Letter of an Inquirer.

Letter of an Inquirer.Letter of an Inquirer.

I. Beloved, I send thee inquiries and questions, for I am compelled to seek further instruction ofthee on many points. Do not thou refuse to hear me. My spirit urges me to warn thee about manytopics(1) that thou mayest unfold for me thespiritual perceptions of thy mind, and mayest show me of all that thou hast apprehended from the holybooks, that so my deficiency may be supplied by thee and my hunger satisfied by thy doctrine, andthat thou mayest assuage my thirst from the fountain of thine instruction. Yet though many things areset in my thought to ask thee, they all are notwithstanding reserved with me, that when I come tothee, thou mayest instruct me on all subjects.

2. But before all things I desire that thou wouldst write and instruct me concerning this thatstraitens me, namely, concerning our faith; how it is, and what its foundation is, and on whatstructure it rises, on what it rests, and in what way is its fulfilment and consummation, and whatare the works required for it. For I of myself firmly believe that God is one, Who made the heavensand the earth from the beginning; that He adorned the world by His handiwork; that He made man in Hisimage; He it is that accepted the offering of Abel. He translated Enoch because of his excellence. Hepreserved Noah because of his righteousness. He chose Abraham because of his faith. He spake withMoses on account of his meekness. He it is that spake in all the prophets, and furthermore He sentHis Christ into the world. Since then, my brother, I thus believe in these things that so they are, Itherefore, brother, request of thee that thou wouldest write and show me what are the works requiredfor this our faith, that so thou mayest set me at rest.

The "Demonstrations" OF Aphrahat.

Demonstration I.-Of Faith.

§1. I have received thy letter, my beloved, and when I read it, it greatly gladdened me thatthou hast turned thy thoughts to these investigations. For this thing that thou hast asked of meshall be freely granted,(1) for freely it wasreceived. And whosoever has, and desires to withhold from him that seeks, whatsoever he withholdsshall be taken away from him. Whoever of free grace receives, of free grace also does it behove himto give. And so, my beloved, as to that which thouhast asked of me, so far as my insignificance hasapprehended, I will write to thee. And also whatsoever thou hast not sought of me, invoking God, Iwill explain to thee. Hear then, my beloved, and open the inward ears of thy heart unto me, and thespiritual perceptions of thy mind to that which I say unto thee.

§2. Faith is compounded of many things, and by many kinds is it brought to perfection. For itis like a building that is built up of many pieces of workmanship and so its edifice rises to thetop. And know, my beloved, that in the foundations of the building stones are laid, and so restingupon stones the whole edifice rises until it is perfected. Thus also the true Stone, our Lord JesusChrist, is the foundation of all our faith. And on Him, on [this] Stone faith is based. And restingon faith all the structure rises until it is completed. For it is the foundation that is thebeginning of all the building. For when any one is brought nigh unto faith, it is laid for him uponthe Stone, that is our Lord Jesus Christ. And his building cannot be shaken by the waves, nor can itbe injured by the winds. By the stormy blasts it does not fall, because its. structure is reared uponthe rock of the true Stone. And in this that I have called Christ the Stone, I have not spoken, of myown thought, but the Prophets beforehand called Him the Stone. And this I shall make clear tothee.

§3. And now hear concerning faith that is based upon the Stone, and concerning the structurethat is reared up upon the Stone. For first a man believes, and when he believes, he loves. When heloves, he hopes. When he hopes, he is justified. When he is justified, he is perfected. When he isperfected, he is consummated. And when his whole structure is raised up, consummated, and perfected,then he becomes a house and a temple for a dwelling-place of Christ, as Jeremiah the Prophetsaid:-The temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord are ye, if ye amendyour ways and your works.(2) And again Hesaid through the Prophet:-I will dwell in them and walk in them.(3) And also the Blessed Apostle thus said:-Ye arethe temple of God and the spirit of Christ dwelleth in you.(4) And also our Lord again thus said to Hisdisciples:-Ye are in Me and I am in you.(5)

§4. And when the house has become a dwelling-place, then the man begins to be anxious as tothat which is required for Him Who dwells in the building. Just as if a king or an honourable man, towhom a royal name is given, should lodge in the house, there would be required for the King all theappurtenances of royalty and all the service that is needed for the King's honour. For in a housethat is void of all good things, the King will not lodge, nor will he dwell in the midst of it; butall that is choicest in the house is required for the King and that nothing in it be deficient. Andif anything be deficient there in the house in which the King lodges, the keeper of the house isdelivered over to death, because he did not make ready the service for the King. So also let the man,who becomes a house, yea a dwelling-place, for Christ, take heed to what is needed for the service ofChrist, Who lodges in him, and with what things he may please Him. For first he builds his buildingon the Stone, which is Christ. On Him, on the Stone, is faith based, and on faith is reared up allthe structure. For the habitation of the house is required pure fasting, and it is made firm byfaith. There is also needed for it pure prayer, and through faith is it accepted. Necessary for ittoo is love, and with faith is it compounded. Furthermore alms are needed, and through faith are theygiven. He demands also meekness, and by faith is it adorned. He chooses too virginity, and by faithis it loved. He joins with himself holiness, and in faith is it planted. He cares also for wisdom,and through faith is it acquired. He desires also hospitality, and by faith does it abound. Requisitefor Him also is simplicity, and with faith is it commingled. He demands patience also, and by faithis it perfected. He has respect also to long-suffering, and through faith is it acquired. He lovesmourning also, and through faith is it manifested. He seeks also for purity, and by faith is itpreserved. All these things does the faith demand that is based on the rock of the true Stone, thatis Christ. These works are required for Christ the King, Who dwells in men that are built up in theseworks.

§5. And if perchance thou shouldest say:-If Christ is set for the foundation, how does Christalso dwell in the building when it is completed? For both these things did the blessed Apostle say.For he said:-I as a wise architect have laid the foundation.(6) And there he defined the foundation and made itclear, for he said as follows:-No man can lay other foundation than that which is laid, which isJesus Christ.(7) And that Christfurthermore dwells in that building is the word that was written above-that of Jeremiah who calledmen temples and said of God that He dwelt in them. And the Apostle said:-The Spirit of Christdwelleth in you.(8) And our Lordsaid:-I and My Father are one.(9) Andtherefore that word is accomplished, that Christ dwells in men, namely, in those who believe on Him,and He is the foundation on which is reared up the whole building.

6. But I must proceed to my former statement that Christ is called the Stone in the Prophets. Forin ancient times David said concerning Him:-The stone which the builders rejected has become thehead of the building.(10) And how did thebuilders reject this Stone which is Christ?(11) How else than that they so rejected Him beforePilate and said-This man shall not be King over us.(12) And again in that parable that our Lord spakethat a certain nobleman went to receive kingly power and to return and rule over them; and they sentafter Him envoys saying:-This man shall not be King over us.(13) By these things they rejected the Stone which isChrist. And how did it become the head of the building? How else than that it was set up over thebuilding of the Gentiles and upon it is reared up all their building. And who are the builders? Whobut the priests and Pharisees who did not build a sure building, but were overthrowing everythingthat he was building, as is written in Ezekiel the Prophet:-He was building a wall of partition,but they were shaking it, that it might fall.(14) And again it is written:-I sought amongst thema man who was closing the fence and standing in the breach over the face of the land, that I mightnot destroy it and I did not find.(15) Andfurthermore Isaiah also prophesied beforehand with regard to this stone. For he said:-Thus saiththe Lord, Behold I lay in Zion a chosen stone in the precious corner, the heart of the wall of thefoundation.(16) And he said againthere:-Every one that believeth on it shall not fear.(17) And whosoever falleth on that stone shall bebroken, and every one on whom it shall fall, it will crush.(18) For the people of the house of Israel fell uponHim, and He became their destruction for ever. And again it shall fall on the image and crushit.(19) And the Gentiles believed on itand do not fear.

7. And He shows thus with regard to that stone that it was laid as head of the wall and asfoundation. But if that stone was laid as the foundation, how did it also become the head of thewall? How but that when our Lord came, He laid His faith in the earth like a foundation, and it roseabove all the heavens like the head of the wall and all the building was finished with the stones,from the bottom to the top. And with regard to the faith about which I said that He laid His faith inthe earth, this David proclaimed beforehand about Christ. For He said:-Faith shall spring up fromthe earth.(20) And that again, it isabove, he said:-Righteousness looked down from the heavens.

8. And again Daniel also spoke concerning this stone which is Christ. For he said:-The stonewas cut out from the mountain, not by hands, and it smote the image, and the whole earth was filledwith it.(21) This he showed beforehandwith regard to Christ that the whole earth shall be filled with Him. For lo! by the faith of Christare all the ends of the earth filled, as David said:-The sound of the Gospel of Christ has goneforth into all the earth.(22) And againwhen He sent forth His apostles He spake thus to them:-Go forth, make disciples of all nations andthey will believe on Me.(23) And again theProphet Zechariah also prophesied about that stone which is Christ. For he said:-I saw a chiefstone of equably and of love.(24) And whydid he say "chief"? Surely because from the beginning(25) He was with His Father. And again that he spokeof love, it was because when He came into the world, He said thus to His disciples:-This is Mycommandment, that ye love one another.(26)And again He said:-I have called you My friends(lovers).(27) And the blessed Apostle said thus:-God lovedas in the love of His Son.(28) Of a truthChrist loved us and gave Himself for us.(29)

§9. And definitely did He show concerning this stone:-Lo! on this stone will I open seveneyes.(30) And what then are the seven eyesthat were opened on the stone? Clearly the Spirit of God that abode on Christ with seven operations,as Isaiah the Prophet said:-The Spirit of God shall rest and dwell upon Him, (a spirit) ofwisdom and understanding, of counsel and of courage, of knowledge and of the fear of theLord.(31) These were the seven eyes thatwere opened upon the Stone, and these are the seven eyes of the Lord which look upon all theearth.(32)

§10. And also with reference to Christ was this (which follows) said. For he said that He wasgiven as a light to all the Gentilesas the Prophet Isaiah said:-I have given Thee as a light toall the Gentiles, that Thou shouldest be My redemption to the ends of the earth.(33) And furthermore David also said;-Thy word is alamp unto my feet and a light unto my paths.(34) And also the word and discourse of the Lord isChrist, as is written in the beginning of the Gospel of our Saviour:-In the beginning was theWord.(35) And withregard to the lightthere again he bore witness:-The light was shining in the darkness and the darkness comprehendedit not.(36) What then is this:-Thelight was shining in the darkness and the darkness comprehended it not? Clearly Christ, Whoselight shone in the midst of the people of the house of Israel, and the people of the house of Israeldid not comprehend the light of Christ, in that they did not believe on Him, as it is written:-Hecame unto His own, and His own received Him not.(37) And also our Lord Jesus called them darkness, forHe said to His disciples;-Whatsoever I say unto you in the darkness, that speak ye in thelight,(38) namely, let you light shineamong the Gentiles;(39) because theyreceived the light of Christ, Who is the Light of the Gentiles. And He said again to HisApostles:-Ye are the light of the world.(40) And again He said unto them;-Let your lightshine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father which is inheaven.(41) And again He showed withregard to Himself that He is the light, for He said to His disciples:-Walk while the light is withyou, ere the darkness overtake you.(42)And again He said to them:-Believe on the light that ye may be children of light.(43) And again He said:-I am the light of theworld.(44) And again He said:-No manlighteth a lamp and putteth it under a bushel or under a bed, or putteth it in a hidden place, butputteth it upon the lamp-stand that every one may see the light of the lamp.(45) And the shining lamp is Christ, as Davidsaid;-Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light to my paths.(46)

§11. And furthermore the Prophet Hosea also said:-Light you a lamp and seek ye theLord.(47) And our Lord Jesus Christsaid:-What woman is there who has ten drachmos and shall lose one of them, and will not light alamp and sweep the house and seek her drachma that she lost?(48) What then does this woman signify? Clearly thecongregation of the house of Israel, to which the ten commandments were given. They lost the firstcommandment-that in which He warned them saying:-I am the Lord your God, Who brought you up fromthe land of Egypt.(49) And when they hadlost this first commandment, also the nine which are after it they could not keep, because on thefirst depend the nine. For it was an impossibility that while worshipping Baal, they should keep thenine commandments. For they lost the first commandment, like that woman who lost one drachma from theten. So the Prophet cried unto them:-Light you a lamp and seek ye the Lord.(50) And furthermore the Prophet Isaiah alsosaid:-Seek ye the Lord and when ye shall have found Him, call upon Him; and when He is near letthe sinner abandon his way and the wicked man his thought.(51) For that lamp shone and they did not by it seekthe Lord their God. And its light shone in the darkness and the darkness did not comprehend it. Andthe lamp was set up on the lamp-stand and those who were in the house did not see its light. And whatthen means this, that the lamp was set up on the lamp-stand? Clearly His being raised up upon thecross. And by this all the house was made dark over them. For when they crucified Him, the light wasdarkened from them, and shone amongst the Gentiles, because that from the time of the sixth hour (ofthe day) on which they crucified Him even unto the ninth hour there was darkness in all the land ofIsrael. And the sun set in midday and the land was darkened in the shining daytime, as is written nZechariah the Prophet:-It shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord, I will cause the sun toset in midday, and will make dark the land in the shining daytime.(52)

§12. Now I must proceed to my former subject of faith, that on it are reared up all the goodworks of the building. And again, in what I said with regard to the building, it was in no strangefashion that I spoke, but the blessed Apostle wrote in the first Epistle to the Corinthians,saying;-I as a wise master-builder have laid the foundation, but every one buildeth onit.(53) One builds silver and gold andgoodly stones; another builds reed and straw and stubble. In the last day that building shall betried by fire; for the gold and silver and goodly stones shall be preserved in the midst of the fire,because they are a firm building. But as for the straw and reed and stubble, the fire shall havepower upon them and they shall be burned. And what is the gold and silver and goodly stones by whichthe building is raised up? Clearly the good deeds of faith, which shall be preserved in the midst ofthe fire; because Christ dwells in that secure building, and He is its preserver from the fire. Andlet us consider and understand (this) from the example that God has given us also in the formerdispensation, because the promises of that dispensation will abide sure for us. Let us thenunderstand from (the case of) those three righteous men who were cast into the midst of the fire andwere not burned, namely, Hananiah, Azariah and Misael, over whom the fire had no power, because theybuilt a secure building and rejected the commandment of Nebuchadnezzar the king and did not worshipthe image that he made. And as for those who transgressed the commandment of God, the fire at onceprevailed over them and burned them, and they were burned without mercy. For the Sodomites wereburned like straw and reed and stubble. Furthermore, Nadab and Abihu were burned, who transgressedthe commandment of God. Again, two hundred and fifty men were burned, who were offering incense.Again, two princes and a hundred who were with them were burned, because they approached the mountainon which Elijah was sitting, who ascended in a chariot of fire to heaven. The calumniators also wereburned because they dug a pit for righteous men. Accordingly, beloved, the righteous shall be triedby the fire, like gold and silver and goodly stones, and the wicked shall be burned in the fire likestraw and reed and stubble, and the fire shall have power upon them and they shall be burned; even asthe Prophet Isaiah said:-By fire shall the Lord judge and by it shall He try all flesh.(54) And again he said:-Ye shall go out and see thecarcases of the men who offended against Me, whose worm shall not die, nor shall their fire bequenched, and they shall be an astonishment to all flesh.(55)

§13. And again the Apostle has commented for us upon this building and upon this foundation;for he said thus;-No man can lay another foundation than that which is laid, which is JesusChrist.(56) Again the Apostle said aboutfaith that it is conjoined with hope and love, for he said thus:-These are three which shallabide, faith and hope and love.(57) And heshowed with regard to faith that first it is laid on a sure foundation.(58)

§14. For Abel, because of his faith his offering was accepted. And Enoch, because he waswell-pleasing through his faith, was removed from death. Noah, because he believed, was preservedfrom the deluge. Abraham, through his faith, obtained blessing, and it was accounted to him forrighteousness. Isaac, because he believed, was loved. Jacob, because of his faith, was preserved.Joseph, because of his faith, was tried in the waters of contention, and was delivered from histrial, and his Lord established a witness in him, as David said:-Witness hath he established inJoseph."(59) Moses also by his faithperformed many wonderful works of power. By his faith he destroyed the Egyptians with ten plagues.Again, by faith he divided the sea, and caused his people to cross over and sank the Egyptians in themidst of it. By faith he cast the wood into the bitter waters and they became sweet. By faith hebrought down manna and satisfied his people. By faith he spread out his hands and conquered Amalek,as is written:-His hands continued in faith till the selling of the sun.(60) Also by faith he went up to Mount Sinai, when hetwice fasted for the space of forty days. Again by faith he conquered Sihon and Og, the Kings of theAmorites.

§15. This is wonderful, my beloved, and a great prodigy that Moses did in the Red Sea, whenthe waters were divided by faith, and stood up on high like mountains or like mighty cliffs. Theywere checked and stood still at the commandment; they were closed up as in vessels, and fast bound inthe height as in the depth. Their fluidity did not overflow the boundary, but rather they changed thenature of their creation. Irrational creatures became obedient. The billows became rigid and wereawaiting the vengeance, when the people should have passed over. Wonderful was it how the waves stoodstill and expected the commandment and the vengeance. The foundations (hidden) from the ages of theworld were revealed, and that which from the beginning had been liquid suddenly became dry. Thegates lifted up their heads and the everlasting gates were lifted up.(61) The pillar of fire entered and illuminated theentire camp. The people passed over by faith. And the judgment of righteousness was wrought uponPharaoh and upon his host and upon his chariots.

§16. Thus also Joshua the son of Nun divided Jordan by his faith, and the children of Israelcrossed over as in the days of Moses. But know, my beloved, that this passage of the Jordan was threetimes laid open by its being divided. First through Joshua the Son of Nun, and secondly throughElijah, and then through Elisha. For the word of the Book makes known that over against this passageof Jericho, there Elijah was taken up to heaven; for when Elisha turned back from following him anddivided the Jordan and passed over, the children of the Prophets of Jericho came out to meet Elishaand said:-The spirit of Elijah rests upon Elisha.(62) Furthermore when the people crossed over in thedays of Joshua the son of Nun (it was there), for thus it is written:-The people passed over, overagainst Jericho.(63) Also Joshua the sonof Nun by faith cast down the walls of Jericho, and they fell without difficulty. Again by faith hedestroyed thirty-one kings and made the children of Israel to inherit the land. Furthermore by hisfaith he spread out his hands towards heaven and stayed the sun in Gibeon and the moon in the valleyof Ajalon.(64) And they were stayed and stoodstill from their courses. But enough! All the righteous, our fathers, in all that they did werevictorious through faith, as also the blessed Apostle testified with regard to all of them:-Byfaith they prevailed.(65) Again Solomonsaid:-Many men are called merciful, but a faithful man who can find?(66) Also Job thus said:-My integrity, shall notpass from me, and in my righteousness will persist.(67)

§17. Also our Saviour used thus to say to every one who drew near to Him to behealed:-According to thy faith be unto thee.(68) And when the blind man approached Him, He said tohim:-Dost thou believe that I am able to heal thee? That blind man said to Him:-Yea, Lord,I believe.(69) And his faith opened hiseyes. And to him whose son was sick, He said:-Believe and thy son shall live. He said toHim:-I believe, Lord; help thou my feeble faith.(70) And by his faith his son was healed. And alsowhen the nobleman(71) came near to Him, by hisfaith was his boy healed, when he said to our Lord:-Speak the word and my servant will becured.(72) And our Lord was astonished athis faith, and according to his faith it happened to him. And also when the chief of the Synagoguerequested Him concerning his daughter, He said thus to him:-Only firmly believe and thy daughtershall live.(73) So he believed and hisdaughter lived and arose. And when Lazarus died, our Lord said to Martha:-If thou believest, thybrother shall rise. Martha saith unto Him;-Yea, Lord, I believe.(74) And He raised him after four days. And also Simonwho was called Cephas because of his faith was called the firm rock,(75) And again when our Lord gave the Sacrament ofBaptism to His apostles, He said thus to them:-Whosoever believeth and is baptized shall live, andwhosoever believeth not shall be condemned.(76) Again He said to his Apostles:-If ye believeand doubt not, there is nothing ye shall not be able to do.(77) For when our Lord walked on the billows of thesea, Simon also by his faith walked with Him; but when in respect of his faith he doubted, and beganto sink, our Lord called him, thou of little faith.(78) And when the Apostles asked of our Lord, theybegged nothing at His hands but this, saying to Him:-Increase our faith. He said tothem:-If there were in you faith, even a mountain would remove from before you.(79) And He said to them:-Doubt ye not, lest yesink down in the midst of the world, even as Simon when he doubled began to sink in the midst of thesea.(80) And again He said thus;-Thisshall be the sign for those that believe; they shall speak with new tongues and shall cast outdemons, and they shall lay their hands on the sick and they shall be made whole.(81)

§18. Let us draw near then, my beloved, to faith, since its powers are so many. For faithraised up to the heavens (Enoch), and conquered the Deluge. It caused the barren to bring forth. Itdelivered from the sword. It raised up from the pit. It enriched the poor. It released the captives.It delivered the persecuted. It brought down the fire. It divided the sea. It cleft the rock, andgave to the thirsty water to drink. It satisfied the hungry. It raised the dead, and brought them upfrom Sheol. It stilled the billows. It healed the sick, It conquered hosts. It overthrew walls. Itstopped the mouths of lions, and quenched the flame of fire. It humiliated the proud, and brought thehumble to honour. All these mighty works were wrought by faith.

§19. Now thus is faith; when a man believes in God the Lord of all, Who made the heavens andthe earth and the seas and all that is in them; and He made Adam in His image; and He gave the Law toMoses; He sent of His Spirit upon the prophets; He sent moreover His Christ into the world.Furthermore that a man should believe in the resurrection of the dead; and should furthermore alsobelieve in the sacrament of baptism. This is the faith of the Church of God. And (it is necessary)that a man should separate himself from the observance of hours and Sabbaths and moons and seasons,and divinations and sorceries and Chaldaean arts and magic, from fornication and from festive music,from vain doctrines, which are instruments of the Evil One, from the blandishment of honeyed words,from blasphemy and from adultery. And that a man should not bear false witness, and that a man shouldnot speak with double tongue. These then are the works of the faith which is based on the true Stonewhich is Christ, on Whom the whole building is reared up.

§20. Furthermore, my beloved, there is much besides in the Holy Books about faith. But thesefew things out of the much have I written to recall them to thy love that thou mayest know and makeknown and believe" and also be believed. And when thou hast read and learned the works of faith, thoumayest be made like unto that tilled land upon which the good seed fell, and produced fruit ahundred-fold and sixty-fold and thirty-fold. And when thou comest to thy Lord, He may call thee agood servant and prudent and faithful, who on account of His faith, that abounded, is to enter intothe Kingdom of his Lord.

Demonstration V.-Of Wars.

§1. This reflection has befallen me at this time concerning the shaking that is to take placeat this time, and the host that has assembled itself for the sword. The times were disposedbeforehand by God. The times of peace are fulfilled in the days of the good and just; and the timesof many evils are fulfilled in the days of the evil and transgressors. For it is thuswritten:-Good must happen and blessed is he through whom it shall come to pass; and evil musthappen, but woe to him through whom it shall come to pass.(1) Good has come to the people of God, andblessedness awaits that man through whom the good came. And evil is stirred up as regards the hostthat is gathered together by means of the evil and arrogant one who glories; and woe also is therereserved for him through whom the evil is stirred up. But do not, my beloved, reproach the evilperson who has inflicted evil upon many; because the times were beforehand disposed and the time oftheir accomplishment has arrived.

