abounds in all the plains and valleys of the wilderness of the forty years' wanderings. In Isaiah 50:7 and Ezekiel 3:9 the expressions, where the word is used, means that the "Messiah would be firm and resolute amidst all contempt and scorn which he would meet; that he had made up his mind to endure it, and would not shrink from any kind or degree of suffering which would be necessary to accomplish the great work in which he was engaged." (Compare Ezekiel 3:8 Ezekiel 3:9 .) The words "like a flint" are used with reference to the hoofs of horses ( Isaiah 5:28 ).
a well-known stone, a variety of quartz. It is extremely hard, and strikes fire. It was very abundant in and about Palestine.
flint (challamish (Deuteronomy 8:15; 32:13; Job 28:9; Psalms 114:8), tsor (Exodus 4:25; Ezekiel 3:9), tser (Isaiah 5:28), tsur (Job 22:24; Psalms 89:43), tsurim (Joshua 5:2); (= kechlex "pebble"), kochlax (1 Maccabees 10:73)):
The word challamish signifies a hard stone, though not certainly flint, and is used as a figure for hardness in Isaiah 50:7, "Therefore have I set my face like a flint." A similar use of tsor is found in Ezekiel 3:9, "As an adamant harder than flint have I made thy forehead," and Isaiah 5:28, "Their horses' hoofs shall be accounted as flint"; and of tsela` in Jeremiah 5:3, "They have made their faces harder than a rock." The same three words are used of the rock from which Moses drew water in the wilderness:
challamish (Deuteronomy 8:15; Psalms 114:8); tsur (Exodus 17:6; Deuteronomy 8:15; Psalms 78:20; Isaiah 48:21); cela` (Numbers 20:8; Nehemiah 9:15; Psalms 78:16).
Tsur and cela` are used oftener than challamish for great rocks and cliffs, but tsur is used also for flint knives in Exodus 4:25, "Then Zipporah took a flint (the King James Version "sharp stone"), and cut off the foreskin of her son," and in Joshua 5:2, "Yahweh said unto Joshua, Make thee knives of flint (the King James Version "sharp knives"), and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time." Surgical implements of flint were used by the ancient Egyptians, and numerous flint chippings with occasional flint implements are found associated with the remains of early man in Syria and Palestine. Flint and the allied mineral, chert, are found in great abundance in the limestone rocks of Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
Alfred Ely Day
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