Joshua 12

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Kings Defeated by Moses

1 Now these are the kings of the land whom the people of Israel defeated and took possession of their land beyond the Jordan toward the sunrise, from 1the Valley of the Arnon to Mount Hermon, with all 2the Arabah eastward:
2 3Sihon king of the Amorites who lived at Heshbon and ruled from Aroer, which is on the edge of the Valley of the Arnon, and 4from the middle of the valley as far as the 5river Jabbok, the boundary of the Ammonites, that is, half of Gilead,
3 and 6the Arabah 7to the Sea of Chinneroth eastward, and in the direction of Beth-jeshimoth, to the Sea of the Arabah, the Salt Sea, southward to the foot of 8the slopes of Pisgah;
4 and 9Og[a] king of Bashan, one of the remnant of 10the Rephaim, 11who lived at Ashtaroth and at Edrei
5 and ruled over 12Mount Hermon and 13Salecah and all Bashan 14to the boundary of the Geshurites and the Maacathites, and over half of Gilead to the boundary of Sihon king of Heshbon.
6 15Moses, the servant of the LORD, and the people of Israel defeated them. And Moses the servant of the LORD 16 gave their land for a possession to the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh.

Kings Defeated by Joshua

7 And these are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the people of Israel defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Baal-gad in the Valley of Lebanon to 17Mount Halak, that rises toward Seir (and Joshua gave their land to the tribes of Israel as a possession 18according to their allotments,
8 19in the hill country, in the lowland, in the Arabah, in the slopes, in the wilderness, and in the Negeb, the land of 20the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites):
9 21the king of Jericho, one; 22the king of Ai, which is beside Bethel, one;
10 23the king of Jerusalem, one; 24the king of Hebron, one;
11 25the king of Jarmuth, one; 26the king of Lachish, one;
12 27the king of Eglon, one; 28the king of Gezer, one;
13 29the king of Debir, one; the king of Geder, one;
14 the king of Hormah, one; the king of Arad, one;
15 30the king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one;
16 31the king of Makkedah, one; 32the king of Bethel, one;
17 the king of Tappuah, one; the king of Hepher, one;
18 the king of Aphek, one; the king of Lasharon, one;
19 33the king of Madon, one; 34the king of Hazor, one;
20 35the king of Shimron-meron, one; 36the king of Achshaph, one;
21 37the king of Taanach, one; 38the king of Megiddo, one;
22 the king of Kedesh, one; the king of Jokneam in Carmel, one;
23 39the king of Dor in 40Naphath-dor, one; the king of Goiim in Galilee,[b] one;
24 the king of Tirzah, one: in all, thirty-one kings.

Joshua 12 Commentary

Chapter 12

The two kings conquered by Moses. (1-6) The kings whom Joshua smote. (7-24)

Verses 1-6 Fresh mercies must not drown the remembrance of former mercies, nor must the glory of the present instruments of good to the church diminish the just honour of those who went before them, since God is the same who wrought by both. Moses gave to one part of Israel a very rich and fruitful country, but it was on the outside of Jordan. Joshua gave to all Israel the holy land, within Jordan. So the law has given to some few of God's spiritual Israel worldly blessings, earnests of good things to come; but our Lord Jesus, the true Joshua, provided for all the children of promise spiritual blessings, and the heavenly Canaan.

Verses 7-24 We have here the limits of the country Joshua conquered. A list is given of the kings subdued by Israel: thirty-one in all. This shows how fruitful Canaan then was, in which so many chose to throng together. This was the land God appointed for Israel; yet in our day it is one of the most barren and unprofitable countries in the world. Such is the effect of the curse it lies under, since its possessors rejected Christ and his gospel, as was foretold by Moses, ( Deuteronomy 29:23 ) . The vengeance of a righteous God, inflicted on all these kings and their subjects, for their wickedness, should make us dread and hate sin. The fruitful land bestowed on his chosen people, should fill our hearts with hope and confidence in his mercy, and with humble gratitude.

Cross References 40

  • 1. Numbers 21:13, 24; Deuteronomy 3:8, 9
  • 2. See Deuteronomy 1:1
  • 3. Deuteronomy 2:32, 33; Deuteronomy 3:6, 16; See Numbers 21:21-26
  • 4. Deuteronomy 2:36
  • 5. Genesis 32:22
  • 6. [See ver. 1 above]
  • 7. Joshua 11:2
  • 8. Joshua 13:20; Deuteronomy 3:17; Deuteronomy 4:49
  • 9. Deuteronomy 3:3, 10; See Numbers 21:33-35
  • 10. Joshua 13:12; Joshua 15:8; Joshua 18:16
  • 11. Joshua 9:10; Deuteronomy 1:4
  • 12. Deuteronomy 3:8, 9
  • 13. Joshua 13:11; Deuteronomy 3:10
  • 14. Deuteronomy 3:14
  • 15. See Num. 21:23, 24, 33-35
  • 16. Joshua 13:8; Numbers 32:29, 33; Deuteronomy 3:11, 12
  • 17. Joshua 11:17
  • 18. Joshua 11:23; Joshua 18:10
  • 19. Joshua 10:40; Joshua 11:16
  • 20. Joshua 9:1
  • 21. [Joshua 6:2]
  • 22. Joshua 8:29
  • 23. Joshua 10:23
  • 24. Joshua 10:23
  • 25. [See ver. 10 above]
  • 26. [See ver. 10 above]
  • 27. [See ver. 10 above]
  • 28. Joshua 10:33
  • 29. Joshua 10:38, 39
  • 30. Joshua 10:29
  • 31. Joshua 10:28
  • 32. Joshua 8:17; Judges 1:22
  • 33. Joshua 11:1
  • 34. Joshua 11:1, 10
  • 35. [See ver. 19 above]
  • 36. [See ver. 19 above]
  • 37. Joshua 17:11
  • 38. Joshua 17:11
  • 39. [See ver. 21 above]
  • 40. Joshua 11:2

Footnotes 2

  • [a]. Septuagint; Hebrew the boundary of Og
  • [b]. Septuagint; Hebrew Gilgal

Chapter Summary


This chapter gives a short account of the conquests made by the Israelites, both in the times of Moses and of Joshua, and first of the kingdom of Sihon and Og on the other side Jordan, in the times of Moses, and which he gave to the two tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and which are particularly described, Jos 12:1-6; and then of the kings and the countries on this side Jordan whom Joshua conquered, Jos 12:7,8; and the names of the thirty one kingdoms are recited, that so it might be exactly known and observed what were afterwards divided among the tribes and possessed by them, Jos 12:9-24.

Joshua 12 Commentaries

The English Standard Version is published with the permission of Good News Publishers.