§2. Therefore because it is the time of the Evil One, hear in mystery that which I am writingfor thee. For thus it is written:-Whatsoever is exalted amongst men is despicable beforeGod.(2) And again it iswritten:-Everyone who exalteth himself shall be abased, and everyone who humbleth himself shall beexalted.(3) Also Jeremiah said:-Let notthe mighty glory in his might, nor the rich in his riches.(4) And again the blessed Apostle said:-Whosoeverglorieth, let him glory in the Lord.(5)And David said:-I saw the wicked exalted and lifted up as the cedar of Lebanon; and when I passedby he was not, and I sought him and found him not.(6)

§3. For every one that glories shall be humbled. Cain gloried over Abel his brother and slewhim. And he was cursed and became a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth. Again the Sodomites gloriedover Lot, and there fell upon them fire from heaven and burned them up and their city was overthrownupon them. And Esau gloried over Jacob and persecuted him, and Jacob received the birthright andblessings of Esau. And the children of Jacob gloried over Joseph, and (afterwards) fell down andworshipped him in Egypt. And Pharaoh gloried over Moses and over his people; and Pharaoh and his hostwere drowned in the sea. And Dathan and Abiram gloried over Moses, and they went down alive to Sheol.And Goliath threatened David, and he fell before him and was crushed. And again Saul persecutedDavid, and he fell by the sword of the Philistines. And Absalom exalted himself against him, and Joabslew him in the battle. Again Benhadad gloried over Ahab, and he was delivered into the hand ofIsrael. And Sennacherib blasphemed against Hezekiah and his God, and his host became dead carcaseswhen one of the Watchers went forth and slew in the camp one hundred and eighty-five thousand at theprayer of Hezekiah and at the prayer of Prophet Isaiah, most glorious of the Prophets. Ahab exaltedhimself over Micah, and he went up and fell in Ramoth Gilead. Jezebel gloried over Elijah, and thedogs devoured her in the portion of Jezreel. Haman gloried over Mordecai, and his iniquity turnedback upon his own head. The Babylonians gloried over Daniel and cast him into the den of lions, andDaniel came up victorious, and they were cast instead of him into the den. Again the Babyloniansgloried and accused Hananiah and his companions, and they were cast into the furnace of fire; andthey came up victorious and the flame devoured the accusers.

§4. Now Nebuchadnezzar said:-I will ascend to heaven and exalt my throne above the starsof God and sit in the lofty mountains that are in the borders of the North.(7) Isaiah said concerning him:-Because thy hearthas thus exalted thee, therefore thou shalt be brought down to Sheol, and all that look upon theeshall be astonished at thee.(8) AndSennacherib also said thus:-I will go up to the summit of the mountains and to the shoulders ofLebanon.(9) I will dig and drink waterand will dry up with my horses' hoofs all the deep rivers. And because he thus exalted himself,Isaiah again said concerning him:-Why does the axe boast itself against him that cutteth with it,or the saw exalt itself against him that saweth with it, or the rod lift itself up against him thatwieldeth it?(10) For thou, Sennacherib,art the axe in the hands of Him that cuts, and thou art the saw in the hands of Him that saws, andthe rod in the hand of Him that wields thee for chastisement, and thou art the staff for smiting.Thou art sent against the fickle people, and again thou art ordained against the stubborn people,that thou mayest carry away the captivity and take the spoil; and thou hast made them as the mire ofthe streets for all men and for all the Gentiles. And when thou hast done all these things, why artthou exalted against Him Who holds thee, and why dost thou boast against Him Who saws with thee, andwhy hast thou reviled the holy city? and hast said to the children of Jerusalem:-Can your Goddeliver you from my hand?(11) And thouhast dared to say:-Who is the Lord that He shall deliver you from my hands? Because of this,hear the word of the Lord, saying:-I will crush the Assyrian in My land, and on My mountains willI tread him down.(12) And when he shallhave been crushed and trodden down, the Virgin, the daughter of Zion, will despise him, and thedaughter of Jerusalem will shake her head and say:-Whom hast thou reviled and blasphemed, andagainst whom hast thou lifted up thy voice? Thou hast lifted up thine eyes towards heaven against theHoly One of Israel, and by the hands of thy messengers thou hast reviled the lord. Now see that thehook has been forced into thy nostrils, and the bridle into thy lips, and thou hast turned back withthine heart crushed, who camest with thine heart uplifted.(13) And his slaying was by the hands of his lovedones; and in the house of his confidence,(14)there was he over- thrown, and fell before his god. And truly it was fight, my beloved, that his bodyshould thus become a sacrifice and offering before that god on whom he relied, and in his temple, asa memorial for his idol.

§5. Again the ram was lifted up and exalted, and pushed with its horns towards the west, andtowards the north, and towards the south, and humbled many beasts. And they could not stand beforehim, until the he-goat came from the west and smote the ram and broke his horns and humbled the ramcompletely. But the ram was the King of Media and Persia, that is, Darius; and the he-goat wasAlexander, the son of Philip, the Macedonian. For Daniel saw the ram when he was in the Eastbefore the gate of Shushan the fortress that is in the province of Elam, upon the river Ulai. And hewas pushing towards the West and towards the North and towards the South. And none of the beastscould stand before him.(15) And thehe-goat of the goats came up from the region of the Greeks, and exalted himself against the ram, Andhe smote him and broke both his horns, the greater and the lesser. And why did he say that he brokeboth his horns? Clearly because he humbled both the kingdoms which he ruled; the lesser, that of theMedes, and the greater, that of the Persians. But when Alexander the Greek came, he slew Darius, Kingof Media and Persia. For thus the angel said to Daniel, when he was explaining the vision tohim:-The ram that thou sawest was the King of Media and Persia, and the he-goat the King of theGreeks.(16) Now, from the time that thetwo horns of the ram were broken, until this time, there have been six hundred and forty-eightyears.(17)

§6. Therefore, as for the ram, its horns are broken. And though its horns are broken, lo! itexalts and uplifts itself against the fourth beast, that is strong and mighty and its teeth ofiron and its hoofs of brass, and it shall devour and grind down, and trample with its feet whatsoeverremaineth.(18) O Ram, whose horns arebroken, rest thou from the beast, and provoke it not lest it devour thee and grind thee to powder.The ram could not stand before the he-goat; how shall it stand before that terrible beast, whosemouth speaketh great things,(19) andwhatsoever it finds it couches over as a lion over his prey? Whoever provokes the lion becomes itsportion; and whoever stirs up that beast, it shall devour him. And who is there that shall escape outfrom under the feet of that beast when it is trampling on him? For the beast shall not be slain untilthe Ancient of Days shall sit upon the throne, and the Son of Man shall come near before Him, andauthority shall be given to Him.(20) Thenshall that beast be slain and its carcase shall perish. And the Kingdom of the Son of Man shall beestablished, an eternal Kingdom, and His authority from generation to generation.

§7. Be quiet, O thou that dost exalt thyself; vaunt not thyself! For if thy wealth has liftedup thy heart, it is not more abundant than that of Hezekiah, who went in and boasted of it before theBabylonians, (yet) it was all of it carried away and went to Babylon. And if thou gloriest in thychildren, they shall be led away from thee to the Beast, as the children of King Hezekiah were ledaway, and became eunuchs in the palace of the King of Babylon.(21) And if thou dost glory in thy wisdom, thou dostnot in it excel the Prince of Tyre, whom Ezekiel reproached, saying unto him:-Art thou wiser thanDaniel, or hast thou seen by thy wisdom the things that are hid?(22) And if thy mind is puffed up by thy years, thatthey are many; they are not more in number than those of the Prince of Tyre who ruled the Kingdomduring the days of twenty-two Kings of the house of Judah, that is, for four hundred and forty years.And since the years of that King of Tyre were many, all the time he thus said in his heart, I amGod and sit in the seat of God in the heart of the seas.(23) But Ezekiel said to him: Thou art a man andthou art not God. For while the Prince of Tyre was walking without fault in the midst of thestones of fire, there was mercy upon him. But when his heart was lifted up, the cherub whoovershadoweth, destroyed him.(24)

§8. Now, what are the stones of fire, but the children of Zion and the children ofJerusalem? For in the ancient time, in the days of David and of Solomon his son, Hiram was a friendto those of the house of Israel. But when they were carried away captive from their place, herejoiced over them and spurned them with his feet, and did not remember the friendship of the houseof David. And as to that which I said that the children of Judah were called the stones offire, it was not of my own thought that I said it, but Jeremiah the Prophet spake concerningthem; for when he was calling forth tears for them in the Lamentations, he said:-The children ofZion were more excellent than precious stones.(25) And again he said:-How are the stones of theSanctuary cast down at the head of all the streets?(26) And again He said by the Prophet:-The stoneswere holy that were cast down in his land.(27) And as to these very stones, the fire was burningin them, as Jeremiah said:-The word of the Lord became in my heart like burning fire and it washot in my bones.(28) And again He said toJeremiah:-Lo! I give My word in thy mouth as fire, and this people shall be as wood.(29) And again He said words shall go forth as fire,and as iron that cutteth the stone.(30) Onthis account the Prophets, amongst whom Hiram the Prince of Tyre was walking, were called stonesof fire.

§9. And again (God) said to him:-Thou wast with the Cherub who was anointed andovershadowing.(31) For the king, who wasanointed with the holy oil, was called a Cherub. And he was overshadowing all his people, as Jeremiahsaid:-The anointed of the Lord is the breath of our nostrils, he of whom we said that in hisshadow shall we live amongst the Gentiles.(32) For they were sitting in the shadow of the king,while he was standing at their head. And when the crown of their head fell, they were without shade,And if any one should say that this word is spoken concerning Christ, let him receive that which Iwrite for him without disputation, and thus he will be persuaded that it was said with reference tothe king. For Jeremiah said in behalf of the people:-Woe unto us, for the crown of our head hasfallen!(33) But Christ has not fallen,because He rose again the third day. For the king fell from the house of Judah, and never again wastheir kingdom set up. And as for that He said again:-I will destroy the overshadowingCherub.(34) For the Cherub that He willdestroy is Nebuchadnezzar, as it is written:- He performed a work in Tyre, and there was given himby Tyre no hire for his host, and in return for the work of Tyre there was given him the land ofEgypt.(35) And why was hire not given byTyre to Nebuchadnezzar? Clearly because its wealth went away in the sea, so that Nebuchadnezzar didnot receive it. And at that time He destroyed the overshadowing Cherub, which isNebuchadnezzar. For there are two Cherubs, one anointed and overshadowing, and one overshadowing butnot anointed. For He said above:-Thou wast with the Cherub anointed and overshadowing.(36) And lower down He said:-I will destroy theethe overshadowing Cherub;(37) and did notsay "anointed." For Nebuchadnezzar was not anointed; but David and Solomon were, and the other kingswho arose after them. And how was Nebuchadnezzar called overshadowing? Clearly on account ofthe vision of the tree, when he saw a tree in the midst of the earth, beneath which dwelt all thebeasts of the wilderness and on its branches dwelt all the birds of heaven, and from it all flesh wasfed. When Daniel interpreted his dream to him, Daniel said to him:-Thou art the tree, that treewhich thou sawest in the midst of the earth and beneath thee dwell all the nations.(38) On this account he was the overshadowingCherub; who destroyed the Prince of Tyre, because he rejoiced over the children of Israel, forthat they were carried away captive from their land, and because his heart was exalted. This Tyrealso lay waste seventy years like Jerusalem which sat in desolation seventy years. For Isaiah saidconcerning it:-Tyre shall wander seventy years, as the days of one king, and shall commitfornication with all the kingdoms that are upon the face of the earth.(39)

§10. O thou that art exalted and lifted up, let not the vaunting of thine heart mislead thee,nor say thou, I will go up against the rich land and against the powerful beast For that beast willnot be slain by the ram seeing that its horns are broken. For the he-goat broke the horns of theram.(40) Now the he-goat has become the mightybeast. For when the children of Japhet held the kingdom, then they slew Darius, the king of Persia.Now the fourth beast has swallowed up the third. And this third consists of the children of Japhet,and the fourth consists of the children of Shem, for they are the children of Esau. Because, whenDaniel saw the vision of the four beasts, he saw first the children of Ham, the seed of Nimrod, whichthe Babylonians are; and secondly, the Persians and Medes, who are the children of Japhet; andthirdly, the Greeks, the brethren of the Medes; and fourthly, the children of Shem, which thechildren of Esau are. For a confederacy was formed between the children of Japhet and the children ofShem. Then the government was taken away from the children of Japhet, the younger, and was given toShem, the elder; and to this day it continues, and will continue for ever. But when the time of theconsummation of the dominion of the children of Shem shall have come, the Ruler, who came forth fromthe children of Judah, shall receive the kingdom, when He shall come in His second Advent.

§11. For in the vision of Nebuchadnezzar, when he saw it, which Daniel made known and showedto Nebuchadnezzar, when he saw the image which stood over against him, the head of the image wasof gold, and its breast and arms of silver, and its belly and thighs of brass, and its legs and feelof iron and potter's clay.(41) And Danielsaid to Nebuchadnezzar:-Thou art the head of gold.(42) And why was he called the head of gold? Was itnot because the word of Jeremiah was fulfilled in him? For Jeremiah said:-Babylon is a golden cupin the hand of the Lord, that makes all the earth to of its wine.(43) And also Babylon was called the head of all thekingdoms, as it is written:-Babylon was the head of the of Nimrod.(44)

§12. And he said that the breast and the arms of the image were of silver. Thissignified concerning a kingdom which was inferior to it; namely, Darius the Mede. For (God) put thekingdom into the balance. For the kingdom of the house of Nimrod was weighed and was found wanting.And since it was wanting, Darius received it. Because of this he said that his kingdom wasinferior.(45) And because it was inferior,the children of Media did not rule in all the earth. Now the belly and thighs of the image were ofbrass, and he said:-The third kingdom shall rule in all the earth.(46) It is the kingdom of the children of Javan, whoare children of Japhet. For the children of Javan came in against the kingdom of their brethren. ForMadai and Javan are sons of Japhet.(47) ButMadai was foolish and incapable of governing the kingdom, until Javan, his brother came, who was wiseand cunning, to destroy the kingdom, For Alexander, son of Philip, ruled in all the earth.

§13. And the legs and feet of the image were of iron. This is the kingdom of thechildren of Shem, who are the children of Esau, which is strong as iron. And he said:-As ironbreaks and subdueth everything, so also the fourth kingdom shall break and bruiseeverything.(48) And he explained withreference to the feet and toes, that part of them was of iron and part of them of potter's clay. Forhe said:-Thus they shall be mingled with the seed of man, and they shall not cleave one toanother, as iron cannot be mixed with clay.(49) This referred to the fourth kingdom. Because inthe kingdom of the children of Esau(50) therewas not a king, the son of a king, established to govern the kingdom; but when the children of Esauwere gathered together into a powerful city, then they made a senate. And from thence they used toset up as chief of the city a wise man to govern the kingdom, lest when the Governor of their kingdomshould weigh them, they might be found wanting, and the kingdom might be taken away from them as thekingdom of the children of arrogant Nimrod was taken away and given to the children of foolish Madai.And this king who was set up, the seed of that former king was destroying him; and they did notcleave one to another. But as to the seed of man which is compared with the clay, the meaning isthis; that when the king was chosen for the kingdom, he mingled himself with the root of the kingdomof iron.

§14. And he showed that in the days of those kings, who shall arise in the kingdom, theGod of heaven will set up a kingdom which shall not be destroyed and shall not pass away forever.(51) This is the Kingdom of KingMessiah, which is that which shall cause the fourth kingdom to pass away. And above he said:-Thousawest a stone which was cut out, but not by hands; and it smote the image upon its feet of iron andpotter's clay and broke them to pieces.(52) Now he did not say that it smote upon the head ofthe image, nor on its breast and arms, nor yet on its belly and thighs, but on its feet; becausethat, of the whole image, that stone when it comes will find the feet alone. And in the next verse hesaid:-The iron and the brass and the silver and the gold were broken to piecestogether.(53) For after them, when KingMessiah shall reign, then He will humble the fourth kingdom, and will break the whole image; for bythe whole image the world is meant. Its head is Nebuchadnezzar; its breast and arms the King of Mediaand Persia; its belly and thighs the King of the Greeks; its legs and feet the kingdom of thechildren of Esau; the stone, which smote the image and brake it, and with which the whole earth wasfilled, is the kingdom of King Messiah, Who will bring to nought the kingdom of this world, and Hewill rule for ever and ever.

§15. Again hear concerning the vision of the four beasts which Daniel saw coming up out ofthe sea and diverse one from another. This is the appearance of them:-The first was like a lion,and it had the wings of an eagle. And I saw that its wings were plucked away, and it stood up like aman upon its feet, and the heart of a man was given to it.(54) And the second beast was like a bear, and itraised itself up upon one side and there were three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. And thethird beast was like a leopard, and it had four wings and four heads. And the fourth beast wasexceedingly terrible and strong and powerful, and it had great teeth. It devoured and brake topieces, and whatsoever remained, it stamped with its feet. Now the great sea that Danielsaw(55) is the world: and these four beastsare the four kingdoms signified above.

§16. Now as to the first beast, he said concerning it, that it was like a lion, and it hadthe wings of an eagle. For the first beast was the kingdom of Babylon, which was like a lion. Forthus Jeremiah wrote saying:-Israel is a wandering sheep. The lions caused them to wander. Firstthe king of Assyria devoured him. And this last was stronger than he, Nebuchadnezzar king ofBabylon.(56) So Jeremiah called him alion. And he said:-He has the wings of an eagle. For thus it is written that, whenNebuchadnezzar went out to the wilderness with the beasts, he grew hair like (the plumage) of aneagle. And he said:-I saw that its wings were plucked away and it stood upright upon its feet as aman, and a man's heart was given to it.(57) For first, in the vision of the image, he wascompared to gold which is more precious thou anything which is used in the world. So in the vision ofthe beasts he is compared to a lion which excels in its might all the beasts. And again he wascompared to an eagle which surpasses every bird. Whatsoever was written about him was fulfilled inhim. For the Lord said concerning him: -I have placed a yoke of iron upon the neck of all thenations, and they shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. And also the beasts of the desertand the birds of heaven have I given to him to serve him.(58) For since the king was like the head of gold, menserved him as a king. And when he went out to the wilderness, the beasts served him as a lion. Andwhen his hair was like (the plumage) of an eagle, the birds of heaven served him as an eagle. Butwhen his heart was lifted up, and he knew not that the power was given to him from heaven, the yokeof iron was broken from the neck of men, and he went forth with the beasts, and instead of the heartof a king there was given him the heart of a lion. And when he was lifted up over the beasts, theheart of a lion was taken away from him, and there was given him the heart of a bird. And when wingsgrew upon him like those of an eagle, he exalted himself over the birds. And then his wings also wereplucked away and there was given to him a humble heart. And when be knew that the Most High hasauthority in the kingdom of man, to give it to whomsoever He will, then as a man he praised Him.

§17. And as for the second beast, he said concerning him that it was like a bear andraised itself up upon one side. Because when the kingdom of Media and Persia arose, it arose inthe east. And three ribs were in its mouth. Because the ram was pushing towards the West andtowards the North and towards the South, towards three winds of heaven. These three winds it held,and pushed against, like the three ribs that were in the mouth of the bear; until the he-goat cameforth from the west, and smote the ram and took out the ribs that were in his mouth.

§18. And concerning the third beast he said that it was like a leopard, and it had fourbirds' wings on its back and that beast had four heads. Now this third beast was Alexander theMacedonian. For he was strong as a leopard. And as for the four wings and the four heads that thebeast had, that was because he gave the kingdom to his four friends to govern after him, when he hadcome and slain Darius and reigned in his stead.

§19. And of the fourth beast he said that it was exceedingly terrible and strong and mighty,devouring and crushing and trampling with its feet anything that remained. It is the kingdom of thechildren of Esau.(59) Because after thatAlexander the Macedonian became king, the kingdom of the Greeks was founded, since Alexander also wasone of them, even of the Greeks. But the vision of the third beast was fulfilled in him, since thethird and the fourth were one. Now Alexander reigned for twelve years. And the kings of the Greeksarose after Alexander, being seventeen kings, and their years were two hundred and sixty-nine yearsfrom Seleucus Nicanor to Ptolemy. And the Caesars were from Augustus to Philip Caesar, seventeenkings. And their years are two hundred and ninety-three years;(60) and eighteen years of Severus.

§20. For Daniel said:-I was considering the ten horns that were upon the head of thebeast. Far the ten horns were ten kings(61) who arose at that time until Antiochus. Andhesaid:-A little horn arose from between those ten and three fell before it.(62) For when Antiochus arose in the kingdom, hehumbled three kings, and he exalted himself against the saints of the Most High and againstJerusalem. And he defiled the sanctuary.(63)And he caused the sacrifice and the offerings to cease for a week and half a week, namely, for testand a-half years. And he brought in fornicators into the house of the Lord, and he caused theobservances of the Law to cease.(64) And heslew righteous men and gave them to the birds of heaven and to the beasts of the earth. For in hisdays was fulfilled the word that David spoke:(65) -O God, the Gentiles have come into thineinheritance, and have defiled Thy holy temple. They have made Jerusalem desolate. They have given thedead bodies of Thy servants as food to the birds of heaven, and the flesh of Thy righteous ones tothe beasts of the earth. They have poured out their blood like water round about Jerusalem, and thereis none to bury them. For this was accomplished at that time, when the venerable and aged Eleazarwas slain, and the sons of the blessed Samuna, seven in number,(66) and when Judas (Maccabeus) and his brethren werestruggling on behalf of their people, when they were dwelling in hiding-places.(67) At that time the horn made war with thesaints,(68) and their power prevailed. Andthe wicked Antiochus spake wards against the Most High, and change the times and theseasons.(69) And he made to cease thecovenant of Abraham, and abolished the Sabbath of rest.(70) For he commanded the Jews that they should notcircumcise. Therefore, (the Prophet) said concerning him;-He shall think to change the times andthe seasons and the laws, and they were given into his hand for a time, times, and half atime.(71) Now the time and half a time isthe week and a half, which is ten years and a half. Again he said:-The judgment was set and theytook away his authority from him, to injure and destroy him until the end of the kingdom.(72) For the judgment came upon Antiochus, a judgmentfrom heaven;(73) and he became sick with agrievous and evil sickness, and on account of the smell of him as he rotted, no man could approachhim, for worms were crawling and falling from him and eating his flesh because he oppressed theworm Jacob.(74) And his flesh rotted inhis lifetime, because he caused the dead bodies of the sons of Jerusalem to rot and they were notburied. And he became defiled in his own eyes, because he had defiled the sanctuary of God. And heprayed and was not heard,(75) because he didnot hearken to the groanings of the righteous whom he slew. For he wrote a letter and sent it to theJews and called them "my friends," but God had not mercy on him, but he died in his torment.

§21. He said again:-The saints of the Most High shall receive the Kingdom.(76) What shall we say concerning this? Have thechildren of Israel received the Kingdom of the Most High? God forbid. Or has that people come uponthe clouds of heaven? This has passed away from them. For Jeremiah said concerning them:-Call themrejected silver, for the Lord has rejected them.(77) Again he said:-He will not again regardthem.(78) And Isaiah said concerning them:-Pass by; pass by; approach not the defiled.(79) And concerning the saints of the Most High(Daniel) said thus:-They shall inherit the Kingdom for ever.(80) For these rested a little from the burden ofkings and princes,(81) namely, from afterthe death of Antiochus till the sixty-two weeks were fulfilled. And the Son of Man came to free themand gather them together, but they did not receive Him. For He came to obtain fruit from them, andthey did not give it to Him. For their vines were of the vine of Sodom and of the stock ofGomorrha, a vineyard(82) in which thornsgrew, and which bore wild grapes.(83)Their vine was bitter, and their fruit sour. The thorns could not be softened, nor could thebitterness change to the nature of wine, nor could the sour fruit change to a sweet nature.

