1 Peter 3

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Wives and Husbands

1 Likewise, wives, 1be subject to your own husbands, so that 2even if some do not obey the word, 3they may be won without a word by the conduct of their wives,
2 when they see your 4respectful and pure conduct.
3 5Do not let your adorning be external--the braiding of hair and the putting on of gold jewelry, or the clothing you wear--
4 but let your adorning be 6the hidden person of the heart with the imperishable beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which in God's sight is very precious.
5 For this is how the holy women who hoped in God used to adorn themselves, by submitting to their own husbands,
6 as Sarah obeyed Abraham, 7calling him lord. And you are her children, if you do good and 8do not fear anything that is frightening.
7 Likewise, 9husbands, live with your wives in an understanding way, showing honor to the woman as the weaker 10vessel, since they are heirs with you[a] of the grace of life, so that your prayers may not be hindered.

Suffering for Righteousness' Sake

8 Finally, all of you, 11have unity of mind, sympathy, 12brotherly love, 13a tender heart, and 14a humble mind.
9 15Do not repay evil for evil or reviling for reviling, but on the contrary, 16bless, for 17to this you were called, that you may obtain a blessing.
10 For 18"Whoever desires to love life and see good days, let him keep his tongue from evil and his lips from speaking deceit;
11 let him turn away from evil and do good; let him seek peace and pursue it.
12 For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears are open to their prayer. But the face of the Lord is against those who do evil."
13 Now 19who is there to harm you if you are zealous for what is good?
14 20But even if you should suffer for righteousness' sake, you will be blessed. 21Have no fear of them, 22nor be troubled,
15 but 23in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, 24always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and 25respect,
16 26having a good conscience, so that, 27when you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame.
17 For 28it is better to suffer for doing good, if that should be God's will, than for doing evil.
18 For Christ also 29suffered[b]30 once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, 31that he might bring us to God, being put to death 32in the flesh but made alive 33in the spirit,
19 in which[c] he went and 34proclaimed[d] to the spirits in prison,
20 because[e] they formerly did not obey, 35when God's patience waited in the days of Noah, 36while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, 37eight persons, were brought safely through water.
21 Baptism, which corresponds to this, 38now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but 39as an appeal to God for a good conscience, 40through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,
22 who has gone into heaven and 41is at the right hand of God, 42with angels, authorities, and powers having been subjected to him.

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1 Peter 3 Commentary

Chapter 3

The duties of wives and husbands. (1-7) Christians exhorted to agree. (8-13) And encouraged to patience under persecutions for righteousness' sake, considering that Christ suffered patiently. (14-22)

Verses 1-7 The wife must discharge her duty to her own husband, though he obey not the word. We daily see how narrowly evil men watch the ways and lives of professors of religion. Putting on of apparel is not forbidden, but vanity and costliness in ornament. Religious people should take care that all their behaviour answers to their profession. But how few know the right measure and bounds of those two necessaries of life, food and raiment! Unless poverty is our carver, and cuts us short, there is scarcely any one who does not desire something beyond what is good for us. Far more are beholden to the lowliness of their state, than the lowliness of their mind; and many will not be so bounded, but lavish their time and money upon trifles. The apostle directs Christian females to put on something not corruptible, that beautifies the soul, even the graces of God's Holy Spirit. A true Christian's chief care lies in right ordering his own spirit. This will do more to fix the affections, and excite the esteem of a husband, than studied ornaments or fashionable apparel, attended by a froward and quarrelsome temper. Christians ought to do their duty to one another, from a willing mind, and in obedience to the command of God. Wives should be subject to their husbands, not from dread and amazement, but from desire to do well, and please God. The husband's duty to the wife implies giving due respect unto her, and maintaining her authority, protecting her, and placing trust in her. They are heirs together of all the blessings of this life and that which is to come, and should live peaceably one with another. Prayer sweetens their converse. And it is not enough that they pray with the family, but husband and wife together by themselves, and with their children. Those who are acquainted with prayer, find such unspeakable sweetness in it, that they will not be hindered therein. That you may pray much, live holily; and that you may live holily, be much in prayer.

