Found in the Hebrew only in its application to space and time, and for these ideas three words are employed: hale'ah (Genesis 35:21) = "to the distance"; `abhar = "to go beyond" "to cross" derivative `ebher (Chald. `abhar) = "across," "beyond" (Deuteronomy 30:13; Joshua 18:7; Judges 3:26; 1 Samuel 20:36; 2 Chronicles 20:2; Ezra 4:17,20; Jeremiah 25:22); and `al (Leviticus 15:25) = "beyond the time." In the New Testament peran, is used to express "beyond" in the spatial sense (Matthew 4:15), while other words and phrases are employed for adverbial ideas of degree: huperperissos (Mark 7:37); huper (2 Corinthians 8:3; 10:16); kathuperbolen (Galatians 1:13). In the King James Version be`eher, is occasionally translated "beyond," and when this word is joined to ha- yarden, "Jordan," as it usually is, it becomes critically important. In the American Standard Revised Version, be`ebher ha- yarden is translated "beyond the Jordan," in Genesis 50:10,21; Deuteronomy 3:20,25; Joshua 9:10; Judges 5:17; "on this side Jordan" in Deuteronomy 1:1,5; Joshua 1:14,15; "on the other side Jordan" in Deuteronomy 11:30; Joshua 12:1; 22:4; 24:2,8 (compare the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American), Joshua 24:14,25; see RIVER, THE), Judges 10:8; 1 Samuel 31:7; and "on the side of Jordan" in Joshua 5:1. the American Standard Revised Version gives "beyond the Jordan" throughout. me`ebher, is used with ha-yarden in Numbers 34:15; 35:14; Joshua 13:32; Judges 7:25; and `ebher, alone in Deuteronomy 4:49 (the King James Version "on this side"); Joshua 13:27 (the King James Version "on the other side"). It is clear that the phrase may be translate d "across Jordan"; that it is used of either side of the Jordan (Deuteronomy 3:8 speaks of the eastern, Deuteronomy 3:20,25 of the western); that "beyond Jordan" may be used of the side of the Jordan on which the writer stands (Joshua 5:1; 9:1; 12:7); but from the fact that Deuteronomy 1:1,5; 4:41,46,47,49, where statements are made about Moses, the reference is to the country East of the Jordan, while in Deuteronomy 3:20,25; 11:30, where Moses is represented as speaking, the West is indicated, critics have concluded that the author (at least of Deuteronomy) must have lived after Moses, being careful to distinguish between himself and the prophet.
Frank E. Hirsch
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