§22. For Isaiah first set men of Judah as judges over them,(84) and there was planted amongst them a new andbeloved planting. But these are those judges who shall sit on twelve thrones and judge theirtwelve tribes.(85) And thus He said to thejudges:(86) -Judge between Me and Myvineyard, what further, O ye judges, should I have done to My vineyard, that I did not do? For lo! Iplanted it with vine scions, and they became strange vines. I surrounded it with a fenceof heavenly Watchers and I built its tower, the holy Temple. And I dug out itswinepress, the baptism of the priests. And I brought down rain upon it, the words of My Prophets.And I pruned it and trimmed it, from the works of the Amorites. I looked that it should producegrapes of righteousness, and it produced wild grapes of iniquity and sin. I looked forjudgment and behold oppression, and for righteousness and there was a cry. Hear, O ye judges, what Iwill do to My vineyard. I will break open its fence, and it shall be for down-treading. And will teardown its tower, and it shall be for pillage. And I will make it to become a desert because itproduced wild grapes. And shall not be dressed and it shall not be pruned. And thorns and weeds shallgrow up in it. And I will command the clouds that they send not down rain upon it. For theheavenly Watchers departed from the fence of the vineyard; and the mighty tower on which they reliedwas torn down. The winepress, the cleansing away of their offences, was overthrown. When the vinewas without blemish, it did not prove of service. Now that the fire has devoured it and that it islaid waste, how shall it prove of service? The fire has devoured its two branches and its inwardparts are wasted.(87) For its two branchesare the two kingdoms, and its inward part which is laid waste is Jerusalem. Many servants were sentto them by the Lord of the vineyard.(88) Andthey slew them and did not send the fruit to the Lord of the vineyard. After the servants the belovedSon was sent, to receive from them the fruit and to bring it back to Him that sent Him. And theyseized Him and cast Him out of the vineyard; and they cut spikes from the thorns of the vineyard andfixed them in His hands. And He was hungry and asked food of them; and they took and gave Him gallfrom the fruit of the vineyard. He was thirsty and asked of them drink; and they gave Him vinegar andHe would not drink it. And they platted a crown of thorns that had sprung up in the vineyard, andplaced it on the head of the Son of the Lord of the vineyard. For from the time that the vineyard wasmade, it displayed these fruits. Therefore its Lord uprooted it and cast it in the fire; and plantedgood fruit-bearing vines in the vineyard, and such as gladden the husbandman. For Christ is thevineyard, and His Father is the husbandman; and they who drink of His cup are the vines. Thereforevineyard was formed instead of vineyard. And furthermore at His coming He handed over the kingdom tothe Romans, as the children of Esau are called. And these children of Esau will keep the kingdom forits giver.

§23. And the holy People inherited an eternal Kingdom; the holy people who were choseninstead of the People. For He provoked them to jealousy with a people that was not a people. Andwith a foolish people He angered them.(89)And He set free the holy people. For lo! every covenant of God is freed from the burden of kingsand princes.(90) For even if a man hasserved the heathen, as soon as ever he draws nigh unto the covenant of God, he is set free. But theJews are toiling in bondage amongst the Gentiles. For thus he said about the Saints;-They shallinherit the Kingdom that is beneath the heaven.(91) But if he had said it about them (the Jews), whyare they toiling in service amongst the Gentiles? And if they say that it has not taken place as yet;then (we ask) is the Kingdom that shall be given to the Son of man, to be heavenly or earthly? Andlo! the children of the Kingdom are sealed, and they have received their emancipation from thisworld. For since it exists now, it will not be willing to be subjected to the power of the King, Whoshall come and take to Himself His Kingdom. But it will guard His pledges with honour, that when Heshall come to bring to nought the Kingdom, he may come upon them not in anger. For when He, Whoseis the Kingdom,(92) shall come in Hissecond coming, He will take to Himself whatever He has given. And He Himself will be King for everand ever. And His Kingdom shall not pass away, because it is an eternal Kingdom.

§24. For first, He gave the Kingdom to the sons of Jacob, and subdued to them the children ofEsau; as Isaac said to Esau :-Thou shall serve Jacob thy brother.(93) And when again they did not prosper in theKingdom, He took it away from the children of Jacob and gave it to the children of Esau until Heshould wine Whose it is.(94) And they willdeliver up the deposit to its Giver, and will not deal fraudulently with it. And the Guardian of theKingdom is subject to Him to Whom all things are subject. Therefore this Kingdom of the children ofEsau shall not be delivered up into the hand of the hosts that are gathered together, that desire togo up against it; because the Kingdom is being kept safe for its Giver, and He Himself will preserveit. And as to this that I wrote to thee, beloved, that the Kingdom of the children of Esau is beingkept safe for its Giver, doubt not about it, that that Kingdom will not be conquered. For a mightychampion Whose name is Jesus shall come with power, and bearing as His armour all the power of theKingdom. And search out and see that also by the poll-tax(95) He was enrolled amongst them. And as He wasenrolled by the poll-tax amongst them, He will also succour them. And His standard abounds in thatplace, and they are clothed in His armour, and shall not be found wanting in war. And if thoushouldest say unto me:-"In the years of the Kings that preceded these, why did they conquer andsubdue the beast?" It was because the chiefs and kings who stood up at that time in the Kingdom ofthe children of Esau did not wish to lead with them to the war the Man who was enrolled with them inthe poll-tax. Therefore the beast was subdued a little, but was not slain.

§25. But concerning these things that I have written for thee, my beloved, namely, concerningthat which is written in Daniel, I have not brought them to an end, but (have stopped) short of theend. And if any man dispute about them, say thus to him, that these words are not concluded, becausethe words of God are infinite, nor will they be concluded. For the foolish man says, "Here unto(these) words reach." And again, it is not possible to add to them or to diminish from them.(96) For the riches of God cannot be computed orlimited. For if thou take away water from the sea, the deficiency will be imperceptible. And if thouremove sand from the sea-shore, its measure will not be diminished. And if thou count the stars ofheaven, thou wilt not arrive at the sum of them. And if thou kindle fire from a burning, it will nota whit be lessened. And if thou receive of the Spirit of Christ, Christ will not a whir bediminished. And if Christ dwell in thee, yet He will not be completed in thee. And if the sun enterthe windows of thy house, yet the sun in its entirety will not come to thee, And all these thingsthat I have enumerated for thee were created by the word of God. Therefore know thou, that, asconcerning the word of God no man has reached or will reach its end. Therefore, have thou nodisputation about these things, but say:-"These things are so. That is enough." But hear these thingsfrom me, and also enquire about them of our brethren, children of our faith. But whosoever shall mockat the words of his brother, even if he say, "mine are wise," yet hearken not to his words. Andconcerning what I wrote to thee about these forces that are being stirred up to war, it is not asthough anything has been revealed to me that I have made known these things to thee, but attend tothe words at the head of the letter:-Every one who exalteth himself shall be humbled. For evenif the forces shall go up and conquer, yet know that it is a chastisement of God; and though theyconquer, they shall be condemned in a righteous judgment. But yet be thou assured of this. that thebeast shall be slain at its (appointed) time. But do thou, my brother, at this time be earnest inimploring mercy, that there may be peace upon the people of God.

Demonstration VI.-Of Monks.

§1. Expedient is the word that I speak and worthy of acceptance:-Let us now awake from oursleep,(1) and lift up both our hearts andhands to God towards heaven; lest suddenly the Lord of the house come, that when He comes He mayfind us in watchfulness.(2) Let us observethe appointed time of the glorious bridegroom,(3) that we may enter with Him into His bride-chamber.Let us prepare oil for our lamps that we may go forth to meet Him with joy. Let us make readyprovision for our abiding-place, for the way that is narrow and strait. And let us put away and castfrom us all uncleanness, and put on wedding garments. Let us trade with the silver that we havereceived,(4) that we may be called diligentservants. Let us be constant in prayer, that we may pass by the place where fear dwells. Let uscleanse our heart from iniquity, that we may see the Lofty One in His honour. Let us be merciful, asit is written, that God may have mercy upon us.(5) Let there be peace amongst us, that we may becalled the brethren of Christ. Let us hunger for righteousness, that we may be satisfied(6) from the table of His Kingdom. Let us be the saltof truth, that we may not become food for the serpent. Let us purge our seed from thorns, that we mayproduce fruit a hundred-fold. Let us found our building on the rock,(7) that it may not be shaken by the winds and waves.Let us be vessels unto honour(8) that we maybe required by the Lord for His use. Let us sell all our possessions, and buy for ourselves thepearl,(9) that we may be rich. Let us lay upour treasures in heaven,(10) that when we comewe may open them and have pleasure in them. Let us visit our Lord in the persons of the sick,(11) that He may invite us to stand at His right hand.Let us hate ourselves and love Christ, as He loved us and gave Himself up for our sakes.(12) Let us honour the spirit of Christ, that we mayreceive grace from Him. Let us be strangers to the world,(13) even as Christ was not of it. Let us be humbleand mild, that we may inherit the land of life. Let us be unflagging in His service, that He maycause us to serve in the abode of the saints. Let us pray His prayer in purity, that it may haveaccess to the Lord of Majesty. Let us be partakers in His suffering, that so we may also rise up inHis resurrection.(14) Let us bear His signupon our bodies, that we may be delivered from the wrath to come. For fearful is the day in which Hewill come, and who is able to endure it?(15)Furious and hot is His wrath, and it will destroy all the wicked. Let us set upon our head the helmetof redemption,(16) that we may not be woundedand die in the battle. Let us gird our loins with truth, that we may not be found impotent in thecontest. Let us arise and awaken Christ, that He may still the stormy blasts from us Let us take as ashield against the Evil One, the preparation of the Gospel of our Redeemer. Let us receive power fromour Lord to tread upon snakes and scorpions.(17) Let us lay aside from us wrath, with all fury andmalice. Let no reviling proceed out of our mouth, with which we pray unto God. Let us not be cursers,that we may be delivered from the curse of the law. Let us be diligent workers, that we may obtainour reward with those of old. Let us take up the burden of the day, that we may seek a more abundantreward. Let us not be idle workers, for lo! our Lord has hired us for His vineyard.(18) Let us be planted as vines in the midst of Hisvineyard, for it is the true vineyard. Let us be fruitful vines, that we may not be uprooted out ofHis vineyard. Let us be a sweet odour, that our fragrance may breathe forth to all around. Let us bepoor in the world, and let us enrich many by the doctrine of our Lord. Let us not call anyone ourfather in the earth,(19) that we may be thechildren of the Father which is in heaven. Though we have nothing, yet We possess all things.(20) Though no man know us, yet they that haveknowledge of us are many. Let us rejoice in our hope at every time,(21) that He Who is our hope and our Redeemer mayrejoice in us. Let us judge ourselves righteously and condemn ourselves, that we may not hang downour faces before the judges who shall sit upon thrones and judge the tribes.(22) Let us take to ourselves, as armour for thecontest,(23) the preparation of the Gospel.Let us knock at the door of heaven,(24) thatit may be opened before us, and we may enter in through it.

Let us diligently ask for mercy, that we may receive whatsoever is necessary for us. Let us seekHis Kingdom and His righteousness,(25) that wemay receive increase in the land. Let us think upon the things which are above,(26) on the heavenly things, and meditate on them,where Christ has been lifted up and exalted. But let us forsake the world which is not ours, that wemay arrive at the place to which we have been invited. Let us raise up our eyes on high, that we maysee the splendour which shall be revealed. Let us lift up our wings as eagles, that we may see thebody there where it is. Let us prepare as offerings for the King desirable fruits, fasting andprayer. Let us guard His pledge in purity, that He may trust us over all His treasury. For whosoeverdeals falsely with His pledge, they suffer him not to enter into the treasure-house. Let us becareful of the body of Christ, that our bodies may rise at the sound of the trumpet. Let us hearkento the voice of the bridegroom, that we may go in with Him into the bride-chamber. Let us prepare themarriage-gift for His bridal day, and let us go forth to meet Him with joy. Let us put on holyraiment, that we may recline in the chief place of the elect. Whosoever puts not on weddingraiment,(27) they cast him out into outerdarkness. Whosoever excuses himself from the wedding shall not taste the feast.(28) Whosoever loves fields and merchandise, shall beshut out of the city of Saints. Whosoever does not bear fruit in the vineyard, shall be uprooted andcast out to torment. Whosoever has received money from his Lord, let him return it to its Giver withits increase.(29) Whosoever desires to becomea merchant, let, him buy for himself the field and the treasure that is in it.(30) Whosoever receives the good seed, let him purgehis land from thorns.(31) Whosoever desires tobe a fisherman, let him cast forth his net at every time. Whosoever is training for the conflict, lethim keep himself from the world. Whosoever wishes to gain the crown, let him run as a winner in therace. Whosoever wishes to go down into the course to contend, let him learn to (contend) against hisadversary. Whosoever wishes to go down to the battle, let him take unto him armour wherewith tofight, and let him purify himself at every time. Whosoever adopts the likeness of angels, let him bea stranger to men, Whosoever takes upon him the yoke of the saints, let him remove from him gettingand spending. Whosoever desires to gain himself, let him remove from him the gain of the world.Whosoever loves the abode that is in heaven, let him not toil at the building of clay that will fall.Whosoever is expectant of being caught up in the clouds, let him not make for himself adornedchariots. Whosoever is expectant of the marriage-feast of the Bridegroom, let him not love the feastof this present time. Whosoever wishes to have pleasure in the banquet reserved there, let him removedrunkenness from himself. Whosoever prepares himself for the supper, let him not excusehimself,(32) nor be a merchant. Whosoever hebe on whom the good seed falls, let him not allow the Evil One to sow tares in him. Whosoever hasbegun to build a tower, let him count up all the cost thereof.(33) Whosoever builds ought to finish, that he be nota laughing-stock to them that pass by the way. Whosoever sets his building on the rock, let him makeits foundations deep, that it may not be cast down by the billows. Whosoever wishes to fly from thedarkness, let him walk while he has light.(34)Whosoever tears to fly in winter,(35) let himprepare himself from the summer-time. Whosoever looks forward to enter into rest,(36) let him make ready his provision for the Sabbath.Whosoever begs forgiveness of his Lord, let him also forgive his debtor. Whosoever does not demand back a hundred dinars, his Lord forgives him tenthousand talents. Whosoever casts down his Lord's money on the banker's table,(37) will not be called an unprofitable servant.Whosoever loves humility, shall be heir in the land of life. Whosoever wishes to make peace, shall beone of the sons of God.(38) Whosoever knowsthe will of his Lord, let him do that will, that he may not be beaten much.(39) Whosoever cleanses his heart from deceits, Hiseyes shall behold the King in his beauty.(40) Whosoever receives the Spirit of Christ, let himadorn his inner man. Whosoever is called the temple of God,(41) let him purify his body from all uncleanness.Whosoever grieves the Spirit of Christ,(42)shall not raise up his head from griefs. Whosoever receives the body of Christ, let him keep his bodyfrom all uncleanness. Whosoever casts off the old man,(43) let him not turn back to his former works.Whosoever puts on the new man, let him keep himself from all filthiness. Whosoever has put onarmour from the water (of baptism), let him not put off his armour that he may not be condemned.Whosoever takes up the shield(44) against theEvil One, let him keep himself from the darts which he hurls at him. Whosoever shall drawback, his Lord has no pleasure in him.(45) Whosoever thinks upon the Law of his Lord, shallnot be troubled with the thoughts of this world. Whosoever meditates on the Law of his Lord, is likea tree planted by the waters.(46) Whosoeveragain has trust in his Lord, is like a tree that is set out by the river. Whosoever puts his trust inman shall receive the curses of Jeremiah.(47)Whosoever is invited to the Bridegroom, let him prepare himself. Whosoever has lighted his lamp, lethim not suffer it to go out. Whosoever is expectant of the marriage-cry, let him take oil in hisvessel.(48) Whosoever is keeper of the door,let him be on the watch for his Master. Whosoever loves virginity, let him become like Elijah.Whosoever takes up the yoke of the Saints, let him sit and be silent. Whosoever loves peace, let himlook for his Master as the hope of life.

§2. For, my beloved, our adversary is skilful. He that contends against us is crafty. Againstthe brave and the renowned does he prepare himself, that they may be weakened. For the feeble are hisown, nor does he fight with the captivity that are made captive to him. He that has wings flees fromhim and the darts that he hurls at him do not reach him. They that are spiritual see him when heassails, and his panoply has no power upon their bodies. All the children of light are without fearof him, because the darkness flies from before the light. The children of the Good fear not the Evil,for He hath given him to be trampled by their feet. When he makes himself like darkness unto them,they become light. And when he creeps upon them like a serpent, they become salt, whereof he cannoteat. If he makes himself like the asp unto them, then they become like babes. If he comes in uponthem in the lust of food, they, like our Redeemer, conquer him by fasting. And if he wishes tocontend with them by the lust of the eyes, they lift up their eyes to the height of heaven. If hewishes by enticements to overcome them, they do not afford him a hearing. If he wishes openly tostrive with them, lo! they are clothed in panoply and stand up against him. If he wishes to come inagainst them by sleep, they are wakeful and vigilant and sing psalms and pray. If he allures them bypossessions, they give them to the poor. If he comes in as sweetness against them, they taste it not,knowing that he is bitter. If he inflames them with the desire of Eve, they dwell alone, and not withthe daughters of Eve.

§3. For it was through Eve that he came in upon Adam,(49) and Adam was enticed because of his inexperience.And again he came in against Joseph through his master's wife,(50) but Joseph was acquainted with his craftiness andwould not afford him a hearing. Through a woman he fought with Samson,(51) until he took away his Nazariteship. Reuben wasthe first-born of all his brethren, and through his father's wife,(52) (the adversary) cast a blemish upon him. Aaronwas the great high-priest of the house of Israel, and through Miriam(53) his sister he envied Moses. Moses was sent todeliver the people from Egypt, and took with him the woman who advised him to shameful acts,(54) and the Lord met with Moses, and desired to slayhim, till he sent back his wife to Midian. David was victorious in all his battles, yet through meansof a daughter of Eve(55) there was found ablemish in him. Amnon was beautiful and fair in countenance, yet (the adversary) took him captive bydesire for his sister,(56) and Absalom slewhim on account of the humbling of Tamar. Solomon was greater than all the kings of the earth, yet inthe days of his old age his wives led his heart astray.(57) Through Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, thewickedness of Ahab was increased,(58) and hebecame altogether a heathen. Furthermore, the adversary tempted Job through his children and hispossessions,(59) and when he could not prevailover him, he went and brought against him his armour, and he came, bringing with him a daughter ofEve, who had caused Adam to sink, and through her mouth he said to Job, her righteoushusband:-Curse God.(60) But Jobrejected her counsel. King Asa also conquered the Accursed-of-life, when he wished to come in againsthim, through his mother.(61) For Asa knew hiscraftiness and removed his mother from her high estate, and cut in pieces her idol and cast it down.John was greater than all the prophets, yet Herod slew him because of the dancing of a daughter ofEve.(62) Haman was wealthy and third in honourfrom the King, yet his wife counselled him to destroy the Jews.(63) Zimri was head of the tribe of Simeon, yet Cozbi,daughter of the chiefs of Midian, overthrew him, and because of one woman twenty-four thousand ofIsrael fell in one day.(64)

§4. Therefore, my brethren, if any man who is a monk or a saint, who loves the solitary life,yet desires that a woman, bound by monastic vow like himself, should dwell with him, it would bebetter for him in that case to take (to wife) a woman openly and not be made wanton by lust. So alsoagain the woman, if she be not separated from the solitary, it is better for her to marry openly.Woman then ought to dwell with woman, and man to dwell with man. And also whatever man desires tocontinue in holiness, let not his spouse dwell with him, lest he turn back to his former condition,and so be esteemed an adulterer. Therefore this counsel is becoming and right and good, that I giveto myself and you, my beloved solitaries, who do not take wives, and to the virgins who do not marry,and to those who have loved holiness. It is just and right and becoming, that even if a man should bedistressed, he should continue alone. And thus it becomes him to dwell, as it is written in theProphet Jeremiah:-Blessed is the man who shall take up Thy yoke in his youth, and sit alone and besilent, because he has taken upon him Thy yoke.(65) For thus, my beloved, it becomes him who takes upthe yoke of Christ, to preserve his yoke in purity.

§5. For thus it is written, my beloved, concerning Moses, that from the time the Holy One wasrevealed to him, he also loved holiness. And from the time he was sanctified, his wife ministered notto him. But it is thus written:-Joshua, the son of Nun, was the minister of Moses from hischildhood.(66) And of Joshua again it isthus written concerning him, that he used not to depart from the tabernacle.(67) And the temporal tabernacle was not ministered toby a woman, because the Law did not allow women to enter the temporal tabernacle, but even when theycame to pray, they used to pray at the door of the temporal tabernacle, and then turn back. Moreover,he commanded the Priests, that at the time of their ministry they should continue in holiness, andshould not know their wives. And also concerning Elijah it is thus written, that at one time he dweltin Mount Carmel, and at another he dwelt at the brook Cherith, and was ministered to by his disciple;and because his heart was in heaven, the bird of heaven used to bring sustenance to him; and becausehe took upon him the likeness of the angels of heaven, those very angels brought him bread and waterwhen he was fleeing from before Jezebel.(68)And because he set nil his thought in heaven, he was caught up in the chariot of fire toheaven,(69) and there his dwelling-place wasestablished for ever. Elisha also walked in the footsteps of his Master. He used to dwell in theupper chamber of the Shunamite, and was ministered to by his disciple. For thus the Shunamitesaid;-He is a holy Prophet of God and passes by us continually, for thus it becomes his holinessthat we should make for hint an upper chamber and do for him the service that is (necessary) init.(70) Now what was the service necessaryin the upper chamber of Elisha? Clearly the bed and table and stool and lamp-stand only. But whatshall we say of John? He also used to dwell amongst men, and preserved his virginity honourably, andreceived the Spirit of God. More- over, the blessed Apostle said concerning himself and concerningBarnabas:-Had we then not power to eat and to drink and to lead about wives with us? But it was nobecoming or right.(71)

§6. Therefore, brethren, because we know and have seen that from the beginning it was throughwoman that the adversary had access unto men, and to the end he will accomplish it by her-for she isthe weapon of Satan, and through her he fights against the champions. Through her he makes music atevery time, for she became as a harp for him from the first day. For because of her the curse of theLaw was established, and because of her the promise unto death was made. For with pangs she bearschildren and delivers them to death. Because of her the earth was cursed, that it should bring forththorns and tares. Accordingly, by the coming of the offspring of the Blessed Mary the thorns areuprooted, the sweat wiped away, the fig-tree cursed,(72) the dust made salt,(73) the curse nailed to the cross,(74) the edge of the sword removed from before thetree of life and it given as food to the faithful, and Paradise promised to the blessed and tovirgins and to the saints. So the fruit of the tree of life is given as food to the faithful and tovirgins, and to those that do the will of God has the door been opened and the way made plain. Andthe fountain flows and gives drink to the thirsty. The table is laid and the supper prepared. Thefatted ox is slain and the cup of redemption mixed. The feast is prepared and the Bridegroom at hand,soon to take his place. The apostles have given the invitation and the called are very many. O yechosen, prepare yourselves. The light has shone forth both bright and fair, and garments not madewith hands are prepared. The marriage cry is at hand. The tombs will be opened and the treasures laidbare. The dead shall rise and the living shall fly to meet the King. The banquet is laid, and thecornet shall encourage and the trumpets shall hasten (them). The Watchers of heaven shall speed, andthe throne shall be set for the Judge. He that laboured shall rejoice, and he that was unprofitableshall fear. He that did evil shall not draw nigh unto the Judge. Those on the right hand shall exult,and those on the left shall weep and wail. Those that are in the light shall be glorified, and thosethat are in the darkness shall groan that they may moisten their tongue. Grace has gone by, andjustice reigns. There is no repentance in that place. Winter is at hand; the summer has passed away.The Sabbath of rest has come; toil has ceased. Night has passed away; the light reigns. As to death,its sting is broken and it is swallowed up in life.(75) Those that return to Sheol shall weep and gnashtheir teeth, and those that go to the Kingdom shall rejoice and exult and dance and sing praises. Forthose that take not wives shall be ministered to by the Watchers of heaven. Those that preservechastity shall rest in the sanctuary of the Most High. The Only Begotten Who is from the bosom of HisFather shall cause all the solitaries to rejoice. There is there neither male nor female, neitherbond nor free,(76) but they all are thechildren of tile Most High. And all the pure virgins who are betrothed to Christ shall light theirlamps(77) and with the Bridegroom shall theygo into the marriage chamber. All those that are betrothed to Christ are far removed from the curseof the Law, and are redeemed from the condemnation of the daughters of Eve; for they are not weddedto men so as to receive the curses and come into the pains. They take no thought of death, becausethey do not deliver children to him. And in place of a mortal husband, they are betrothed to Christ.And because they do not bear children, there is Given to them the name that is better than sonsand daughters.(78) And instead of thegroans of the daughters of Eve, they utter the songs of the Bridegroom. The wedding-feast of thedaughters of Eve continues for but seven days; but for these (virgins) is the Bridegroom who departsnot for ever. The adornment of the daughters of Eve is wool that wears out and perishes, but thegarments of these wear not out. Old age withers the beauty of the daughters of Eve, but the beauty ofthese shall be renewed in the time of the Resurrection.

