The physical origin of spiritual terms is well illustrated by the principal Hebrew words for "confounded" (rendered also "ashamed," etc.); bosh, is "to become pale" (2 Kings 19:26; Job 6:20; Psalms 83:17; 129:5 the King James Version; Isa 19:9, etc.); chapher, "to become red" (Psalms 35:4; Isaiah 1:29; 24:23, "the moon shall be confounded," Mic 3:7); yabhash, "to be dried up" (Jeremiah 46:24 the King James Version; Jeremiah 48:1,20 the King James Version; Jeremiah 50:2 the King James Version; Zechariah 10:5); kalam, "to blush" (Psalms 69:6 the King James Version; Isaiah 41:11, etc.). In Genesis 11:7,9, of the confusion of tongues, the word is balal, "to mix," "mingle." In Jeremiah 1:17 the King James Version it is chathath, "to bring or put down."

In New Testament, kataischuno, "to put to shame" (1 Corinthians 1:27 the King James Version; 1 Peter 2:6 the King James Version); and sugchuno, "to pour together," "bewilder' " (Acts 2:6; 9:22). the Revised Version (British and American) frequently gives "ashamed" and "put to shame" instead of "confounded." W. L. Walker

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Entry for 'CONFOUND'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915.  

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