Verses 8-13 Though Christians cannot always be exactly of the same mind, yet they should have compassion one of another, and love as brethren. If any man desires to live comfortably on earth, or to possess eternal life in heaven, he must bridle his tongue from wicked, abusive, or deceitful words. He must forsake and keep far from evil actions, do all the good he can, and seek peace with all men. For God, all-wise and every where present, watches over the righteous, and takes care of them. None could or should harm those who copied the example of Christ, who is perfect goodness, and did good to others as his followers.

Verses 14-22 We sanctify God before others, when our conduct invites and encourages them to glorify and honour him. What was the ground and reason of their hope? We should be able to defend our religion with meekness, in the fear of God. There is no room for any other fears where this great fear is; it disturbs not. The conscience is good, when it does its office well. That person is in a sad condition on whom sin and suffering meet: sin makes suffering extreme, comfortless, and destructive. Surely it is better to suffer for well-doing than for evil-doing, whatever our natural impatience at times may suggest. The example of Christ is an argument for patience under sufferings. In the case of our Lord's suffering, he that knew no sin, suffered instead of those who knew no righteousness. The blessed end and design of our Lord's sufferings were, to reconcile us to God, and to bring us to eternal glory. He was put to death in respect of his human nature, but was quickened and raised by the power of the Holy Spirit. If Christ could not be freed from sufferings, why should Christians think to be so? God takes exact notice of the means and advantages people in all ages have had. As to the old world, Christ sent his Spirit; gave warning by Noah. But though the patience of God waits long, it will cease at last. And the spirits of disobedient sinners, as soon as they are out of their bodies, are committed to the prison of hell, where those that despised Noah's warning now are, and from whence there is no redemption. Noah's salvation in the ark upon the water, which carried him above the floods, set forth the salvation of all true believers. That temporal salvation by the ark was a type of the eternal salvation of believers by baptism of the Holy Spirit. To prevent mistakes, the apostle declares what he means by saving baptism; not the outward ceremony of washing with water, which, in itself, does no more than put away the filth of the flesh, but that baptism, of which the baptismal water formed the sign. Not the outward ordinance, but when a man, by the regeneration of the Spirit, was enabled to repent and profess faith, and purpose a new life, uprightly, and as in the presence of God. Let us beware that we rest not upon outward forms. Let us learn to look on the ordinances of God spiritually, and to inquire after the spiritual effect and working of them on our consciences. We would willingly have all religion reduced to outward things. But many who were baptized, and constantly attended the ordinances, have remained without Christ, died in their sins, and are now past recovery. Rest not then till thou art cleansed by the Spirit of Christ and the blood of Christ. His resurrection from the dead is that whereby we are assured of purifying and peace.

Cross References 42

  • 1. See Genesis 3:16
  • 2. 1 Corinthians 7:16
  • 3. Matthew 18:15; 1 Corinthians 9:19-22
  • 4. Titus 2:5
  • 5. 1 Timothy 2:9; [Isaiah 3:18-23]
  • 6. Romans 2:29; [Romans 7:22; 2 Corinthians 4:16; Ephesians 3:16]
  • 7. Genesis 18:12
  • 8. Proverbs 3:25
  • 9. Ephesians 5:25; Colossians 3:19
  • 10. See 1 Thessalonians 4:4
  • 11. See Romans 12:16
  • 12. See Hebrews 13:1
  • 13. Ephesians 4:32
  • 14. See Ephesians 4:2
  • 15. 1 Peter 2:23; See Romans 12:17
  • 16. Luke 6:28; Romans 12:14; 1 Corinthians 4:12
  • 17. 1 Peter 2:21
  • 18. Cited from Psalms 34:12-16
  • 19. [Proverbs 16:7]
  • 20. 1 Peter 2:19, 20; 1 Peter 4:14, 16; Matthew 5:10
  • 21. Isaiah 8:12, 13; [ver. 6; Matthew 10:28]
  • 22. John 14:1, 27
  • 23. [Isaiah 29:23; Matthew 6:9]
  • 24. Colossians 4:6; [2 Timothy 2:25]
  • 25. See 1 Peter 1:17
  • 26. Hebrews 13:18
  • 27. 1 Peter 2:12
  • 28. 1 Peter 2:20; [1 Peter 4:15, 16]
  • 29. 1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 4:1; See Romans 4:25
  • 30. Hebrews 9:26, 28
  • 31. Romans 5:2
  • 32. 1 Peter 4:1; Colossians 1:22; [2 Corinthians 13:4]
  • 33. 1 Peter 4:6
  • 34. [See ver. 18 above]
  • 35. Gen. 6:3, 5, 13, 14
  • 36. Hebrews 11:7
  • 37. Gen. 7:1, 7, 23; Genesis 8:18; 2 Peter 2:5
  • 38. Mark 16:16; Acts 16:33; Romans 6:3-6; Titus 3:5
  • 39. [Romans 10:10]
  • 40. 1 Peter 1:3
  • 41. Acts 2:33, 34; Romans 8:34; Ephesians 1:20; Colossians 3:1; Hebrews 1:3
  • 42. Romans 8:38; 1 Corinthians 15:24; Ephesians 1:21