§7. O ye virgins who have betrothed yourselves to Christ, when one of the monks shall say toone of you, "I will live with thee and minister thou to me," thus shalt thou say unto him:-"To aroyal husband am I betrothed, and Him do I serve; and if I leave His service and serve thee, mybetrothed will be wroth with me, and will write me a letter of divorce, and will send me away fromHis house; and while thou seekest to be honoured by me, and I to be honoured by thee, take heed lesthurt come upon me and thee. Take not fire into thy bosom,(79) lest it burn thy garments; but be thou in honouralone, and I also alone will abide in my honour. And as concerning these things which the Bridegroomhas prepared for the eternity of his marriage feast, do thou make thee a wedding-gift and preparethyself to meet Him. And as for me, I will make me ready oil, that I may enter in with the wisevirgins and may not be kept outside the door with the foolish virgins."

§8. Hearken then, my beloved, unto that which I write unto thee, namely, whatsoever thingsbecome solitaries, monks, virgins, saints. Before all things it beseems the man on whom the yoke islaid, that his faith should be firm; as I wrote to thee in the first epistle; that he should bezealous in fasting and prayer; that he should be fervent in the love of Christ; and should be humbleand mild and wise. And let his speech be peaceful and pleasant, and his thought be sincere with all.Let him speak his words duly weighing them, and set a barrier to his mouth from harmful words, andlet him put far from him hasty laughter. Let him not love the adornment of garments, nor again doesit become him to let his hair grow long and adorn it, or to anoint it with sweet-scented unguents.Let him not recline at feastings, nor does it become him to wear gorgeous apparel. Let him not dareto exceed at wine. Let him put far from him proud thoughts. It does not become him to look upongorgeous apparel. or to wear fine raiment. Let him put away from him a crafty tongue; let him drivefrom him envy and wrath, and cast away from him crafty lips. The words that are spoken about a man,when he about whom they are spoken is not near, let him not hear nor receive, that he sin not, untilhe search them out. Mockery is a hateful fault, and to bring it up upon the heart is not right. Lethim not lend and take interest, and let him not love avarice. Let him suffer wrong and not do wrong.Furthermore, let him put away from him turmoil, and words of jesting let him not utter. Let him notscorn any man who is repenting of his sins, and let him not mock his brother who is fasting, and himthat cannot fast let him not put to shame. Where he is received, let him reprove, and where theyreceive him not, let him understand his own honour. In an acceptable time let him speak his word;otherwise, let him be silent. Let him not for his belly's sake make himself despised by his begging,and to such an one as fears God let him reveal his secret; but let him keep himself from the evil(man). Let him not speak in complaisance with a wicked man, nor with his enemy. And so let himcontend as to have no enemy at all. When men envy him in that which is good, let him add to hisgoodness, and let him not be harmed because of envy. When he has, and gives to the poor, let himrejoice; and when he has not, let it not grieve him. With a wicked man let him have no converse andwith a contemptuous man let him not speak, lest he give himself to contempt. With a blasphemer lethim not dispute, lest his Lord be blasphemed on his account. Let him depart from a slanderer, and letno man please another man with speciousness of words. These things beseem solitaries who take up theheavenly yoke, and become disciples of Christ. For thus it befits the disciples of Christ to be likeunto Christ their Master.

§9. Let us take pattern, my beloved, from our Saviour. Who though He was rich, made Himselfpoor;(80) and though He was lofty, humbled HisMajesty; and though His dwelling place was in heaven, He had no place to lay His head;(81) and though He is to come upon the clouds,(82) yet rode on a colt and so enteredJerusalem;(83) and though He is God and Son ofGod, He took upon Him the likeness of a servant;(84) and though He was (for others) rest from allweariness, yet was Himself tired with the weariness of the journey; though He was the fountain thatquenches thirst, yet Himself thirsted and asked for water;(85) though He was abundance and satisfied our hunger,yet He Himself hungered when He went forth to the wilderness to be tempted;(86) though He was a Watcher that slumbers not, He yetslumbered and slept in the ship in the midst of the sea;(87) and though He was ministered to in the Tabernacleof His Father, yet let Himself be served by the hands of men; though He was the healer of all sickmen, yet nails were fastened into His hands; though His mouth brought forth things that were good,yet they gave Him gall to eat;(88) though Heinjured no man and harmed none, yet He was beaten with stripes and endured shame; and though he wasSaviour of all mortals, He delivered Himself to the death of the cross.

§10. All this humility did our Saviour show us in Himself. Let us then also humble ourselves,my beloved. When our Lord went outside of His nature,(89) He walked in our nature. Let us abide in ournature, that in the day of judgment He may cause us to partake of His nature. Our Lord took from us apledge when He went, and He left us a pledge of His own when he ascended. He that was without need,because of our need devised this expedient. What was ours was His even from the beginning, but thatwhich was His, who would have given us? But true is that which our Lord promised us:- Where I amthere ye also shall be.(90) For whatsoeverHe took of ours, is in honour with Him, and (as) a diadem is bound upon His Head. So also that, whichof His we have received, we ought to honour. That which is ours is held in honour with Him who wasnot in our nature: let us honour that which is His in His own nature, If we honour Him, we shall goto Him, Who took upon Him of our nature and so ascended. But if we despise Him, He will take awayfrom us that which He has given us. If we deal fraudulently with His pledge, He will there take awaythat which is His, and will deprive us of all that He has promised us. Let us magnify gloriously theKing's Son Who is with us, because a hostage for Him has been taken from us. Whoso holds the King'sSon in honour, shall obtain many gifts from the King. That of ours, that is with Him, has sat down inhonour and a diadem is bound upon His head, and He has sat down with the King. And we who are poor,what shall we do to the King's Son Who is with us? He needs nothing from us, but that we should adornour temples for Him; that when the time is accomplished and He goes to His Father, He may give thanksto Him because of us, because we have honoured Him. When He came to us, He had nothing of ours, andalso we had nothing of His, though the two natures were His and His Father's. For when Gabriel madeannouncement to the Blessed Mary who bore Him, the word from on high set out and came, and theword became flesh and dwell in us.(91) Andwhen He returned to Him that sent Him, He took away, when He went, that which He had not brought, asthe Apostle said:-He has taken us up and seated us with Himself in the heavens.(92) And when He went to His Father, He sent to us HisSpirit and said to us I am with you till the world shall end. For Christ sitteth at theright hand of His Father, and Christ dwelleth among men.(93) He is sufficient above and beneath, by the wisdomof His Father. And He dwells in many, though He is one, and all the faithful each by each Heovershadows from Himself, and fails not, as it is written:-I will divide Him amongmany.(94) And though He is divided amongmany, yet He sits at the right hand of His Father. And He is in us and we are in Him, as He said:-Ye are in Me and I am in you.(95) Andin another place He said:-I and Father are one.(96)

§11. And if anyone, whose conscience lacks knowledge, should dispute about this andsay:-"Since Christ is one and His Father is one, how does Christ dwell, and His Father dwell, infaithful men? And how do righteous men become temples for God that He should dwell in them? If thenit is thus, that to each several faithful man there comes a several Christ, and God Who is inChrist,-if it is so, there are for them Gods many and Christs without number." But hear, my beloved,the defence that is suited to this argument. From that which is visible let him that has thus saidreceive instruction. For every man knows that the sun is fixed in the heavens, yet its rays arespread out in the earth, and (light) from it enters by many doors and windows of houses; and whereverthe sunshine falls, though it be but as (the measure of) the palm of the hand, it is called the sun.And though it fall in many places, it is thus called, but the real sun itself is in heaven.Therefore, if it is so, have they many suns? Also the water of the sea is vast, and when thoutakest one cup from it, that is called water. And though thou shouldest divide it into a thousandvessels, yet it is called water by its name. Also when thou kindlest fire from fire in many places,the place from whence thou takest it, when thou kindlest it, lacks not, and the fire is called by onename. And because thou dividest it into many places, it does not on that account become possessed ofmany names. And when thou takest dust from the earth, and castest it into many places, it is not awhit diminished, and also thou canst not call it by many names. Thus also God and His Christ, thoughthey are One, yet dwell in men who are many. And they are in heaven in person, and are diminished innothing when they dwell in many; as the sun is not a whir diminished in heaven, when its power ispoured out in the earth. How much greater then is the power of God, since by the power of God thevery sun itself subsists.

§12. Again I will remind thee, my beloved, also of that which is written. For thus it iswritten, that when it was a grievous burden to Moses to lead the camp alone, the Lord said tohim:-Lo! will take away of the Spirit that is upon thee, and will put it upon seventy men, eldersof Israel.(97) But when He took away someof the Spirit of Moses, and the seventy men were filled with it, Moses nothing lacked, nor could itbe known that anything was taken away from his Spirit. Moreover the blessed apostle also said:-Goddivided of the of Christ and sent it into the Prophets.(98) And Christ was in nothing injured, for it wasnot by measure that His Father gave unto Him the Spirit.(99) By this reflection thou canst comprehend thatChrist dwells in faithful men; yet Christ suffers no loss though He is divided among many. For theProphets received of the Spirit of Christ, each one of them as he was able to bear. And of the Spiritof Christ again there is poured forth to-day upon all flesh,(100) and the sons and the daughters prophesy, the oldmen and the youths, the men-servants and the hand-maids. Something of Christ is in us, yet Christ isin heaven at the right hand of His Father. And Christ received the Spirit not by measure, but HisFather loved Him and delivered all into His hands, and gave Him authority over all His treasure. ForJohn said:-Not by measure did the Father give the Spirit to His Son, but loved Him and gave allinto His hands.(101) And also our Lordsaid:-All things have been delivered unto Me by My Father.(102) Again he said:-The Father will not judge anyman, but all judgment will He give unto His Son.(103) Again also the Apostle said:-Everything shallbe made subject unto Christ except His Father Who hath subjected all unto Him. And when everything ismade subject unto Him by the Father, then He also shall be made subject to God His Father Whosubjected all to Him, and God shall be all in all, and in every man.(104)

§13. Our Lord testifies concerning John, that he is the greatest of the Prophets. Yet hereceived the Spirit by limit, because in that measure in which Elijah received the Spirit, (in thesame) John obtained it. And as Elijah used to dwell in the wilderness, so also the Spirit of God ledJohn into the wilderness, and he used to dwell in the mountains and caves. The birds sustainedElijah, and John used to eat locusts that fly. Elijah had his loins girded with a girdle of leather;so John had his loins girded with a cincture of leather. Jezebel persecuted Elijah, and Herodiaspersecuted John. Elijah reproved Ahab, and John reproved Herod. Elijah divided the Jordan, and Johnopened up baptism. The spirit of Elijah rested twofold upon Elisha, so John laid his hand on ourRedeemer, and He received the Spirit not by measure. Elijah opened the heavens and ascended; and Johnsaw the heavens opened, and the Spirit of God which descended and rested upon our Redeemer. Elishareceived twofold the Spirit of Elijah; and our Redeemer received that of John and that of heaven.Elisha took the mantle of Elijah, and our Redeemer the imposition of the hand of the priests. Elishamade oil from water, and our Redeemer made wine from water. Elisha satisfied with a little bread ahundred men only; and our Redeemer satisfied with a little bread five thousand men besides childrenand women. Elisha cleansed Naaman the leper, and our Redeemer cleansed the ten (lepers). Elishacursed the children and they were devoured by bears, but our Redeemer blessed the children. Thechildren reviled Elisha, but the children glorified our Redeemer with Hosannas. Elisha cursed Gehazihis servant, and our Redeemer cursed Judas His disciple and blessed all His (other) disciples. Elisharaised to life one dead man only, but our Redeemer raised up three to life. On the bones of Elishaone dead man revived, but when our Saviour descended to the abode of the dead, He quickened many andraised them up. And many are the signs that the Spirit of Christ wrought, which the Prophets receivedfrom Him.

§14. Therefore, my beloved, we also have received of the Spirit of Christ, and Christdwelleth in us, as it is written that the Spirit said this through the month of the Prophet:-I will dwell in them and will walk in them.(105) Therefore let us prepare our temples for theSpirit of Christ, and let us not grieve it that it may not depart from us. Remember the warning thatthe Apostle gives us:-Grieve not the Holy Spirit whereby ye have been sealed unto the day ofredemption. For from baptism do we receive the Spirit of Christ. For in that hour in which thepriests invoke the Spirit, the heavens open and it descends and moves upon the waters.(106) And those that are baptized are clothed in it;for the Spirit stays aloof from all that are born of the flesh, until they come to the new birth bywater, and then they receive the Holy Spirit. For in the first birth they are born with an animalsouls which is created within man and is not thereafter subject to death, as he said: -Adam becamea living soul.(107) But in the secondbirth, that through baptism, they received the Holy Spirit from a particle of the Godhead, and it isnot again subject to death. For when men die, the animal spirit is buried with the body, and sense istaken away from it, but the heavenly spirit that they receive goes according to its nature to Christ.And both these the Apostle has made known, for he said:-The body is buried in animal wise, andrises again in spiritual wise.(108) TheSpirit goes back again to Christ according to its nature, for the Apostle said again:-When weshall depart from the body we shall be with our Lord.(109) For the Spirit of Christ, which the spiritualreceive, goes to our Lord. And the animal spirit is buried in its nature, and sense is taken awayfrom it. Whosoever guards the Spirit of Christ in purity, when it returns to Christ it thus addresseshim:-"The body into which I went, and which put me on from the water of the baptism, has kept me inholiness." And the Holy Spirit will be earnest with Christ for the resurrection of that body whichkept Him with purity, and the Spirit will request to be again conjoined to it that that body may riseup in glory. And whatever man there is that receives the Spirit from the water (of baptism) andgrieves it, it departs from him until he dies, and returns according to its nature to Christ, andaccuses that man of having grieved it. And when the time of the final consummation shall have come,and the time of the Resurrection shall have approached, the Holy Spirit, that was kept in purity,receives great power from its nature and comes before Christ and stands at the door of the tombs,where the men are buried that kept it in purity, and awaits the (resurrection) shout. And when theWatchers shall have opened the doors of heaven before the King,(110) then the cornet shall summon, and the trumpetsshall sound, and the Spirit that waits for the (resurrection) shout shall hear, and quickly shallopen the tombs, and raise up the bodies and whatsoever was buried in them, and shall put on the glorythat comes with it. And (the Spirit) shall be within for the resurrection of the body, and the gloryshall be without for the adornment of the body. And the animal spirit shall be swallowed up in theheavenly Spirit, and the whole man shall become spiritual, since his body is possessed by it (theSpirit). And death shall be swallowed up in life,(111) and body shall be swallowed up in Spirit. And bythe power of the Spirit, that man shall fly up to meet the King and He shall receive him with joy,and Christ shall give thanks for the body that has kept His Spirit in purity.

§15. This is the Spirit, my beloved, that the Prophets received, and thus also have wereceived. And it is not at every time found with those that receive it, but sometimes it returns toHim that sent it, and sometimes it goes to him that receives it. Hearken to that which our Lordsaid:-Despise not one of these little ones that believe on Me, for their angels in heaven doalways behold the face of My Father.(112)This Spirit then goes frequently and stands before God and beholds His face, and whosoever injuresthe temple in which it dwells, it will accuse him before God.

§16. I will instruct thee of that which is written, that the Spirit is not at every timefound with those that receive it. For tires it is written about Saul, that the Holy Spirit, which hereceived when he was anointed, departed from him,(113) ' because he grieved it, and God sent to himinstead of it a vexing spirit. And whenever he was afflicted by the evil spirit, David used to playupon the harp, and the Holy Spirit, which David received when he was anointed, would come, and theevil spirit that was vexing Saul, would flee from before it. So the Holy Spirit that David receivedwas not found with him at every time. As long as he was playing the harp, then it used to come. Forhad it been with him always, it would not have allowed him to sin with the wife of Uriah. For when hewas praying about his sins, and was confessing his offences before God, he said thus:-Take not Thyholy spirit from me.(114) Also concerningElisha it is thus written, that, while he played upon his harp, then the spirit came to him and heprophesied and said:-Thus saith the Lord, ye shall not see wind nor rain, yet this valleyshall be made many pits.(115) And alsowhen the Shunamite came to him because of her son that was dead, he said thus to her:-The Lord hidit from me and did cause me not to know it.(116) Yet, when the King of Israel sent against him toslay him, the Spirit informed him before the messenger came upon him, and he said:-Lo! this son ofiniquity has sent to take away my head.(117) And again he made known about the abundance thatcame about in Samaria the day after. And again the Spirit informed him when Gehazi stole the silverand concealed it.

§17. Therefore, my beloved, when the Holy Spirit departs from a man who has received it,until it returns and comes to him, then Satan draws near unto that man, to cause him to sin, and thatthe Holy Spirit may leave him altogether. For as long as the Spirit is with a man, Satan fears tocome near him. And observe, my beloved, that our Lord also, Who was born from the Spirit, was nottempted by Satan until in baptism He received the Spirit from on high. And then the Spirit led himforth to be tempted by Satan. This, then, is the way with man; that in the hour in which he perceivesin himself that he is not fervent in the Spirit, and that his heart is inclining to the thought ofthis world, he may know that the Spirit is not with him, and may arise and pray and keep vigil thatthe Spirit of God may come to him, that he be not overcome by the adversary. A thief does not diginto a house, until he sees that its master is departing from it. Thus also Satan cannot draw near tothat house which is our body, until the Spirit of Christ departs from it. And be sure, my beloved,that the thief does not certainly know whether the master of the house is within or not, but firsthe applies his ear, and looks. If he hears the voice of the master of the house within itsaying:-"I have a journey to go," and when he has searched out and seen that the master of the househas set out to perform his business, then the thief comes and digs into the house and steals. But ifhe hears the voice of the master of the house admonishing and commanding his household to watch andguard his house, and saying to them, "I also am within the house," then the thief will fear and flee,that he may not be taken and captured. Thus also Satan, he has not the knowledge beforehand to knowor see when the Spirit will depart, that so he may come to rob the man; but he too listens andwatches, and so assails. But if he hears a man in whom Christ dwells speaking shameful words, orenraged, or quarrelling, or contending, then Satan knows that Christ is not with him, and he comesand accomplishes his will in him. For Christ dwells in the peaceful and the meek, and lodges in thosethat fear His word, as He says through the prophet:-On whom shall I look, and in whom shall Idwell, but in the peaceful and the meek who fear My word?(118) And our Lord said:-Whoever walks in Mycommandments and keeps My love, We will come to him and make Our abode him.(119) But if he hears from a man that he is on hisguard and is praying anti meditating in the Law of his Lord by day and by night, then he turns backfrom him, for he knows that Christ is with him. And if thou shouldest say, "How manifold is Satan!for lo! he fights with many;" then hear and learn from that which I proved to thee above concerningChrist, that no matter to what extent He is divided amongst many, yet He is not a whit diminished.For, as the house, through the window of which a little sunlight enters, is altogether illumined, sothe man into whom a little of Satan enters, is altogether darkened. Hear that which the Apostlesaid:-If Satan is transfigured to an angel of light, it is no wonder if his ministers also aretransfigured to ministers of righteousness.(120) And again our Lord said to His disciples:-Lo,I have given you authority to tread upon the power of the adversary.(121) And the Scriptures have made known that he haspower and also ministers. Moreover Job said concerning him:-God made him to wage hiswar.(122) These ministers then that hehas, he causes to run in the world, to wage war. But be sure that he will not fight openly; becausefrom the time of the coming of our Saviour, (God) has given authority over him. But he will surelyplunder and steal.

§18. But I will explain to thee, my beloved, concerning that word which the Apostle said, bywhich can be weighed the doctrines that are instruments of the Evil One and doctrines of deceit. Forthe Apostle said:-There is an animal body and there is a spiritual body, seeing that it is thuswritten:-The first Adam became a living soul and the second Adam a quickeningspirit.(123) So they(124) say that there will be two Adams. But hesaid:-As we have put on the image of that Adam who was from the earth, so we shall put on theimage of that Adam who is from heaven.(125) For Adam who was from the earth was he thatsinned, and the Adam who is from heaven is our Saviour, our Lord Jesus Christ. They then that receivethe Spirit of Christ, come into the likeness of the heavenly Adam, Who is our Saviour, our Lord JesusChrist. For the animal shall be swallowed up in the spiritual, as I wrote unto thee above. And theman that grieves the spirit of Christ, will be animal in his resurrection; because the heavenlyspirit is not with him, that the animal might be swallowed up in it. But when he shall arise he shallcontinue in his natural state, naked of the Spirit. Because he stripped off from him the Spirit ofChrist, he shall be given over to utter nakedness. And whosoever honours the Spirit, and it isguarded in him in purity, in that day the Holy Spirit shall protect him, and he shall becomealtogether spiritual, and shall not be found naked; as the Apostle said:-And when we shall haveclothed ourselves, may we not be found naked.(126) And again he said:-We shall all sleep, but inthe resurrection we shall not all be changed.(127) And again he said:-This which dies shall puton that which dies not, and this which is corruptible that which is incorruptible, and when thiswhich dies shall have put on that which dies not, and this corruptible that which is incorruptible,then shall be accomplished that word which is written that death is swallowed up byvictory.(128) Again he said:-Suddenlyas the twinkling of an eye, the dead shall rise incorruptible and we shall be changed.(129) And they who shall be changed shall put on theform of that heavenly Adam and shall become spiritual. And those who shall not be changed, shallcontinue animal in the created nature of Adam, namely, of dust; and shall continue in their nature inthe earth below. And then the heavenly shall be caught up to heaven and the Spirit that they have puton shall cause them to fly, and they shall inherit the kingdom that was prepared for them from thebeginning. And they that are animal shall remain on the earth by the weight of their bodies, andshall turn back to Sheol, and there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

§19. In writing this I have reminded myself, and also thee, my beloved; therefore lovevirginity, the heavenly portion, the fellowship of the Watchers of heaven. For there is nothingcomparable with it. And in those that are thus, in them Christ dwells. The time of summer is athand, and the fig-tree has budded and its leaves have come out(130) -the signs that our Redeemer gave have begun tobe fulfilled. For he said:-People shall rise against people and kingdom against kingdom. And thereshall be famines and pestilences and terrors from heaven.(131) And lo! all these things are being accomplishedin our days.

