubenites and Gadites and Manassites; and why Joshua should divide the land only into nine parts and an half, as was said, ver. 7 , because Levi was otherwise provided for.Made by fire - Which are here put for all the sacrifices and oblations, including first - fruits and tithes, that were assigned to the Levites; and this passage is repeated, to prevent those calumnies and injuries which God foresaw the Levites were likely to meet with, from the malice, envy and covetousness of their brethren.|
|13:15||According to their families - Dividing the inheritance into as many parts as they had families; but this is only spoken of the greater families; for the lesser distributions to the several small families was done by inferior officers, according to the rules which Moses gave them.|
|13:19||In the mount of the valley - In the mountain bordering upon that valley, which then was famous among the Israelites; whether that where Moses was buried, which was near to Beth - peor, 34:1 ,6, or some other. And this clause is thought to belong to all the cities now mentioned.|
|13:21||Cities of the plain - Opposed to the cities of the mountain of the valley. All the kingdom of Sihon - A great part of it; in which sense we read of all Judea, and all the region round about Jordan, Matthew 3:5 , and all Galilee, Matthew 4:23 .Whom Moses smote - Not in the same time or battle, as appears by comparing Numbers 21:23 ,24, with Num 31:8, but in the same manner. And they arehere mentioned, partly because they were slain not long after, and upon the same occasion, even their enmity against Israel; and partly because of their relation and subjection to Sihon. Dukes of Sihon - But how could they be so, when they were kings of Midian? Numbers 31:8 .There were divers petty kings in those parts, who were subject to greater kings; and such these were, but are here called dukes or princes of Sihon, because they were subject and tributaries to him, and therefore did one way or other assist Sihon in this war, though they were not killed at this time. It is probable, that when Sihon destroyed those Moabites which dwelt in these parts, he frighted the rest of them, and with them their neighbours and confederates, the Midianites, into some kind of homage, which they were willing to pay him. Dwelling in the country - Heb. inhabiting that land, namely Midian, last mentioned; whereby he signifies, that tho' they were subject to Sihon, yet they did not dwell in his land, but in another.|
|13:22||Were slain by them - This was recorded before, Numbers 31:8 , and is here repeated, because the defeating of Balaam's purpose to curse Israel, and the turning that curse into a blessing, was such an instance of the power and goodness of God, as was fit to be had in everlasting remembrance.|
|13:23||The border thereof - That is, those cities or places which bordered upon Jordan.|
|13:25||The cities of Gilead - That is, all the cities of eminency; all the cities properly so called, which lay in that part of Gilead; and so this may well agree with ver. 31 , where half the country of Gilead is said to be given to the Manassites; but there is no mention of any cities there. The land of the children of Ammon - Not of that which was now theirs, for that they were forbidden to meddle with, but of that which was anciently theirs, 'till taken from them by the Amorites, from whom the Israelites took it.Aroer - The border between them and Moab. Rabbah - The chief city of the Ammonites.|
|13:26||Ramath - mizpeh - Called Ramoth - Gilead, or Ramoth in Gilead. Mahanaim - Exclusively; for Mahanaim was in the portion of Manasseh, beyond Jabbok, which was the border of Gad and Manasseh.|
|13:27||The rest of the kingdom - The northern part of his kingdom.|
|13:29||Of Manasseh - Not that thou desired it, as Reuben and Gad did, Numbers 32:1 , but partly as a recompence to Machir the Manassite, for his valiant acts against Og; and partly for the better defence of the other two tribes, by so considerable an accession to them, which also was without any inconvenience to them, because the country was too large for the two tribes of Reuben and Gad.|
|13:30||Of Jair - Who, though of the tribe of Judah, by the father, 1 Chronicles 2:21 ,22, yet is called the son of Manasseh, Numbers 32:41 , because he married a daughter of Manasseh, and wholly associated himself with those valiant Manassites; and with their help took sixty cities or great towns, 3:4 ,14, which thence were called the towns of Jair.|
|13:31||Children of Machir - Whom before he called the children of Manasseh, he now calls the children of Machir, because Machir was the most eminent, and as it may seem, the only surviving son of Manasseh, Numbers 26:29 jos 13: , 1 Chronicles 7:14 , - 16.|