Footnotes 5

Chapter Summary


In this chapter the apostle instructs wives how to behave towards their husbands, and husbands how to behave towards their wives; and then exhorts to various things common to all Christians, and particularly to suffer patiently for righteousness sake; to which he encourages them from the sufferings of Christ, and the benefits resulting from them, on which he enlarges to the end of the chapter. He begins with the duty of wives to their husbands, even unbelieving ones, which is subjection to them, urged from the profitable effect of it; since hereby they might be won over to the Christian religion, without the use of the word, as a means, by their conversation, which is explained of chastity and fear, 1Pe 3:1,2. And he proceeds to give some advice about their apparel, that they should have a greater regard to internal ornaments; particularly meekness and quietness of spirit, which is highly esteemed of by God, rather than to outward adorning; and which he enforces by the examples of godly women in former times, who were so adorned, and were subject to their husbands, particularly Sarah, the wife of Abraham, 1Pe 3:3-6. And next the apostle directs husbands how to conduct towards their wives, to dwell with them, and honour them, because vessels, and weaker vessels, and also heirs of the same grace of life; and besides, to use them ill would be an hinderance of their praying together, 1Pe 3:7. And then follow various exhortations to unity of judgment, compassion, brotherly love, pity, courteousness, and patience under the reproaches and revilings of men, which is the way to inherit a blessing they are called unto, 1Pe 3:8,9 and that these are incumbent on the saints, and that they shall be blessed, who are helped to regard them, is proved by some passages out of Ps 34:12-16, which passages are cited, 1Pe 3:10-12. And in order to encourage to the exercise of the above things, the apostle suggests, that they that so behaved should not be hurt by any; and if they did suffer for righteousness sake from wicked men, yet still they would be happy; nor should this deter them from making a public confession of their faith; to which should be added a good conscience and conversation, to the shame and confusion of them that spoke evil of them, and accused them, 1Pe 3:13-16. And though they were distressed and injured by men, they should not be cast down, nor murmur, since it was the will of God it should be so; and since it was better to suffer for doing well than for doing ill; and especially the example of Christ should animate to patience, since he, an innocent person, suffered for the sins of unjust men, to reconcile them to God; and he is now glorified and happy, and so will his people be, 1Pe 3:17,18. And having made mention of his being quickened by the Spirit, the apostle takes occasion from hence of observing, that by the same Spirit Christ preached in the times of Noah to disobedient persons, whose spirits were now in hell; and he takes notice of the longsuffering of God in that dispensation towards them, and of the goodness of God in saving Noah, and his family, in the ark, which was a figure of baptism; of which some account is given what it is, and is not, and which saves by the resurrection of Christ, 1Pe 3:19-21 who is described by his ascension to heaven, session at the right hand of God, and dominion over angels, authorities, and powers, 1Pe 3:22.

1 Peter 3 Commentaries

The English Standard Version is published with the permission of Good News Publishers.