§20. Therefore read in this whatever I have written unto thee, thou and the brethren, themonks that love virginity. And be on thy guard against scorners. For whosoever scorns and mocks hisbrother, the word that is written in the Gospel fitly applies to him; namely, when our Lord wished totake account with the avaricious and with the Pharisees. For it is written:-Because they lovedmoney, they mocked Him.(132) So also nowthose that do not agree with these things mock in the same way. Read then and learn. Be zealous forreading and for doing. And let the Law of God be thy meditation at every time. And when thou hastread this epistle, on thy life (I adjure thee), my beloved, arise and pray, and remember mysinfulness in thy prayer.

Demonstration VIII.-Of the Resurrection of theDead.

§1. At all times controversies arise on this matter, how the dead shall rise and with whatbody they shall come?(1) For lo! the bodywears out and is corrupted; and the bones also, no doubt, as time lengthens out over them, waste awayand are not to be recognised. And when thou enterest a tomb in which a hundred dead men are buried,thou findest not there an handful of dust. And thus say those that reflect on these things:-" We knowof course that the dead shall rise; but they will be clothed in a heavenly body and spiritual forms.And if it is not so, these hundred dead that were buried in one tomb, of whom after a long timeelapses there remains nothing at all there, when the dead shall be quickened, and shall be clothed ina body and rise, unless they shall be clothed in a heavenly body, from whence shall their body come?For lo! there is nothing in the tomb."

§2. Whosoever reflects thus is foolish, and without knowledge. When the dead were brought in,they were something; and when they were there for a long time, they became nothing. And, when thetime shall have come that the dead shall rise, that nothing shall become something according to itsformer nature, and a change shall be added to its nature. O thou unwise who reflectest thus, hearthat which the blessed Apostle said when he was instructing a foolish man like thee; for hesaid:-Thou fool, the seed which thou sowest unless it die is not quickened; and that which thousowest is not like that which grows up into blade, but one bare grain of wheat or barley or someother seedling. And to each one the seeds is given its own body. But God clothes thy seed with itsbody as He wills.(2)

§3. Therefore, O fool, be instructed by this, that each of the seeds is clothed in its ownbody. Never dost thou sow wheat and yet reap barley, and never dost thou plant a vine and yet itproduced figs; but everything grows according to its nature. Thus also the body that was laid in theearth is that which shall rise again. And as to this, that the body is corrupted and wastes away,thou oughtest to be instructed by the parable of the seed; that as the seed, when it is cast into theearth, decays and is corrupted, and from its decay it produces and buds and bears fruit. For the landthat is ploughed, into which seed is not cast, produces not fruit, even if that land drinks in allthe rain. So the grave in which the dead are not buried, from it men shall not issue forth in thequickening of the dead, though the full voice of the trumpet should sound within it. And if, as theysay, the spirit of the just shall ascend into heaven and put on a heavenly body, they are in heaven.And He Who raises the dead dwells in heaven. Then when our Saviour shall come, whom shall He raise upfrom the earth? And why did He write for us:-The hour shall come, and now is, that the dead alsoshall hear the voice of the Son of Man, and they shall live and come forth from theirtombs?(3) For the heavenly body will notcome and enter into the tomb, and again go forth from it.

§4. For thus say those who are stubborn in folly:-Why did the Apostle say,-Different isthe body which is in heaven from that which is on earth?(4) But he that hears this, let him hear also theother thing that the Apostle said:-There is an animal body, and there is a spiritualbody.(5) And again he said:-We shallall sleep, but we shall not all be changed.(6) And again he said:-This that shall die mustclothe itself with that that shall not die, and this which is corruptible must clothe itself withthat which is incorruptible.(7) Again hesaid:- We must all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every man may be rewarded in hisbody for everything that before time was done by him, whether good or evil.(8) Again he said:-What shall those do that arebaptized for the dead? For if the dead rise not, why are they baptized for them?(9) Again he said:-If there is no resurrection ofthe dead, then is Christ not risen, and if Christ is not risen then your faith is vain, and ourpreaching. And if so we are found false witnesses in that we testified of God, that He raised upChrist, Whom He raised not up.(10)Therefore, if the dead rise not, there is no judgment. And if there is no judgment, then let useat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die. Be not deceived; evil communications corrupt goodpurposes.(11) Now as to this that theApostle said:-The body that is in heaven is different from that which is on the earth, letthis word be thus understood by thee. When the body of the just shall arise and be changed, it iscalled heavenly. And that which is not changed is called earthly, according to its earthlynature.

§5. But hear, my beloved, another word like this, which the Apostle has spoken. For hesaid:-The spiritual man judgeth everything, and he is judged by no one.(12) And again he said:-They that are spiritual arespiritually minded, and they that are carnal are carnally minded.(13) And again he said:- When we were in the flesh,the weaknesses of sins were working in our members that we might become fruit for death.(14) Again he said:-If the Spirit of Christ is inyou, ye are spiritual.(15) All thesethings the Apostle said, while he was clothed in the flesh but was doing the works of the Spirit.Thus also in the Resurrection of the dead, the righteous shall be changed, and the earthly form shallbe swallowed up in the heavenly, and it shall be called a heavenly body. And that which shall not bechanged, shall be called earthly.

§6. Concerning then this Resurrection of the dead, my beloved, according to my power I willinstruct thee. For from the beginning God created Adam; moulded him from the dust of the earth, andraised him up. For if, while Adam was not, He made him from nothing, how much easier now is it forHim to raise him up; for lo! as a seed he is sown in the earth. For if God should do those thingsthat are easy for us, His works would not appear mighty to us. For lo! there are amongst menartificers who make wonderful things, and those who are not artificers of the works stand and wonderhow they were done; and the work of their fellows is difficult in their eyes. How much more shouldnot the works of God be as a marvel! But for God this was no great thing, that the dead should bequickened. Before seed was sown in the earth, the earth produced that which had not been cast intoit. Before it had conceived, it bore in its virginity. How then is this difficult, that the earthshould cause to spring up again what had been cast into it, and after conception should bear? And lo!her travail-pains are near; as Isaiah said, Who hath seen anything like this and who hath heardsuch things as these? that the earth should travail in one day, and a people should be born in onehour?(16) For Adam unsown sprang upconceived he was born. But lo! now his offspring are sown, and wait for the rain, and shall springup. And lo! the earth teems with many, and the time of her bringing forth is at hand.

§7. For all our fathers, in hope of the Resurrection and the quickening of the dead, werelooking forward and hastening; as the blessed Apostle said, If the righteous had been lookingforward to that city from which Abraham went forth, they would have had an opportunity of againturning back and to it; but they showed that they were looking forward to one better than it, namelythat which is in heaven.(17) They werelooking forward to be released and to go speedily thither. And from that which I am writing untothee, understand and observe that they were looking forward to the Resurrection. For Jacob ourfather, when he was dying, bound Joseph his son with an oath, and said to him, Bury me in the tombof my fathers, with Abraham and Sarah and Isaac and Rebecca.(18) And why, my beloved, did Jacob not wish to beburied in Egypt, but with his fathers? He showed beforehand, that he was looking forward to thequickening of the dead; that, when the Resurrection shout should be raised and the sound of thetrumpet (heard), he might rise up near to his fathers, and might not at the time of the Resurrectionbe mingled with the wicked who shall return to Sheol and to punishment.

§8. Thus also Joseph bound his brethren by an oath,(19) and said to them:-When God shall remember you,take up my bones from hence with you. And according to the word of Joseph his brethren did, andkept the oath a hundred and twenty-five years. At that time when the hosts of the Lord went out fromthe land of Egypt, then Moses took up the bones of Joseph when he went forth.(20) And the bones of the righteous man were moreprecious and better in his estimation than the gold and the silver that the children of Israel tookfrom Egypt when they spoiled them. And the bones of Joseph were forty years in the wilderness; and atthat time when Moses fell asleep, he gave them in inheritance to Joshua the son of Nun. The bones ofJoseph his father were better in his estimation than all the spoil of that land which he subdued. Andwhy did Moses give the bones of Joseph to Joshua? Clearly, because he was of the tribe of Ephraim theson of Joseph. And he buried them in the land of promise, that there might be in that land atreasure, (even) that of the bones of Joseph (that were) buried therein. And also at the time thatJacob was dying, he blessed his tribes, and showed them what would happen to them in the latterdays, and said to Reuben:-Reuben, thou art my firstborn, might and the beginning of mystrength. Thou hast gone astray; as water, thou shalt not abide, because thou wentest up father'sbed. Truly thou defilest my couch and wentest up.(21) From the time that Jacob fell asleep until thetime that Moses fell asleep two hundred and thirty-three years elapsed. Then Moses wished by hispriestly power to absolve Reuben from his transgression and sin, in that he had lain with Bilhah, hisfather's concubine; that when his brethren should rise, he might not be cut off from their number. Sohe said in the beginning of his blessing:-Reuben shall live and not die, and shall be in thenumber.(22)

§9. And also when the time came that Moses should sleep with his fathers, he was grieved anddistressed, and he sought of his Lord and entreated that he might pass over to the land of promise.And why, my beloved, was the righteous Moses grieved because he did not enter into the land ofpromise? Clearly, because he wished to go and be buried with his fathers, and not be buried in theland of his adversaries, in the land of Moab. For the Moabites hired Balaam the son of Beor to curseIsrael. Therefore Moses wished not to be buried in that land, test the Moabites should come and takevengeance on him by taking up and casting forth the bones of that righteous man. And the Lordperformed an act of grace towards Moses. For He brought him forth to Mount Nebo, and showed him allthe land, making it pass before him. And as Moses gazed upon all the land, and gazed upon themountain of the Jebusites where the Tabernacle was to dwell, he was grieved and wept when he saw thetomb in Hebron where his fathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were buried, that he should not be buriedwith them, nor his bones cast upon their bones, that he might rise along with them in theResurrection. But when he had seen all the land, his Lord encouraged him and said to him, "I myselfwill bury thee and hide thee, and none shall know thy tomb." So Moses died according to the wordof the mouth of the Lord, and He buried him in a valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-Peor,where Israel had sinned, and no man has known his sepulchre unto this day.(23) Two goodly benefits did his Lord accomplish forMoses in not making known his tomb to the children of Israel. He rejoiced that his adversaries shouldnot know it, and cast forth his bones from his tomb; and in the second place, that the children ofhis people should not know it, and make his tomb a place of worship, for he was accounted as God inthe eyes of the children of his people. And understand this, my beloved, from hence, that when heleft them and went up to the mountain, they said:(24) -As for this Moses who brought us up from theland of Egypt we know not what has become of him. So they made them a calf and worshipped it, andthey remembered not God Who brought them up from Egypt by means of Moses with a mighty hand and anuplifted arm.(25) Because of this, God hadrespect unto Moses, and did not make known his tomb; lest, if He should make known his tomb, thechildren of his people might go astray, and make them an image, and worship it and sacrifice to it,and so by their sins disquiet the bones of the righteous man.

§10. And Moses again proclaimed clearly the Resurrection of the dead, for he said as from themouth of his God:-It is I that cause to die and it is I that make alive.(26) Again also Hannah said thus in her prayer:-TheLord causeth to die and quickeneth ; He bringeth down to Sheol and bringeth up(therefrom).(27) The Prophet Isaiah alsosaid thus:-Thy dead shall live, O Lord, and their bodies shall rise, and they that sleep in thedust shall awake and praise thee.(28)David also proclaimed, saying:-For lo! for the dead Thou workest wonderful things, and the mightyones shall rise and make confession unto Thee, and those that are in the tombs shall recount Thygrace.(29) And how in the tombsshall they recount the grace of God? Clearly, when they shall hear the sound of trumpetsummoning them, and the cornet sounding forth from on high, and the earthquake that shall be, and thetombs that shall be opened, then the mighty ones shall arise in glory, and recount one to another inthe tombs, saying, "Great is the grace that is performed towards us. For our hope was cut off; yet(another) hope has arisen for us. We were imprisoned in darkness, and have come forth to the light.We were sown in corruption, and have risen in glory. We were buried naturally, and we have risenspiritually. Again we were sown in weakness, and have risen in power." This is the grace that theyshall tell of in the tombs.

§11. And it was not only in words, my beloved, that God said:-" I quicken the dead," but alsoin deeds He showed it to us by many testimonies; that we might have no hesitation (concerning it). Heshowed it beforehand plainly; for through Elijah a wonder was manifested, (in proof) that the deadshall live and that they that sleep in the dust shall arise. For when the son of the widow died,Elijah raised him up and gave him to his mother. And Elisha again, his disciple, raised up the son ofthe Shunamite; that the testimony of two might be established and confirmed for us. And also againwhen the children of Israel cast a dead man on the bones of Elisha, that dead man revived and arose.And the witness of three is certain.

§12. And also through the Prophet Ezekiel, the Resurrection of the dead was manifestly shown,when God brought him forth to the valley and showed him many bones, and made him pass by them roundabout them, and said to him:-Son of Man, will these bones live? And Ezekiel said toHim:(30) -Thou knowest, O Lord oflords. And the Lord said to him:-Prophesy, O Son Man, over these bones; prophesy and say tothe dry bones, Hear the word of the Lord of lords. And when he had caused them to hear thosewords, there was a shaking and a noise, and the bones were gathered together, even those that werecrushed into pieces and broken. And when the Prophet saw them, he was astonished, for they cametogether from all sides, and each bone received its fellow, and each joint approached itsfellow-joint, and they ordered themselves, one on another. And their dryness was made moist, and thejoints were united by the ligatures, and the blood grew warm in the arteries, and skin was stretchedover the flesh, and hair grew up according to its nature. But they lay prostrate and there was nobreath in them Then again He commanded the Prophet, and said to him:-Prophesy unto the spirit andsay to it, Come, O spirit, from the four winds, and breathe upon these slain men that they maylive. And when he caused them to hear this second word, the spirit entered into them, and theyrevived and stood up upon their feet, a very great host.

§13. But why, my beloved, was it that those dead did not rise because of the one word(spoken) through Ezekiel, and why was not their resurrection, both of bones and spirit, accomplished(through that one word)? For lo! by one word the bones were fitted together, and by another thespirit came. It was in order that full perfection might be left for our Lord Jesus Christ, Who withone utterance and one word will raise up at the last day every body of man. For it was not the wordthat was insufficient, but its bearer was inferior. And with regard to this, understand and observethat when Elijah also, and Elisha his disciple, raised the dead, it was not with one word that theyraised them up, but after they had prayed and made intercession and delayed no little time, then theyarose.

§14. And our Lord Himself, in that His first Coming raised up three that were dead, that thetestimony of three might be made sure. And He raised up each one of them with two words each. Forwhen He raised up the widow's son, He called him twice, saying to him, Young man, young man,arise.(31) And he revived and arose. Andagain, He twice called the daughter of the chief of the synagogue, saying to her, Damsel, damsel,arise.(32) And her spirit returned and shearose. And after Lazarus died, when He came to the place of burial. He prayed earnestly and criedwith a loud voice and said, Lazarus, come forth.(33) And he revived and came out of his tomb.

§15. And concerning all this that I have explained to thee, that those dead persons wereraised with two words each, it was because for them two resurrections take place; that former one,and the second, that which is to come. For in that resurrection in which all men shall rise, noneshall fall again; and by one word of God, sent forth through Christ, all the dead shall rise inthe twinkling of an eye, speedily. For He Who brings it to pass is not feeble or insufficient.For with one word of summons He will cause all the ends (of the world) to hear, and all that are laid(in the grave) shall leap forth and rise up; and no word shall return void to Him that sent it forth,but as it is written in the Prophet Isaiah,(34) who compares the word to rain and snow; for hesaid:-As the rain and the snow come down from heaven and return not thither, but fertilize theearth and cause it to bring forth and give seed to the sower and bread for food, so shall the word bethat goes forth from My mouth, and it shall not return to Me void, but shall accomplish whatsoever Idesire and shall accomplish that for which I shall have sent it. For the rain and the snow do notreturn to heaven, but accomplish in the earth the will of Him that sends them. So the word that Heshall send through His Christ, Who is Himself the Word and the Message, shall return to Him withgreat power. For when He shall come and bring it, He shall come down like rain and snow, and throughHim all that is sown shall spring up and bear righteous fruit, and the word shall return to Hissender; but not in vain shall His going have been, but thus shall He say in the presence of Hissender:-Behold, I and the children that the Lord has given Me.(35) And this is the voice through which the deadshall live. Concerning it our Redeemer testifies, saying:-The hour shall come when even the deadshall hear the voice of the Son of Man and shall come forth from their tombs;(36) as it is written, In the beginning was thevoice, that is the Word.(37) Again Hesaid, The Word became a body and dwelt amongst us.(38) And this is that voice of God which shall soundfrom on high and raise up all the dead.

§16. Again, our Lord explained to the Sadducees with regard to the resurrection of the dead,when they brought forth to Him the parable of the woman who was married to seven husbands, and saidto Him:-Lo! the woman was wife of them all; in the Resurrection of the dead, to which of themshall she be wife?(39) Then our Lord saidto them:-Ye do greatly err, and ye know not the Scriptures nor the power of God. For they who areworthy of that world and of that Resurrection front the dead, they that are men do not take wives,nor are the women married to husbands, for they cannot die, for they are as the angels of God andchildren of the Resurrection. But concerning the Resurrection, that the dead shall rise, have ye notread in the Scripture that God said to Moses out of the bush, "I am the God of Abraham, of Isaac andof Jacob." And lo! He is not God of the dead, for they all are alive unto Him.(40)

§17. And there are those who even while they live are dead unto God. For He laid acommandment on Adam and said to him, In the day that thou shalt eat of the tree, thou shall surelydie.(41) And after he had transgressed thecommandment, and had eaten, he lived nine hundred and thirty years; but he was accounted dead untoGod because of his sins. But that it may be made certain for thee that a sinner is called dead evenwhen he lives, I will make it clear to thee. For thus it is written in Ezekiel the Prophet, As Ilive, saith the Lord of lords, I desire not the death of the dead sinner.(42)

§18. Moreover our Lord said to that man who said to Him:-Let me go and bury my father, andI will come to Thee.(43) And our Lord saidto him, Let the dead bury their dead, but go thou, preach the Kingdom of God. But how is thisword understood by thee, my beloved? Didst thou ever see the dead burying their dead? Or how shall adead man arise to bury another dead man? But receive this explanation from me, that a sinner, whilehe is living, is dead unto God; and a righteous man, though dead, is alive unto God. For such deathis a sleep, as David said, I lay down and slept, and awoke.(44) Again Isaiah said, They that sleep in the dustshall awake.(45) And our Lord saidconcerning the daughter of the chief of the synagogue, The damsel is not dead, but sleeping aslumber.(46) And concerning Lazarus, Hesaid to His disciples:-Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep; but I go to waken him.(47) And the Apostle said:-We shall all sleep, butwe shall not all be changed.(48) And againhe said:-Concerning those that sleep, be ye not grieved.(49)

§19. But it is right for us to be afraid of the second death,(50) that which is full of weeping and gnashing ofteeth, and of groanings and miseries, that which is situated in outer darkness. But blessed shall bethe faithful and the righteous in that Resurrection, in which they expect to be awakened and toreceive the good promises made them. But as for the wicked who are not faithful, in the Resurrectionwoe to them, because of that which is laid up for them! It would be better for them according to thefaith which they possess, were they not to arise. For the servant, for whom his Lord is preparingstripes and bonds, while he is sleeping desires not to awake, for he knows that when the dawn shallhave come and he shall awake, his Lord will scourge and bind him. But the good servant, to whom hisLord has promised gifts, looks expectantly for the time when dawn shall come and he shall receivepresents from his Lord. And even though he is soundly sleeping, in his dream he sees something likewhat his Lord is about to give him, whatsoever He has promised him, and he rejoices in his dream, andexults, and is gladdened. As for the wicked, his sleep is not pleasant to him, for he imagines thatlo! the dawn has come for him, and his heart is broken in his dream. But the righteous sleep, andtheir slumber is pleasant to them, in the day-time and the night-time, and they take no thought ofall that long night, and like one hour is it accounted in their eyes. Then in the watch of the dawnthey awake with joy. But as for the wicked, their sleep lies heavy upon them, and they are like a manwho is laid low by a great and deep fever, and tosses on his couch hither and thither, arid he isterrified the whole night long, which lengthens itself out for him, and he fears the dawn when hisLord will condemn him.

§20. But our faith thus teaches, that when men fall asleep, they sleep this slumber withoutknowing good from evil. And the righteous look not forward to their promises, nor do the wicked lookforward to their sentence of punishment, until the Judge come and separate those whose place is atHis right hand from those whose place is at His left. And be thou instructed by that which iswritten, that when the Judge shall sit, and the books be opened before Him and the good and evildeeds recited, then they that have wrought good works shall receive good rewards from Him Who isgood; and they that have done evil deeds shall receive evil penalties from the just Judge. Fortowards the good, He changes not His nature; and He proves Himself just because He justly condemnsmany. But towards the evil He changes His nature, in that world where grace is lost in justice; andHe proves Himself just to all. And grace will not be joined with justice towards them. Like as graceavails not (to remedy) detriment, so justice (avails not to assist) grace. For grace is far from thejudge, but justice urges the judge. If grace be nigh to any one, let him turn himself towards it, andnot deliver himself into the hands of justice, test it condemn him, exacting for his shortcomings thepenalty at his hands. And if grace be far from any one, justice will bring him to the trial, and byit he will be condemned, and go away to the torment.

§21. But hear, my beloved, this proof that retribution shall take place at the end. For whenthe Shepherd divides His flock and sets some on His right hand and some on His left.(51) until He shall have acknowledged the service ofthe good, then He will cause them to inherit the kingdom; and until He shall have rebuked the eviland they are condemned, then He will send them to the torment. And as to them that sent messengersafter the King, saying, This man shall not be king over us,(52) when He shall receive the kingdom and return,then His adversaries shall be slain before Him. And the labourers who hastened and were wearied inthe vineyard, shall not receive the reward till the labour shall cease. And the traders who receivedthe money, when the Lord of the money shall come, then shall He exact the usury. And the virgins who,while waiting for the bridegroom, slumbered and slept because He delayed to come, when they shallhear the cry, then they shall awake and trim their lamps; and they that are wise shall enter in; andthe foolish shall be shut out. And they who were before us in entering the faith, without us shallnot be made perfect.(53)

§22 From all these things, understand thou, my beloved, as it has been made certain for thee,that as yet no one has received his reward. For the righteous have not inherited the kingdom, norhave the wicked gone into torment. The Shepherd has not as yet divided His flock. And lo! the workmenenter into the vineyard, and as yet have not received the reward. And lo! the merchants are tradingwith the money. And as yet their Lord has not come to take the account. And the King has gone toreceive the Kingdom, but as yet He hats not returned the second time. And those virgins that arewaiting the bridegroom are sleeping up to the present time, and are awaiting the cry when they willawake. And the former men who toiled in the faith until the last men shall come, shall not be madeperfect.

§23. But they who are babes in understanding say:-" If no one has received his reward, whydid the Apostle say, When we shall depart from the body, we shall be present with theLord?"(54) But recollect, my beloved, thatI instructed thee concerning this matter in the Demonstration concerning Solitaries,(55) that the spirit which the righteous receive,according to its heavenly nature, goes to our Lord until the time of the Resurrection, when it shallcome to put on the body in which it dwelt. And at every time it has the memory of this in thepresence of God, and looks eagerly for the Resurrection of that body in which it dwelt, as theProphet Isaiah said about the Church of the Gentiles:-They that make mention of thee shall befaithful and stand before the Lord, and thou shalt not give them rest.(56) But as to the wicked, they have none to makemention of them before the Lord, because the Holy Spirit is far removed from them, because they areanimal, and are buried after the manner of animals.

§24. And again, (the followers of) doctrines, which are instruments of the Evil One, areoffended by the word which our Lord spake, No one has ascended up to heaven but He Who came downfrom heaven, the Son of Man, Who was in heaven.(57) And they say, "Lo! our Lord testified that noearthly body has ascended to heaven." In their ignorance they cannot apprehend the force of this. Forwhen our Lord instructed Nicodemus, he did not apprehend the force of the saying. Then our Lord saidto him:-"No one has ascended into heaven, so as to come down and relate to you whatsoever isthere. For if I have spoken unto you of those things that are in the earth, and ye believe not,how shall ye believe if I shall speak unto you of those things which are in heaven?(58) For lo! no other witness besides Me has come downfrom thence, to bear witness concerning those things which are in heaven, so that ye should believe.For Elijah went up thither, but he came not down along with Me to bear witness, that the testimony oftwo might be sure."

§25. But as for thee, my beloved, have no doubt as to the Resurrection of the dead. For theliving mouth (of God) testifies :-I cause to die and I make alive.(59) And both of them proceeded out of one mouth. Andas we are sure that He causes to die, and we see it; so also it is sure and worthy of belief, that Hemakes alive. And from all that I have explained to thee, receive and believe that in the day of theResurrection thy body shall arise in its entirety, and thou shalt receive from our Lord the reward ofthy faith, and in all that thou hast believed, thou shalt rejoice and be made glad.

Demonstration X.-Of Pastors.

§1. Pastors are set over the flock, and give the sheep the food of life. Whosoever iswatchful, and toils in behalf of his sheep, is careful for his flock, and is the disciple of our GoodShepherd, who gave Himself in behalf of His sheep.(1) And whosoever brings not back his flock carefully,is likened to the hireling who has no care for the sheep. Be ye like, O Pastors, to those righteousPastors of old. Jacob fed the sheep of Laban, and guarded them and toiled and was watchful, and soreceived the reward. For Jacob said to Laban:-Lo! twenty years am I with thee. Thy sheep and thyflocks I have not robbed and the males of thy sheep I have not eaten. That which was broken I did notbring unto thee, but thou required it at my hands! In the daytime the heat devoured me and the coldby night.(2) My sleep departed from myeyes. Observe, ye Pastors, that Pastor, how he cared for his flock. He used to watch in thenight-time to guard it and was vigilant; and he used to toil in the daytime to feed it. As Jacob wasa pastor, so Joseph was a pastor and his brethren were pastors. Moses was a pastor, and David alsowas a pastor. So Amos was a pastor. These all were pastors who fed the sheep and led them well.

§2. Now, why, my beloved, did these pastors first feed the sheep, and were then chosen to bepastors of men? Clearly that they might learn how a pastor cares for his sheep, and is watchful andtoils in behalf of his sheep. And when they had learned the manners of pastors, they were chosen forthe pastoral office. Jacob fed the sheep of Laban and toiled and was vigilant and led them well; andthen he tended and guided well his sons, and taught them the pattern of pastoral work. And Josephused to tend the sheep along with his brethren; and in Egypt he became guide to a numerous people,and led them back, as a good pastor does his flock. Moses fed the sheep of Jethro his father-in-law,and he was chosen from (tending) the sheep to tend his people, and as a good pastor he guided them.Moses bore his staff upon his shoulder, and went in front of his people that he was leading, andtended them for forty years; and he was vigilant and toiled on behalf of his sheep, a diligent andgood pastor. When his Lord wished to destroy them because of their sins, in that they worshipped thecalf, Moses prayed and besought of his Lord and said:-Either pardon the people for their sins, orelse blot me out from Thy book that Thou hast written.(3) That is a most diligent pastor, who delivered overhimself on behalf of his sheep. That is an excellent leader, who gave himself in behalf of his sheep.And that is a merciful father who cherished his children and reared them up. Moses the great and wiseshepherd, who knew how to lead back the flock, taught Joshua the son of Nun, a man full of thespirit, who (afterwards) led the flock, even all the host of Israel. He destroyed kings and subduedthe land, and gave them the land as a place of pasturage, and divided the resting-places and thesheepfolds to his sheep. Furthermore, David fed his father's sheep, and was taken from the sheep totend his people. So he tended them in the integrity of his heart and by the skill of his hands heguided them.(4) And when David numberedthe flock of his sheep, wrath came upon them, and they began to be destroyed. Then David deliveredhimself over on behalf of his sheep, when he prayed, saying:-O Lord God, I have sinned in that Ihave numbered Israel. Let Thy hand be on me ants on my father's house. These innocent sheep, in whathave they sinned?(5) So also all thediligent pastors used thus to give themselves on behalf of their sheep.

§3. But those pastors who did not care for the sheep, those were hirelings who used to feedthemselves alone. On this account the Prophet(6) addresses them, saying to them:-O ye pastorswho destroy and scatter the sheep of my pasture, hear the word of the Lord. Thus saith the Lord: Lo!I will visit My sheep as the pastor visits his flock in the day of the whirlwind, and I will requireMy sheep at your hands. O foolish pastors, with the wool of the sheep do ye clothe yourselves and theflesh of the fatlings do eat, and the sheep ye do not feed. That which was sick ye did not heal, andthat which was broken ye did not bind The weak ye did not strengthen, and the lost and the scatteredye did not gather together. The strong ones and the fatlings ye did guard, but with harshness yesubdued them. The good pastures ye yourselves graze upon, and what remains ye trample with your feet.The pleasant waters do ye drink, and whatever remains ye defile with your feet. And My sheep haveeaten the trampled (herbage) which your feet have trampled, and they have drunk the waters which yourfeet have defiled. These are the greedy and base pastors and hirelings, who did not feed thesheep, or guide them well, or deliver them from the wolves. But when the Great Pastor, the chief ofpastors, shall come, He will call and visit His sheep and will take knowledge of His flock. And Hewill bring forward those pastors, and will exact an account from them, and will condemn them fortheir deeds. And those who fed the sheep well, them the Chief of Pastors will cause to rejoice and toinherit life and rest. O stupid and foolish pastor, to whose right hand and to whose right eye Icommitted my sheep. Because thou didst say concerning the sheep, let that which dieth, die, and letthat which perisheth perish, and whatever is left, let them devour the flesh of one another;therefore, behold I will make blind thy right eye and I will wither up thy right arm. Thy eye whichregarded a bribe shall be blinded, and thy hand which did not rule in righteousness shallwaste away.(7) And as for you, mysheep, the sheep of my pasture, ye are men; but I am the Lord your God.(8) Behold henceforth will feed you in a good andrich pasture.(9)

§4. The good shepherd giveth himself for the sake of his sheep.(10) And again He said:-I have other sheep and Imust bring them also hither. And the whole flock shall be one, and one shepherd, and My Fatherbecause of this loveth Me; that I give Myself for the sake of the sheep.(11) And again He said ;-I am the door of thesheep. Every one that entereth by Me shall live and shall go in and go out and findpasture.(12) O ye pastors, be ye made likeunto that diligent pastor, the chief of the whole flock, who cared so greatly for his flock. Hebrought nigh those that were afar off. He brought back the wanderers. He visited the sick. Hestrengthened the weak. He bound up the broken. He guarded the fatlings. He gave himself up for thesake of the sheep. He chose and instructed excellent leaders, and committed the sheep into theirhands, and gave them authority over all his flock. For He said to Simon Cephas:-Feed My sheep andMy lambs and My ewes.(13) So Simon fed Hissheep; and he fulfilled his thee and handed over the flock to you, and departed. Do ye also feed andguide them well. For the pastor who cares for his sheep engages in no other pursuit along with that.He does not make a vineyard, nor plant gardens, nor does he fall into the troubles of this world.Never have we seen a pastor who left his sheep in the wilderness and became a merchant, or one wholeft his flock to wander and became a husbandman. But if he deserts his flock and does these thingshe thereby hands over his flock to the wolves.

§5. And remember, my beloved, that I wrote to thee concerning our fathers of old that theyfirst learned the ways of tending sheep and in that received trial of carefulness, and then werechosen for the office of guides, that they might learn and observe how much the pastor cares for hisflock, and as they used to guide the sheep carefully, so also might be perfected in this office ofguidance. Thus Joseph was chosen from the sheep, to guide the Egyptians in the thee of affliction.And Moses was chosen from the sheep, to guide his people and tend them. And David was taken fromfollowing the sheep, to become king over Israel. And the Lord took Amos from following the sheep, andmade him a prophet over his people. Elisha likewise was taken from behind the yoke, to become aprophet in Israel. Moses did not return to his sheep, nor did he leave his flock that was committedto him. David did not return to his father's sheep, but guided his people in the integrity of hisheart.(14) Amos did not turn back to feed hissheep, or to gather (the fruit of) trees, but he guided them and performed his office of prophecy.Elisha did not turn back to his yoke, but served Elijah and filled his place. And he(15) who was for him as a shepherd, because he lovedfields and merchandise and vineyards and oliveyards and tillage, did not wish to become his disciple;and (therefore) he did not commit the flock into his hand.

§6. I beseech you, ye pastors, that ye set not over the flock, leaders who are foolish andstupid, covetous also and lovers of possessions. Every one who feeds the flock shall eat of theirmilk.(16) And every one who guides the yokeshall be ministered to from his labour. The priests have a right to partake of the altar, and theLevites shall receive their tithes. Whoever eats of the milk, let his heart be upon the flock; andlet him that is ministered to from the labour of his yoke, take heed to his tillage. And let thepriests who partake of the altar serve the altar with honour. And as for the Levites who receive thetithes, they have no portion in Israel. O pastors, disciples of our great Pastor, be ye not likehirelings; because the hireling cares not for the sheep. Be ye like our Sweet Pastor, Whose life wasnot dearer to Him than His sheep. Rear up the youths and bring up the maidens; and love the lambs andlet them be reared in your bosoms; that when ye shall come to the Chief Pastor, ye may offer to Himall your sheep in completeness, and so He may give you what He has promised: Where I am, ye alsoshall be.(17) These things, brief as theyare, will be sufficient for the good pastors and leaders.

§7. Above, my beloved, I have written to remind thee of the character that becomes the wholeflock. And in this discourse I have written to thee about the pastors, the guides of the flock. Thesereminders I have written to thee, beloved, as thou didst ask of me in thy dear letter.

§8. The Steward brought me into the King's treasury and showed me there many precious things;and when I saw them my mind was captivated with the great treasury. And as I looked upon it, itdazzled my eyes, and took captive my thoughts, and caused my reflections to wander in many ways.Whosoever receives thereof, is himself enriched, and enriches (others). It lies open and unguardedbefore all that seek it; and though many take from it there is no deficiency; and when they give ofthat which they have received, their own portion is greatly multiplied. They that receive freely letthem give freely(18) as they have received.For (this treasure) cannot be sold for a price, because there is nothing equivalent to it. Moreoverthe treasure fails not; and they that receive it are not satiated. They drink, and are still eager;they eat, and are hungry. Whosoever is not thirsty, finds not ought to drink; whoever is not hungry,finds nothing to eat. The hunger for it satisfies many, and from the thirst for it flow forthwater-springs. For the man who draws nigh to the fear of God is like the man who in his thirst drawsnear to the water-spring and drinks and is satisfied, and the fountain is not a whit diminished. Andthe land that needs to drink in water, drinks of the fountain, but its waters fail not. And when theland drinks, it needs again to drink, and the spring is not lessened by its flowing. So is theknowledge of God. Though all men should receive of it, yet there would come no lack in it, nor can ithe limited by the sons of flesh. He that takes from it, cannot take away all; and when he gives, helacks nothing. When thou takest fire with a candle from a flame, though thou kindle many candles atit, yet the flame does not diminish when thou takest from it, nor does the candle fail, when itkindles many. One man cannot receive all the King's treasure, nor when a thirsty man drinks of thefountain, do its waters fill. When a man stands on a lofty mountain, his eye does not (equally)comprehend the near and the distant; nor, when he stands and counts the stars of heaven, can he setlimits to the hosts of the heavens. So when he draws nigh unto the fear of God, he cannot attain tothe whole of it; and when he receives much that is precious, it does not seem to be diminished; andwhen he gives of that which he has received, it is not exhausted, nor has it come to an end for him.And remember, my beloved, what I wrote to thee, in the first discourse, about faith, that whoever hasfreely received ought to give freely as he has received, as our Lord said:-Freely ye havereceived, freely give.(19) For whosoeverkeeps back part of anything he has received,(20) even that which he has obtained shall be takenaway from him. Therefore, my beloved, as I have been able to obtain now from that treasure that failsnot, I have sent unto thee from it. Yet though I have sent it to thee, it is all with me. For thetreasure fails not, for it is the wisdom of God; and the steward is our Lord Jesus Christ, as Hetestified when He said:-All things have been committed to Me by My Father.(21) And while He is the steward of the wisdom, again,as the Apostle said:-Christ is the power of God and His wisdom.(22) This wisdom is imparted to many, yet nothing islacking, as I explained to thee above; the Prophets received of the spirit of Christ, yet Christ wasnot a whir diminished.

§9. Ten treatises have I written unto thee, my beloved. Whatsoever thou hast asked of me, Ihave explained to thee without (receiving) ought from thee. And that which thou enquiredst not of me,I have given unto thee. I have asked thy name and written unto thee. I have asked of myself thyquestion, and I have answered thee as I was able, for thy persuasion. Whatsoever I have written untothee, meditate in these things at every thee; and labour to read those books which are read in thechurch of God. These ten little books that I have written for thee, they borrow one from another, anddepend one upon another. Separate them not one from another. From Olaph to Yud I have writtenfor thee, each letter after its fellow. Read thou and learn thou and the brethren, the monks, and thefaithful, they from whom mocking is far removed; as I wrote unto thee above. And remember that whichI pointed out to thee, that I have not brought these matters to an end, but short of the end. Nor arethese things sufficient; but hear thou these things from me without wrangling, and enquire concerningthem with brethren who are apt for persuasion. Whatsoever thou hearest that assuredly edifies,receive; and whatever builds up strange doctrines, overthrow and utterly demolish. For wranglingcannot edify. But I, my beloved, as a stonecutter have brought stones for the building, and let wisearchitects carve them out and lay them in the building; and all the labourers that toil in thebuilding shall receive reward from the Lord of the house.

Demonstration XVII.-Of CHrist the Son of God.

§1.(This is) a reply against the Jews, who blaspheme the people gathered from among theGentiles; for they say thus, "Ye worship and serve a man who was begotten, a son of man who wascrucified, and ye call a son of men, God. And though God has no son, ye say concerning this crucifiedJesus, that He is the Son of God." And they bring forward as an argument, that God said:-"I am Godand there is none else beside Me."(1) Andagain he said:-"Thou shalt not worship another God."(2) Therefore,(say they), ye are opposing God in thatye call a man, God.

§2. Concerning these things, my beloved, so far as I, in my insignificance, can comprehend, Iwill instruct thee about them, that while we grant to them that He is man, and(while) we at the sametime honour Him and call Him God and Lord, yet it is not in any novel fashion, that we have so calledHim, nor that we have applied to Him a novel name, which they themselves did not employ. Yet it is asure thing with us, that Jesus our Lord is God, the Son of God, and the King, the King's Son, Lightof light, Creator and Counsellor, and Guide, and the Way, and Redeemer, and Shepherd, Gatherer, andthe Door, and the Pearl, and the Lamp; and by many(such) names is He surnamed. But we shall leaveaside all(the rest) of them, and prove concerning Him, that He Who came from God is the Son of God,and(is) God.

§3. For the venerated name of Godhead has been applied also to righteous men, and they havebeen held worthy to be called by it. And the men with whom God was well pleased, them He called, Mysons, and My friends. When He chose Moses His friend and His beloved and made him chief and teacherand priest unto his people he called him God. For He said to him :-I have made thee a God untoPharaoh.(3) And He gave him His priest fora prophet, And Aaron thy brother shall speak for thee unto Pharaoh, and than shalt be unto him asa God, and he shall be unto thee an interpreter.(4) Thus not alone to the evil Pharaoh did He makeMoses God, but also unto Aaron, the holy priest, He made Moses God.

§4. Again, hear concerning the title Son of God, by which we have called Him. They say that"though God has no son, ye make that crucified Jesus, the firstborn son of God." Yet He called Israel"My first-born," when He sent to Pharaoh through Moses and said to him, Israel is Myfirst-born; I have said unto thee, let My Son go to serve Me, and if thou art not willing to let(him)go, lo! I will slay thy son, they firstborn.(5) And also through the Prophet(6) He testified concerning this, and reproved themand said to the people, Out of Egypt have I called My son. As I called them, so they went andworshipped Baal and offered incense to the graven images. And Isaiah said(7) concerning them, Children have I reared andbrought up, and they have rebelled against Me. And again it is written, Ye are the children ofthe Lord your God.(8) And about Solomon Hesaid, He shall be to Me a son, and I will be to him a Father.(9) So also we call the Christ, the Son of God, forthrough Him we have gained the knowledge of God; even as He called Israel My firstborn son,and as He said concerning Solomon, He shall be to Me a son. And we call Him God, even as Hesurnamed Moses by His own Name. And also David said concerning them:-Ye are Gods and children ofthe Highest, all of you.(10) And when theyamended not themselves, therefore He said concerning them:-As men shall ye die, and as one of theprinces shall ye fall.(11)

§5. For the name of Divinity is given for the highest honour in the world, and withwhomsoever God is well pleased, He applies it to him. But however, the names of God are many and arevenerable, as He delivered His names to Moses, saying to him:-I am the God of your fathers, theGod of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. This is My Name for ever, and this is Mymemorial unto generations.(12) And Hecalled His name Ahiyah ashar Ahiyah, El Shaddai and Adonai Sabaoth.(13) By these names is God called. The great andhonourable name of Godhead He withheld not from His righteous ones; even as, though He is thegreat King, without grudging He applied the great and honourable name of Kingship to men who are Hiscreatures.

§6. For by the mouth of His prophet God called the heathen King Nebuchadnezzar, King ofKings. For Jeremiah said:-Every people and kingdom that shall not put his neck into the yokeof Nebuchadnezzar, King of Kings, My servant, with famine and with sword and with pestilence will Ivisit that people.(14) Though He is thegreat King, He grudges not the name of Kingship to men. And(so), though He is the great God, yet Hegrudged not the name of Godhead to the sons of flesh. And though all fatherhood is His, He has calledmen also fathers. For He said to the congregation:-Instead of thy fathers, shall be thychildren.(15) And though authority is His,He has given men authority one over another. And while worship is His unto honour, He has yet allowedit in the world, that one man should honour another. For even though a man should do worship(16) before the wicked and the heathen and themthat refuse grace, yet is he not censured by God. And concerning worship He commanded His people,Thou shall not worship the sun or the moon or all the hosts of heaven; and also ye shall notdesire to worship any creature that is upon the earth.(17) Behold the grace and the love of our good Maker,that He did not grudge to men the name of Godhead and the name of worship, and the name of Kingship,and the name of authority; because He is the Father of the created things that are over the face ofthe world, and He has honoured and exalted and glorified men above all creatures. For with His holyhands He fashioned them; and of His Spirit He breathed into them, and a dwelling-place did He becomeunto them from of old.(18) In them doth Heabide and amongst them doth He walk. For He said through the prophet, I will dwell in them, andwalk in them.(19) Furthermore also theProphet Jeremiah said:-Ye are the temple of the Lord, if ye make fair your ways and yourdeeds.(20) And of old David said:-Thou,Lord, hast been a dwelling-place unto us for generations; before the mountains were conceived andbefore the earth travailed, and before the world was framed; from age to age Thou art God.(21)

§7. How dost thou understand this? For one prophet says:-Lord, Thou hast been ourdwelling-place. And another said:-I will dwell in them and walk in them. First, He becameto us a dwelling-place, and afterwards He dwelt and walked in us. For the wise both things are trueand simple. For David says:-Thou, Lord, hast been our dwelling-place for generations, before themountains were conceived and before the earth travailed, and before the world was framed. Andthou knowest, my beloved, that all created things that are above and that are beneath were createdfirst, and after them all, man. For when God determined to create the world with all its goodlythings, first He conceived and fashioned man in His mind; and after that Adam was conceived in Histhought, then He conceived the created things; as he said :-Before the mountains were conceivedand the earth travailed; because man is older and more ancient in conception than the creatures,but in birth the creatures are older and more ancient than Adam. Adam was conceived and dwelt in thethought of God; and while in conception he(man) was held in His(God's) mind, He(God) by the word ofHis mouth created all the creatures. And when He had finished and adorned the world, when nothing waslacking in it, then He brought forth Adam from His thoughts, and fashioned man by His hands; and Adamsaw the world completed. And He(God) gave him authority over all that He had made, just as a man whohas a son and desires to make for him a marriage feast, betroths to him a wife and builds for him ahouse, and prepares and adorns all that is needed for his son; then he makes the marriage feast andgives his son authority over his house. So after the conception of Adam, He brought him forth andgave him authority over all his creation. Concerning this the Prophet said :-Thou, Lord, hast beenour habitation for generations, before the mountains were conceived, and before the earth travailedand before the world was framed. From age unto age Thou art the Lord. That no one should supposethat there is another God, either before or afterwards, he said:-From age and unto age, justas Isaiah said:-I am the first and I am the last.(22) And after that God brought forth Adam from withinHis thought, He fashioned him, and breathed into him of His Spirit, and gave him the knowledge ofdiscernment, that he might discern good from evil, and might know that God made him. And inasmuch asman knew his Maker, God was formed and conceived within his thought, and he became a temple for Godhis Maker, as it is written, Ye are the temple of God. And(so) He Himself said:-I willdwell in them and walk in them. But as for the sons of Adam, who do not recognise their Maker, Heis not formed within them, and does not dwell in them, and is not conceived in their thought; butthey are accounted before Him as the beasts, and as the rest of the creatures.

§8. Now by these things the stubborn will be convinced, that it is nothing strange that wecall Christ the Son of God. For behold, He(God) conceived all men and brought them forth from Histhoughts. And they will be forced to own that the name of Godhead also belongs to Him(Christ), forHe(God) associated the righteous also in the name of God. And as to this, that we worship Jesusthrough Whom we have known God, let them be ashamed, inasmuch as they fill down and worship andhonour even the heathen of the unclean Gentiles, if they possess authority; and(for this) there is noblame. And this honour of worship God has given to the sons of Adam, that by it they might honour oneanother-especially those who excel and are worthy of honour amongst them. For if they worship, andhonour with the name of worship, the heathen-those who in their heathen wickedness deny even the nameof God-and yet do not worship them as their maker, as though they worshipped them alone, and so donot sin; how much more does it become us to worship and honour Jesus, Who converted our stubbornminds from all worship of vain error, and taught us to worship and serve and minister to the one God,our Father and our Maker. And(taught us) to know that the kings of the world call themselves Gods bythe name of the great God, and are infidels and force men to infidelity, and men fall down andworship before them and serve and honour them, like carven images and idols, yet the law nevercensured these, and there is no sin. As Daniel also used to do worship to Nebuchadnezzar, King ofBabylon, the infidel and compeller to infidelity, and was not censured. Joseph also gave worship toPharaoh, and it is not written that it was a sin for him. But as for us, we are certain that Jesus isGod, the Son of God, and through Him we know His Father, an (have) all of us(turned away) from allother worship. Therefore it is impossible for us to repay Him Who bore these things for us. But byworship let us pay Him honour in return for His affliction that was on our behalf.

§9. Furthermore, we must prove that this Jesus was beforehand promised from ancient times inthe Prophets, and was called the Son of God. David said:-Thou art My Son; today have I begottenThee.(23) Again he said:-In the gloriesof holiness, from the womb, from of old, have I begotten thee, a child.(24) And Isaiah said:-Unto us a child is born, untous a Son is given, and His government was upon His shoulder, and His Name shall be called Wonderful,and Counsellor, and mighty God of the ages, and Prince of peace. And to the increase of Hisgovernment and to His peace there is no end.(25) Therefore tell me, O wise doctor of Israel, whois He that was born and whose name was called Child and Son and Wonderful andCounsellor, the mighty God of the ages, and Prince of peace, to the increase ofwhose government and to whose peace(he said), there is no end? For if we call Christthe Son of God, David taught us(this); and that we call Him God, this we learned from Isaiah. AndHis government was laid upon His shoulder; for He hare His cross, and went out from Jerusalem.And that He was born as a child, Isaiah again said:-Lo, the virgin shall conceive and bear;and His name shall be called Immanuel, which is, our God with us.(26)

§10. And if thou shouldest say that Christ has not yet come, I will grant this also to thycontentiousness. For it is written that when He shall come, the Gentiles shall expectHim.(27) Lo! I, one of the Gentiles, haveheard that Christ is to come. And when as yet He had not come, I beforehand have believed on Him; andthrough Him I worship the God of Israel. When He comes, will He then blame me because before Hiscoming I beforehand believed on Him? But, thou fool, the prophets suffer thee not to say that Christhas not yet come; for Daniel confutes thee,(28) saying:-After sixty-two weeks shall Messiahcome and shall be slain. And in His coming shall the Holy City be laid waste, and her end shall bewith a flood. And until the accomplishment of the things that are determined, shall she continue indesolation. Thou expectest and hopest that, at the coming of Christ, Israel shall be gatheredtogether from all regions, and Jerusalem shall be built up and inhabited. But Daniel testifies that,when Christ comes and is slain, Jerusalem shall be destroyed, and shall continue in desolation untilthe accomplishment of the things which are determined, forever. And concerning the suffering ofChrist, David said:-They pierced my hands and my feet, and all my bones cried out. They gazed andlooked upon me, and divided my garments amongst them, and upon my vesture did they cast thelot.(29) And Isaiah said:-Lo! Myservant shall be known and shall be revealed and shall be lifted up, so that many shall be astonishedat Him. As for this man, His visage shall be marred more than that of man, and His aspect more thanthat of the sons of men.(30) And hesaid:-He will purify many nations, and kings shall be amazed at Him.(31) And he said in that passage:-He came up as alittle child before Him, and as a root from the dry ground.(32) And in the end of the passage he said:-Heshall be slain for our sins; He shall be humiliated for our iniquity; the chastisement of our peaceis upon Him, and by His bruises shall we be healed.(33) By what wounds were men healed? David was notslain; for he died in a good old age, and was buried in Bethlehem. And if they should say that it isspoken of Saul, for Saul was killed in the mountains of Gilboa in the battle with the Philistines,and if they should say that they pierced his hands and his feet, when they fastened up hisbody on the wall of Bethshan; yet it does not fitly apply to Saul. When the limbs of Saul werepierced, his bones were not conscious of suffering, because he was dead. It was after Saul died, thatthey hanged his body and those of his sons on the wall of Bethshan. But when David said, Theypierced my hands and my feet, and all my bones cried out, he said in the next verse:-O God,abide for my help, and deliver my soul from the sword.(34) Now Christ was delivered from the sword, andascended from out of Sheol, and revived and rose the third day, and so God abode for His help.But Saul called upon the Lord and He did not answer him; and he asked through the Prophets, but noanswer was given to him. And he disguised himself and inquired by soothsayers, and learned fromthence. He was worsted before the Philistines, and he slew himself with his own sword, when he sawthat the battle had overcome him. Moreover in this passage David said:-I will declare Thy nameunto my brethren, and in the midst of the congregation will I glorify Thee.(35) How can these things apply to Saul? And againDavid said:-Thou didst not give Thy holy one to see corruption.(36) But all these things fitly apply to Christ. WhenHe came to them, they did not receive Him; but wickedly judged Him by false witness. And He was hungupon the tree by His hands, and they pierced His hands and His feet with the nails which theyfastened in him; and all His bones cried out. And on that day a great prodigy happened. namely, thatthe light became dark in the middle of the day, as Zechariah prophesied, saying:-The day shall beknown unto the Lord. It shall not be daytime, and it shall not be night; and at the evening timethere shall be light.(37) Now what is theday that was distinguished by the prodigy, that it was neither daytime nor night, and that at theevening time there was light? Evidently the day on which they crucified Him, for in the midst of thatday there came darkness, and at the evening time there was light. And again he said:-That daythere shall be cold and frost.(38) -Asthou knowest, on that day on which they crucified Him, it was cold, and they had made them a fire towarm themselves when Simon came and stood with them. And again he said:-The spear shall ariseagainst the shepherd, and against the man, My friend;(39) and it shall smite the shepherd, and the sheepof his flock shall be scattered; and I will turn back My hand upon the pastor.(40) And furthermore David said concerning HisPassion:-For My meat they gave gall, and for My thirst did they give Me vinegar todrink.(41) -Again he said in thatpassage:-They have persecuted Him Whom Thou hast smitten; and have added to the affliction of Himthat was slain. For they added many(afflictions) to Him, much that was not written concerningHim, cursings and revilings, such as the Scripture could not reveal, for their revilings werehateful. But, however, the Lord was pleased to humiliate Him and afflict Him.(42) And He was slain for our iniquity,(43) and was humiliated for our sins, andwas made sin in His own person.(44)

§11. We worship those mercies, and bow the knee before the Majesty of His Father, Whoconverted our worship to Him. We call Him God, just as Moses(was called God); and Firstborn. and Son,just as Israel(was called); and Jesus(Joshua), just as Joshua the son of Nun was so called; andPriest like Aaron, and King, like David; and great Prophet, like all the Prophets; and Shepherd, likethe shepherds who tended and guided Israel. And so did He call children as He said:-Strangechildren shall hearken unto Me.(45) And Hehas made us brothers unto Himself, He said:-I will declare Thy name unto My brethren.(46) And we have become friends unto Him, as He saidto His disciples:-I have called you friends,(47) even as His Father called Abraham Myfriend.(48) And He said unto us:-I amthe good Shepherd, the Door, the Way, the Vine, the Sower, the Bridegroom, the Pearl, the Lamp, theLight, the King, God, Saviour, and Redeemer. And by many names is He surnamed.

§12. This brief argument have I written unto thee, my beloved, that thou mayest make defenceagainst the Jews, concerning this that they say, that God has no son, and concerning this that wecall Him God, the Son of God, King, and Firstborn of all creatures.(49)

Demonstration XXI.-Of Persecution

§1. I have heard a reproach, which has greatly vexed me. The unclean(the heathen) say, thatthis people, which is gathered together out of all nations, has no God. And thus say the impious:-"Ifthey have a God, why does He not avenge His people?" And darkness more exceedingly has thickened uponme, because the Jews also reproach us, and magnify themselves over the children of our people. Ithappened one day, that a man, who is called wise amongst the Jews, questioned me, saying:-Jesus, Whois called your Teacher, wrote for you, that If there shall be in you faith like one grain ofmustard, ye shall say to this mountain, Remove, and it shall remove from before you; and (ye shallsay) even, Be lifted up and fall into the sea, and it shall obey you.(1) So apparently there is in all your people not onewise man, whose prayer is heard, and who asks of God that your persecutors should cease from you. Forclearly it is written for you in that passage, There is nothing which ye shall not be able todo.

§2. And when I saw that he was blaspheming and speaking much against the Way(the Christianreligion), my mind was disturbed, and I understood that he would not admit the interpretation of thewords that he quoted to me. Then I also questioned him on sayings from the Law and from the Prophets,and said to him:-Do ye trust that even when ye are dispersed God is with you? And he professed to me,"God is with us, because that God said unto Israel:-Even in the lands of their enemies, I yet didnot forsake them, nor did I make void My covenant with them."(2) In answer I said to him:-"Right good is this thatI have heard from thee, that God is with you. Against thy words will I also speak unto thee. For Isaid the Prophet said unto Israel, as from the mouth of God:-If thou shall pass through the sea, Iwill be with thee, and the rivers shall not overflow thee; and if thou shall walk upon fire, thoushall not be burned, and the flame shall not search thee; because the Lord thy God is withthee.(3) Thus there is not one righteousand good and wise man out of all your people, who could pass through the sea and live and not bedrowned; or(through) the river without its overflowing him; or who could walk over fire and seewhether he would not be scorched and whether the flame would not burn him. And if thou shall bring tome an explanation, I will not be persuaded by thee, just as thou also dost not accept from me theinterpretation of the words as to which thou hast questioned me."

§3. Furthermore I questioned him about another saying that is written in Ezekiel; namely,that he said to Jerusalem:-Sodom and her daughters shall be built up as of old, and thouand thy daughters shall became as of old.(4) So he explained this saying to me, and began tomake a defence, and said to me "As to this that God said to Jerusalem by the Prophet, Sodom andher daughters shall be built up as of old, and thou and thy daughters shall become as of old;this is the force of the passage, that Sodom and her daughters shall be in their place as of old, andshall be made subject to Israel; and Jerusalem and her daughters shall be in the splendour of royaltyas of old." When I heard this defence from him, it was very contemptible in my eyes, and I said tohim:-"Inasmuch as the words of the Prophet were said in wrath, is the whole passage wrathful, or ispart of it wrathful and part of it gracious?" He answered:-" A wrathful passage is altogether wrath,and there is no peace in it." And I said to him:-"Since thou hast instructed me that there is nopeace in that wrathful passage, hear without contention and blaspheme not, and I will instruct theeabout this saying. For from the top to the bottom the whole passage is said in wrath. For he said toJerusalem:-As I live, saith the Lord God, Sodom and her daughters did not do at all as thou andthey daughters have done.(5) And he saidto her (Jerusalem):-Be abashed and accept thy shame, that thou hast overcome thy sisters in thysins, and they are justified rattler than thou.(6) Since he says that Sodom and her daughters werejustified rather than Jerusalem and her daughters, and that Jerusalem overcame Sodom in her sins, itis right that when Israel shall be gathered together, its seat should be in Sodom and Gomorrha. Fortheir vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the planting of Gomorrha. Their grapes are bitter andtheir clusters gall unto them.(7) AndIsaiah also calls them rulers of Sodom, and people of Gomorrha.(8) For if Israel is gathered together, in Sodom andGomorrha ought they to dwell with the rulers of Sodom and with the people of Gomorrha; and on thevine of Sodom and planting of Gomorrha to eat bitter grapes and gather clusters of gall; and to eatthe eggs of the basilisk and to clothe` themselves with spiders' webs,(9) to be used with wild grapes of thevineyard,(10) and to be turned intoreprobate silver.(11) And Sodom and herdaughters, who were justified rather than Jerusalem, shall be built up as of old. And Jerusalem, thatsurpassed Sodom in her sins, shall continue in her sins, and shall remain in desolation until theaccomplishment of the things determined for ever.(12)

§4. And Ezekiel said:-This is the iniquity of Sodom and of her daughters, that they didnot take by the hand the poor and needy; and when I saw these things in them, I overthrewthem.(13) And consider and see that, fromthe time that Sodom was overthrown until Jerusalem was built, there were eight hundred and ninety-sixyears. From the time that Abraham was informed by God through the Angel that at this time nextyear I will return to thee, and Sarah thy wife shall have a son,(14) from that time till Jacob entered Egypt was ahundred and ninety-one years: and the children of Jacob were in Egypt two hundred and twenty-fiveyears. So all the years from the time that Isaac was conceived and Sodom overthrown were four hundredand sixteen years, and from the Exodus of Israel from Egypt till the great edifice of Jerusalem wasbuilt up by Solomon, and the temple was built, there were four hundred and eighty years. Thereforeall the years from the conception of Isaac and the overthrow of Sodom till the great building ofJerusalem, were eight hundred and ninety-six years. And from the great building of Jerusalem untilthe destruction of Jerusalem there were four hundred and twenty-five years. The sum of all the yearsfrom the time of the overthrow of Sodom until Jerusalem was laid waste, was one thousand threehundred and twenty-one. These are all the years that Sodom and her daughters were laid waste beforeJerusalem. And she that was more just than Jerusalem is not yet inhabited. Therefore the whole sum ofthe years from the overthrow of Sodom till the six hundred and fifty-fifth year of the Kingdom ofAlexander, the son of Philip of Macedon,(15)is two thousand two hundred and seventy-six years. And from the time that Jerusalem was laid waste bythe Babylonians until the present time is nine hundred and fifty-five years. And Jerusalem has beeninhabited, after the Babylonians laid it waste, during those seventy weeks about which Danieltestified. Then it was laid waste in its last destruction by the Romans, and it shall not beinhabited again for ever, for it abideth in desolation until the accomplishment of the thingsdetermined.(16) So then, all the years ofthe former and latter desolation of Jerusalem have been four hundred and sixty-five years, and whenthou dost deduct from them the seventy years of Babylon, they have been three hundred and ninety-fiveyears.

§5. All this argument have I written to thee, because the Jews pride themselves, (saying),"It has been covenanted to us, that we shall be gathered." For if Sodom, whose iniquity was not sogreat as that of Jerusalem, is not as yet inhabited, and if we say thus, that it will not be restoredfor ever, how shall Jerusalem be restored, whose iniquity is greater than that of Sodom and herdaughters? As for Sodom God has not had mercy on her for two thousand two hundred and seventy-sixyears; and shall we say that He will have mercy on Jerusalem? For up to the present there are butthree hundred and ninety-five years from the day that she was laid waste, according to thecalculation that has been written above. But as to this that he said, Sodom and her daughtersshall be possessed as of old,(17) and withregard to Jerusalem he said, Thou and thy daughters shall became as of old, this is the forceof the passage; that they shall not be inhabited for ever; for the Lord also thus cursed the landagainst which He was wroth:-It shall not be sown, nor shall it produce, nor shall any herb springup in it, but it shall be like Sodom and Gomorrha, against which the Lord was wrath and towards whichHe was not appeased.(18) Therefore besure, my hearer, that Sodom and her daughters shall not be inhabited for ever; but they shall be asof old, namely, as in that time when they were not as yet inhabited, and as in the time when the Lordwas wroth with them and was not appeased towards them. And Jerusalem and her daughters shall be as ofold, (that is) as in the former time when the mountain of the Amorites lay in desolation, whereonAbraham built the altar, when he bound upon it Isaac his son; and as it was desolate when Davidbought the threshing-floor from Araunah the Jebusite, and built there the altar. For consider and seethat this mountain whereon Abraham offered his son is the mountain of Jebus, which is Jerusalem. Andthis place of the threshing-floor that David bought of Araunah is that whereon the Temple was built.Thus Jerusalem shall be in desolation as of old. And consider that when Ezekiel prophesied thispassage, Jerusalem still was sitting in her greatness, and those who were in her were rebellingagainst the King of Babylon. And that which the Prophet spoke, he said in wrath and reproach againstJerusalem.

§6. Consider and observe, my hearer, that if God had given a hope to Sodom and to herfellows, He would not have overthrown them with fire and brimstone, the sign of the last day of theworld, but would have delivered them over to one of the kingdoms to be chastised. As it is writtenthat when Jeremiah caused the nations and kingdoms to drink the cup of wrath, he said concerning eachone of the cities, that after they shall drink the cup, I will turn back the captivity ofElam, of Tyre, of Zidon, of the children of Ammon, and of Moab, and of Edom.(19) Concerning each one of these kingdoms hesaid:-In the last days I well turn back her captivity. Now we see that Tyre was inhabited, andwas opulent after she had wandered seventy years,(20) and after she had received the reward of herharlotries and after she had committed fornication with all kingdoms. And she took theharp, and played it sweetly, and multiplied her music. And also the region of Elam is inhabitedand opulent. And with regard to Babylon Jeremiah said:-Babylon shall fall, and shall notrise.(21) And lo! unto this day does itcontinue in desolation, and will do so for ever. And also about Jerusalem he said:-The virgin ofIsrael shall fall, and shall not rise again. She is forsaken upon the ground and there is none toraise her up.(22) For if the prophecy istrue which Jeremiah spoke about Babylon, also that about Jerusalem is true and worthy of faith. AndIsaiah said unto Jerusalem:-I will not again be wroth with thee, nor will I reprovethee.(23) Of a truth He will not again bewrath with her, nor will He reprove her for ever; for that which is in desolation He will notreprove, nor will she provoke him to wrath.

7. As to those that reproach us (saying):-"Ye are persecuted and are not delivered," let them beashamed themselves, that at every time they have been persecuted, even for many years before theywere delivered. They were made to serve in Egypt two hundred and twenty-five years. And theMidianites(24) made Israel serve in the daysof Barak and Deborah.(25) The Moabites ruledover them in the days of Ehud;(26) theAmmonites in the days of Jephthah;(27) thePhilistines in the days of Samson,(28) andalso in the days of Eli and of Samuel the Prophet;(29) the Edomites in the days of Ahab; the Assyriansin the days of Hezekiah.(30) The king ofBabylon uprooted them from their place and dispersed them;(31) and after he had tried and persecuted them much,they did not amend, as He said to them:-In vain have I smitten your sons, for they did not acceptchastisement.(32) And again He said:-Ihave cut off the Prophets, and slain them by the word of My mouth.(33) And to Jerusalem He said:-By afflictions andscourges be instructed, O Jerusalem, lest thy life depart from thee.(34) But they forsook Him, and worshipped idols, asJeremiah said concerning them:(35) -Go tothe distant isles, and send to Kedar, and consider well and see, whether there has been (anything)like this, whether the nations change their gods, those that are no gads. But My people has changedMy honour for that which is not profitable. Be astonished, ye heavens, at this; and quake and feargreatly, saith the Lord; because My people have done two wickednesses; they have abandoned Me, thefountain of the water of life, and they have gone and dug for themselves cisterns, broken cisternswhich cannot hold water. For the broken cisterns are the fear of images and idols. And He callsthe heavens to astonishment, because they worshipped the hosts of the heavens. And the heavens shallreceive as a penalty, that they shall be rolled up as a scroll, and all the host of them shallfall down.(36)

§8. All this discourse that I have written unto thee, my beloved, from the beginning, wasbecause the Jew reproached the children of our people; but now, as far as I can comprehend, I willinstruct thee about the persecuted, that they have received a great reward, while the persecutorshave come to scorn and contempt.

§9. Jacob was persecuted, and Esau was a persecutor. Jacob received the blessings and thebirthright, while Esau was cast out from both. Joseph was persecuted, and his brothers werepersecutors; Joseph was exalted and his persecutors bowed down before him, and so his dreams and hisvisions were fulfilled. Joseph who was persecuted was a type of the persecuted Jesus. His fatherclothed Joseph in a tunic of divers colours; and His Father clothed Jesus with a body (taken) fromthe Virgin. His father loved Joseph more than his brethren, and Jesus is the dear and beloved one ofHis Father. Joseph saw visions and dreamed dreams; Jesus fulfilled the visions and the Prophets.Joseph was a shepherd with his brethren; and Jesus is the Chief of Shepherds. When his father sentJoseph to visit his brethren, they saw him coming and plotted to kill him; and when His Father sentJesus to visit His brethren, they said:-This is the heir; come, let us kill him.(37) His brethen cast Joseph lute the pit; and Hisbrethren brought down Jesus lute the abode of the dead. Joseph ascended from the pit and Jesus arosefrom the abode of the dead. Joseph, after he arose from the pit, had authority over his brethen; andafter Jesus arose from the abode of the dead, His Father gave Him a great dud excellent name,(38) that His brethren should serve Him, and Hisenemies be put beneath His feet. After that Joseph was made known to his brethren, they were abashedand feared and were amazed at his greatness; and when Jesus shall come at the last time, when Heshall be revealed in His Majesty, His brethren will be abashed and fear and be dismayed before Him,because they crucified Him. Moreover, Joseph, by the counsel of Judah, was sold into Egypt; andJesus, by the hands of Judas Iscariot, was delivered over to the Jews. When they sold Joseph, heanswered nothing to his brethren; Jesus also spake not and gave no answer to the judges who judgedHim. His master wrongfully delivered over Joseph to the prison; and His countrymen wrongfullycondemned Jesus. Joseph delivered over his two garments, one into the hand of his brethren, and theother into the hand of his master's wife; and Jesus delivered over His garments and divided thembetween the soldiers. Joseph, when thirty years old, stood before Pharaoh and became lord of Egypt;and Jesus, when about thirty years old, came to the Jordan to be baptized, and received the spirit,and went forth to preach. Joseph nourished Egypt with bread; and Jesus nourished the whole world withthe bread of life. Joseph took to wife the daughter of the wicked and unclean priest; and Jesusespoused to Himself the Church (taken) from the unclean Gentiles. Joseph died and was buried inEgypt; and Jesus died and was buried in Jerusalem. Joseph's bones his brethren brought up from Egypt;and Jesus His Father raised from the abode of the dead, and took up His Body with Him to heavenuncorrupted.

§10. Moses also was persecuted, as Jesus was persecuted. When Moses was born, they concealedhim that he might not be slain by his persecutors. When Jesus was born they carried Him off in flightinto Egypt that Herod, His persecutor, might not slay Him. In the days when Moses was born, childrenused to be drowned in the river; and at the birth of Jesus the children of Bethlehem and in itsborders were slain. To Moses God said:-"The men are dead who were seeking thy life;(39) and to Joseph the angel said in Egypt:-Arise,take up the child, and go into the land of Israel, for they are dead who were seeking the life of thechild to take it away.(40) Moses broughtout his people from the service of Pharaoh; and Jesus delivered all nations from the service ofSatan. Moses grew up in Pharaoh's house; and Jesus grew up in Egypt when Joseph brought Him there inflight. Miriam(41) stood on the edge of theriver when Moses was floating in the water; and Mary bare Jesus, after the Angel Gabriel had made theannunciation to her. When Moses sacrificed the lamb, the firstborn of Egypt were slain; and when theycrucified Jesus the true Lamb, the people who slew Him perished through His slaying. Moses broughtdown manna for his people; and Jesus gave His Body to the nations. Moses sweetened the bitter watersby the wood; and Jesus sweetened our bitterness by His cross, by the wood of the tree of Hiscrucifixion. Moses brought down the Law to his people; and Jesus gave His covenants to the nations.Moses conquered Amalek by the spreading out of his hands; and Jesus conquered Satan by the sign ofHis cross. Moses brought out water from the rock for his people; and Jesus sent Simon Cephas (therock) to carry His doctrine among the nations. Moses lifted up the veil from his face and spake withGod; and Jesus lifted up the veil from the face of the nations, that they might hear and receive hisdoctrine. Moses laid his hand upon his messengers (apostles), and they received priesthood; and Jesuslaid His hand upon His apostles, and they received the Holy Spirit. Moses ascended the mountain anddied there; and Jesus ascended into heaven and took his seat at the right hand of His Father.

§11. Also Joshua the son of Nun was persecuted as Jesus our Redeemer was persecuted. Joshuathe son of Nun was persecuted by the unclean nations; and Jesus our Redeemer was persecuted by thefoolish people. Joshua the son of Nun took away the inheritance from his persecutors and gave it tohis people; and Jesus our Redeemer took away the inheritance froth His persecutors and gave it tostrange nations. Joshua the son of Nun caused the sun to stand still in the heavens, and tookvengeance on the nations his persecutors; and Jesus our Redeemer caused the sun to set in the midstof the day, that the persecuting people which crucified Him might be ashamed. Joshua the son of Nundivided the inheritance unto his people; and Jesus our Redeemer has promised to give to the nationsthe land of life. Joshua the son of Nun caused Rahab the harlot to live; and Jesus our Redeemergathered together and gave life to the Church, though polluted by the harlotry (of idolatry). Joshuathe son of Nun on the seventh day overthrew and cast down the walls of Jericho; and Jesus ourRedeemer, on His seventh day, on the Sabbath of the rest of God, this world shall be dissolved andfall. Joshua the son of Nun stoned Achor, because he stole of the accursed thing; and Jesus ourRedeemer separated Judas from the disciples, His friends, because he stole of the money of the poor.Joshua the son of Nun, when he was dying, laid down a testimony among his people; and Jesus ourRedeemer, when He was taken up, laid down a testimony among His apostles.

§12. Also Jephthah was persecuted, as Jesus was persecuted. Jephthah, his brethren drove outfrom the house of his father; and Jesus, His brethren drove out and lifted up and crucified. Jephthahthough persecuted arose as leader to his people; Jesus though persecuted arose and became King of theNations. Jephthah vowed a vow and offered up his firstborn daughter as a sacrifice; and Jesus waslifted up as a sacrifice to his Father for all the Gentiles.

§13. Also David was persecuted, as Jesus was persecuted. David was anointed by Samuel to beking instead of Saul who had sinned; and Jesus was anointed by John to be High Priest instead of thepriests, the ministers of the Law. David was persecuted after his anointing; and Jesus was persecutedafter His anointing. David reigned first over one tribe only, and afterwards over all Israel; andJesus reigned from the beginning over the few who believed on Him, and in the end He will reign overall the world. Samuel anointed David when he was thirty years old; and Jesus when about thirty yearsold received the imposition of the hand from John. David wedded two daughters of the king; and Jesuswedded two daughters of kings, the congregation of the People and the congregation of the Gentiles.David repaid good to Saul his enemy; and Jesus taught, Pray for your enemies.(42) David was the heart of God;(43) and Jesus was the Son of God. David received thekingdom of Saul his persecutor; and Jesus received the kingdom of Israel His persecutor. David weptwith dirges over Saul his enemy when he died; and Jesus wept over Jerusalem, His persecutor, whichwas to be laid waste. David handed over the kingdom to Solomon, and was gathered to his people; andJesus handed over the keys to Simon, and ascended and returned to Him who sent Him. For David's sake,sins were forgiven to his posterity; and for Jesus' sake sins are forgiven to the nations.(44)

§14. Elijah also was persecuted as Jesus was persecuted. Jezebel the murderess persecutedElijah; and the persecuting and murderous congregation persecuted Jesus. Elijah restrained theheavens from rain because of the sins of Israel; and Jesus by His coming restrained the Spirit fromthe prophets, because of the sins of the people. Elijah destroyed the servants of Baal; and Jesustrampled upon Satan and his hosts. Elijah raised to life the son of the widow; and Jesus raised tolife the son of the widow, as well as Lazarus and the daughter of the ruler of the Synagogue. Elijahsustained the widow with a little bread; and Jesus satisfied thousands with a little bread. Elijahwas taken up in a chariot to heaven; and our Redeemer ascended and took His seat on the right hand ofHis Father. Elisha received the spirit of Elijah; and Jesus breathed upon the faces of HisApostles.

§15. Also Elisha was persecuted as Jesus was persecuted. Elisha was persecuted by the son ofAhab, the son of the murderer; and Jesus was persecuted by the murderous people. Elisha prophesied,and there came about abundance in Samaria; and Jesus said:-Whosoever eateth of My body anddrinketh of My blood shall live for ever. Elisha satisfied a hundred men with a little bread; andJesus satisfied four thousand men, besides women and children, with five loaves. Elisha made oil outof water; and Jesus made wine out of water. Elisha delivered the widow from her creditor; and Jesusdelivered the indebted nations. Elisha made the iron to swim and the wood to sink; and Jesus raisedup that which was sunk in us, and sank that which was light. A dead man (laid) upon the bones ofElisha recovered life; and all the nations, who were dead in their sins, were cast upon the bones ofJesus and recovered life.

§16. Hezekiah also was persecuted as Jesus was persecuted. Hezekiah was persecuted, and wasreproached by Sennacherib his enemy; Jesus also was reproached by the foolish people. Hezekiah prayedand overcame his adversary; and by the crucifixion of Jesus was our Adversary overcome. Hezekiah wasking of all Israel; and Jesus is King of all the nations. Because Hezekiah was sick, the sun turnedbackwards; and because Jesus suffered, the sun was darkened from its light. The enemies of Hezekiahbecame dead corpses; and Jesus, His enemies shall be cast down beneath His feet. Hezekiah was of thefamily of the house of David; and Jesus was, in the flesh, the son of David. Hezekiah said:-Peaceand truth shall be in my days;(45) andJesus said to His disciples:-My peace I leave with you.(46) Hezekiah prayed, and was healed of his sickness;Jesus prayed, and arose from the abode of the dead. Hezekiah after he arose from his sickness addedto his years; and Jesus after His Resurrection received great glory. Hezekiah, after the prolongationof his life, death was given dominion over him; but Jesus, after that He rose, death shall not againhave dominion over Him for ever.

§17. Josiah also was persecuted as Jesus was persecuted. Josiah was persecuted, and Pharaohthe Lame(47) slew Him;(48) and Jesus was persecuted, and the people thatwere made lame by their sins slew Him. Josiah cleansed the land of Israel from uncleanness; and Jesuscleansed and caused to pass away uncleanness from all the earth. Josiah hallowed and glorified thename of his God; and Jesus said:-I have glorified and will glorify (His Name).(49) Josiah because of the iniquity of Israel renthis clothes;(50) and Jesus because of theiniquity of the people rent the vail of the Holy Temple.(51) Josiah said:-Great is the wrath that shallcome upon this people; and Jesus said:-There shall come wrath upon this people, and they shallfall by the edge of the sword.(52) Josiahcast out uncleanness from the Holy Temple; and Jesus cast out the unclean traders from His Father'shouse. For Josiah the daughters of Israel mourned and wailed, as Jeremiah said:-O daughters ofIsrael, weep for Josiah;(53) and overJesus did the daughters of Israel weep and mourn, as Zechariah said:-The land shall mourn,families over families.(54)

§18. Daniel also was persecuted as Jesus was persecuted. Daniel was persecuted by theChaldeans, the congregation of heathen men; Jesus also the Jews, the congregain of wicked men,persecuted. Daniel the Chaldeans accused; and Jesus the Jews accused before the governor. Daniel theycast into the pit of lions, and he was delivered and came up out of its midst uninjured; and Jesusthey sent down into the pit of the abode of the dead, and He ascended, and death had not dominionover him. Concerning Daniel they expected that when he had fallen into the pit he would not come upagain; and concerning Jesus they said, Since He has fallen, He shall not rise again.(55) From (harming) Daniel the mouth of the ravenousand destructive lions was closed; and from (harming) Jesus was closed the mouth of death, (though)ravenous and destructive of (living) forms. They sealed the pit of Daniel, and guarded it withdiligence; and the grave of Jesus did they guard with diligence, as they said, Set guards to watchal the tomb.(56) When Daniel came up, hisaccusers were ashamed; and when Jesus rose, all they who had crucified Him were ashamed. The King whojudged Daniel was greatly grieved(57) at thewickedness of his accusers the Chaldeans; and Pilate who judged Jesus was greatly grieved because heknew that for malice the Jews were accusing Him.(58) At the prayer of Daniel, the captivity of hispeople went up from Babylon; and Jesus by His prayer turned back the captivity of all the nations,Daniel interpreted the visions and dreams of Nebuchadnezzar; and Jesus explained and interpreted thevisions of the Law and the Prophets. When Daniel explained the vision of Belteshazzar, he receivedauthority over the third part of the kingdom; and when Jesus fulfilled the visions and the Prophets,His Father delivered unto Him all authority in heaven and in earth. Daniel saw wonders and utteredsecrets; and Jesus revealed secrets and fulfilled what is written. Daniel was led away among thehostages in behalf of his people; and the body of Jesus was a hostage in behalf of all nations. ForDaniel's sake the wrath of the King was appeased from the Chaldeans, so that they were not slain; andfor Jesus' sake the wrath of His Father was appeased from all nations, so that they were not slainand died not because of their sins. Daniel besought of the king, and he gave his brethrenauthority over the affairs of the province of Babylon;(59) and Jesus besought of God, and He gave Hisbrethren, His disciples, authority over Satan and his host.(60) Daniel said concerning Jerusalem, that until thethings determined, she should remain in desolation; and Jesus said concerning Jerusalem, Thereshall not be left in her stone upon stone, because she knew not the day of her greatness.(61) Daniel foresaw the weeks that should remain overfor his people; and Jesus came and fulfilled them.

§19. Hananiah also and his brethren were persecuted as Jesus was persecuted. Hananiah and hisbrethren were persecuted by Nebuchadnezzar; and Jesus, the people of the Jews persecuted. Hananiahand his brethren were cast lute the furnace of fire, and it was cold as dew upon the righteous. Jesusalso descended to the place of darkness, and burst its gates and brought forth its prisoners.Hananiah and his brethren came up from the furnace of fire, and the flame burned their accusers; andJesus revived and came up from the midst of darkness, and His accusers and they that crucified Himshall be burned in flames at the end. When Hananiah and his brethren came up from the furnace,Nebuchadnezzar the King trembled and was amazed; and when Jesus arose from the abode of the dead, thepeople that crucified Him were terrified and trembled. Hananiah and his brethren worshipped not theimage of the King of Babylon; and Jesus restrained the nations from the worship of dead images.Because of Hananiah and his brethren, the nations and languages glorified God Who had deliveredthem from the fire:(62) and because ofJesus, the nations and oil languages shall glorify (God) Who delivered His Son, so that He saw nocorruption. On the garments of Hananiah and his brethren the fire had no power; and on the bodies ofthe righteous, who have believed in Jesus, the fire shall have no power at the end.(63)

§20. Mordecai also was persecuted as Jesus was persecuted. Mordecai was persecuted by thewicked Haman; and Jesus was persecuted by the rebellious People. Mordecai by his prayer delivered hispeople from the hands of Haman; and Jesus by His prayer delivered His people from the hands of Satan.Mordecai was delivered from the hands of his persecutor; and Jesus was rescued from the hands of Hispersecutors. Because Mordecai sat and clothed himself with sackcloth, he saved Esther and his peoplefrom the sword; and because Jesus clothed Himself with a body and was illuminated, He saved theChurch and her children from death. Because of Mordecai, Esther was well pleasing to the king, andwent in and sat instead of Vashti, who did not do his will; and because of Jesus, the Church is wellpleasing to God, and has gone in to the king, instead of the congregation which did not His Will.Mordecai admonished Esther that she should fast with her maidens, that she and her people might bedelivered from the hands of Haman; and Jesus admonished the Church and her children (to fast), thatshe and her children might be delivered from the wrath. Mordecai received the honour of Haman, hispersecutor; and Jesus received great glory from His Father, instead of His persecutors who were ofthe foolish People. Mordecai trod upon the neck of Haman, his persecutor; and as for Jesus, Hisenemies shall be put under His feet. Before Mordecai, Haman proclaimed, Thus shall it be done tothe man, in honouring whom the king is pleased;(64) and as for Jesus, His preachers came out of thePeople that persecuted Him, and they said:-This is Jesus the San of God.(65) The blood of Mordecai was required at the hand ofHaman and his sons;(66) and the blood ofJesus, His persecutors took upon themselves and upon their children.(67)

§21. These memorials that I have written unto thee, my beloved, concerning Jesus Who waspersecuted, and the righteous who were persecuted, are in order that those who to-day are persecutedfor the sake of the persecuted Jesus, may be comforted, for He wrote for us and comforted us Himself;for H e said:-If they have persecuted Me, they will also persecute you. And because of this theywill persecute you, that ye are not of the world, even as I was not of it.(68) For He wrote before for us:-Your fathers andyour brothers and your family will deliver you up, and all men shall hate you for My name'ssake.(69) And again He taught us:-Whenthey shall bring you before rulers and before magistrates, and before kings that hold theworld, meditate not before the time what ye shall say, and how ye shall make defence; and I will giveyou a mouth and wisdom, that your enemies may not be able to overcome you, because it is not ye thatspeak, but the Holy Spirit of your Father; He shall speak in you.(70) This is the spirit which spoke by the mouth ofJacob to Esau, his persecutor; and the spirit of wisdom which spoke before Pharaoh by the mouth ofthe persecuted Joseph; and the spirit which spoke by the mouth of Moses in all the prodigies which hedid in the land of Egypt, and the spirit of knowledge which was given to Joshua, the son of Nun, whenMoses laid his hand upon him, so that the nations which persecuted him came to a complete end beforehim; and the spirit that uttered psalms by the mouth of the persecuted David, by which he used tosing psalms and soothe Saul his persecutor from the evil spirit; and the spirit which clothed Elijah,and through him reproved Jezebel and Ahab his persecutor; and the spirit which spoke in Elisha, andprophesied and made known to the king his persecutor about all that was to happen thereafter; and thespirit which was fervent in the mouth of Micaiah when he reproved Ahab his persecutor saying:-Ifthou shalt at all return back, the Lord hath not spoken by me;(71) and the spirit which strengthened Jeremiah, sothat he stood boldly, and by it reproved Zedekiah; and the spirit that preserved Daniel and hisbrethren in the land of Babylon; and the spirit that delivered Mordecai and Esther in the place oftheir captivity.

§22. Hear, my beloved, these names of martyrs, of confessors, and of the persecuted. Abel wasmurdered, and his blood cried out from the earth. Jacob was persecuted, and fled and became an exile.Joseph was persecuted, and sold and cast into the pit. Moses was persecuted, and fled to Midian.Joshua the son of Nun was persecuted, and made war. Jephthah and Samson and Gideon and Barak, thesealso were persecuted. These are they of whom the blessed Apostle said:-Time fails me to narratetheir victories.(72) David also waspersecuted at the hands of Saul, and he walked in the mountains and in dens, and incaves.(73) Samuel also was persecuted, andmourned over Saul. Furthermore Hezekiah was persecuted, and bound up in affliction. Elijah waspersecuted, and walked in the desert. Elisha was persecuted and became an exile; and Micaiah waspersecuted, and cast into prison. Jeremiah was persecuted, and they cast him into the pit of mire.Daniel was persecuted, and cast into the pit of lions. Hananiah also and his brethren werepersecuted, and cast into the furnace of fire. Mordecai and Esther and the children of their peoplewere persecuted, at the hands of Haman. Judas Maccabaeus and his brethren were persecuted, and theyalso endured reproach. The seven brethren, sons of the blessed woman, endured torments by bitterscourgings,(74) and were confessors and truemartyrs, and Eleazar, aged and advanced in years as he was, proved a noble example and made (his)confession and became a true martyr.(75)

§23. Great and excellent is the martyrdom of Jesus. He surpassed in affliction and inconfession all who were before or after. And after Him was the faithful martyr Stephen whom the Jewsstoned. Simon (Peter) also and Paul were perfect martyrs. And James and John walked in the footstepsof their Master Christ. Also (others) of the apostles thereafter in divers places confessed andproved true martyrs. And also concerning our brethren who are in the West, in the days of Diocletianthere came great affliction and persecution to the whole Church of God, which was in all theirregion. The Churches were overthrown and uprooted, and many confessors and martyrs made confession.And (the Lord) turned in mercy to them after they were persecuted. And also in our days these thingshappened to us also on account of our sins; but also that what is written might be fulfilled, even asour Redeemer said:-These things are to be.(76) The Apostle also said:-Also over us is setthis cloud of confession;(77) which (is)our honour, wherein many confess and are slain.

Demonstration XXII.-Of Death and theLAtter Times.

§1. The upright and righteous and good and wise fear not nor tremble at death, because of thegreat hope that is before them. And they at every time are mindful of death, their exodus, and of thelast day in which the children of Adam shall be judged. They know that by the sentence of judgmentdeath has held sway, because Adam transgressed the commandment; as the Apostle said:-Death ruledfrom Adam unto Moses even over those who sinned not, so that also upon all the children of Adam itpassed,(1) even as it passed upon Adam.And how did death rule from Adam unto Moses? Clearly, when God laid down the commandment for Adam, Hewarned him, and said:-On the day that thou shalt eat of the tree of the knowledge of good andevil, thou shalt die the death.(2) So whenhe transgressed the commandment and ate of the tree, death ruled over him and over all his progeny.Even over those who had not sinned, even over them did death rule through Adam's transgression of thecommandment.

§2. And why did he say:-From Adam unto Moses did Death rule? And who is soill-furnished with knowledge as to imagine that only from Adam to Moses has death had dominion? Yetlet him understand from this that he said:-Upon all men it passed. Thus, upon all men itpassed from Moses until the world shall end. Yet Moses preached that its kingdom is made void. Forwhen Adam transgressed the commandment whereby the sentence of death was passed upon his progeny,Death hoped that he would bind fast all the sons of man and would be king over them for ever. Butwhen Moses came, he proclaimed the resurrection, and Death knew that his kingdom is to be made void.For Moses said:-Reuben shall live and not die, and shall be in number.(3) And when the Holy One called Moses from the bushhe said thus to him:-I am the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob.(4) When Death heard this utterance, he trembled andfeared and was terrified and was perturbed, and knew that he had not become king for ever over thechildren of Adam. From the hour that he heard God saying to Moses:-I am the God of Abraham, ofIsaac, and of Jacob, Death smote his hands together, for he learned that God is King of the deadand of the living, and that it is appointed to the children of Adam to come forth from his darkness,and arise with their bodies. And observe that our Redeemer Jesus also, when He repeated thisutterance to the Sadducees, when they were disputing with Him about the Resurrection of the dead,thus said:-God is not(God) of the dead, for all are alive unto Him.(5)

§3. And that God might make known to Death that his authority is not for ever over all theprogeny of the world, He translated Enoch to Himself, because he was well-pleasing, and made himdeathless. And again He took up Elijah to heaven, and Death had no dominion over him. And Hannahsaid:-The Lord maketh to die and causeth to live; He bringeth down to Sheol and raisethup.(6) Furthermore Moses said as from themouth of God:-I make to die and I cause to live.(7) Again the Prophet Isaiah also said:-Thy deadshall live, and their dead bodies shall rise again; and the sleepers of the dust shall be awakened,and shall glorify Thee.(8) When Deathheard all these things, amazement seized him, and he sat him down in mourning.

§4. And when Jesus, the slayer of Death, came, and clothed Himself in a Body from the seed ofAdam, and was crucified in His Body, and tasted death; and when (Death) perceived thereby that He hadcome down unto him, he was shaken from his place and was agitated when he saw Jesus; and he closedhis gates and was not willing to receive Him. Then He burst his gates, and entered into him, andbegan to despoil all his possessions. But when the dead saw light in the darkness, they lifted uptheir heads from the bondage of death, and looked forth, and saw the splendour of the King Messiah.Then the powers of the darkness of Death sat in mourning, for he was degraded from his authority.Death tasted the medicine that was deadly to him, and his hands dropped down, and he learned that thedead shall live and escape from his sway. And when He had afflicted Death by the despoiling of hispossessions, he wailed and cried aloud in bitterness and said, "Go forth from my realm and enter itnot. Who then is this that comes in alive into my realm?" And while Death was crying out in terror(for he saw that his darkness was beginning to be done away, and some of the righteous who weresleeping arose to ascend with Him), then He made known to him that when He shall come in the fulnessof time, He will bring forth all the prisoners from his power, and they shall go forth to see thelight. Then when Jesus had fulfilled His ministry amongst the dead, Death sent Him forth from hisrealm, and suffered Him not to remain there. And to devour Him like all the dead, he counted it notpleasure. He had no power over the Holy One, nor was He given over to corruption.

§5. And when he had eagerly sent Him forth and He had come forth from his realm, He left withhim, as a poison, the promise of life; that by little and little his power should be done away. Evenas when a man has taken a poison in the food which is given for (the support of) life, when heperceives in himself that he has received poison in the food, then he casts up again from his bellythe food in which poison was mingled; but the drug leaves its power in his limbs, so that by littleand little the structure of his body is dissolved and corrupted. So Jesus dead was the bringer tonought of Death; for through Him life is made to reign, and through Him Death is abolished, to whomit is said:-O Death, where is thy victory?(9)

§6. Therefore, ye children of Adam, all ye over whom Death has ruled, be mindful of Death andremember life; and transgress not the commandment as your first father did. O Kings, crowned with thediadem, remember Death, which will take away the diadems that are set upon your heads, and he shallbe king over you till the time, when ye shall rise again for the judgment. O ye haughty and upliftedand proud, remember Death, which shall destroy your haughtiness, and dissolve the limbs, and separatethe joints, and the body and its forms shall be given over to corruption. The lofty ones shall bebrought low by Death, and the fierce and stern ones shall be buried away in his darkness. He shalltake away all the pride, and they shall corrupt away and become dust, until the judgment. O ye rich,remember Death; for when the time shall come and ye shall draw nigh to him there, ye shall not useyour wealth and possessions. He will not place dainty viands before you, nor will he prepare for youa rich banquet. There the body of the gluttons who used to live delicately shall be corrupted. Theyshall cease from their luxury and shall not remember it. There the worm shall consume their bodies,and they shall clothe themselves in darkness over their fair apparel. They remember not the ending ofthis world, that Death shall confound them when they descend to him. So they shall sit in oppressionand in the shadow of death, and shall not remember this world, until the end shall be and they shallrise again for the judgment. O ye rapacious and extortioners and plunderers of your fellows, rememberDeath, and multiply not your sins; for in that place sinners repent not; and he who has plundered hisfellows' goods shall not possess his own, but shall go to the place where man shall make no use ofwealth. And he shall come to nought and pass away from his honour, but his sins shall be laid upagainst the day of judgment.

§7. O ye that trust in this world, let this world be despised in your eyes; for ye aresojourners and aliens in the midst of it, and ye know not the day that ye shall be taken out of it.For suddenly shall Death come, and separate and lead away the loved children from their parents, andthe parents from their darling children. He leads away for himself the precious only-begottenchildren, and their parents shall be deprived of them and shall come into contempt. He separatesprecious friends unto himself, and their beloved weep for them lamentably. He leads away and takesprisoners unto himself them that are desired for their beauty, that he may put to shame their formsand corrupt them. And those that are glorious in aspect he leads away to himself, and they becomedust until the judgment. He leads away betrothed maidens from their spouses, and binds them captivein his bridal-chamber, in his place of gloom. He leads away and separates betrothed husbands from thevirgins who were designed for them and betrothed in their name; and these shall sit in bittermourning over them. He leads away and separates unto himself all the beautiful youths who supposedthat even unto old age they would not see death. He leads away and gathers unto himself the lovedinfants of days, with whom their parents were not satiated. He leads away to himself the wealthy, thesons of luxury; And they leave their possessions as the waves of the sea.(10) He leads away to himself the skilful artificers,who were raising up the world by their wonderful works. He leads away to himself the subtle and thewise, and they become simple, not distinguishing good from evil. He leads away to himself the richlyendowed of this world, and their endowments are destroyed and shall not be established for ever. Heleads away to himself the mighty and the great ones, and their might is brought low and weakened, andcomes to an end, Them that were confident that their might would not be brought lower, in the day ofdeath, men that are of lower degree than theirs gather together their bodies. They that trust that intheir death they shall be buried with honour, it befalls them that the dogs devour them. And theythat trust that they shall be buried in the place wherein they were born, know not but that in theland of their captivity they shall even be gathered (to the grave) with insult. They that trusted intheir possessions, that they should give them in inheritance to their children, from them it ishidden that they shall be plundered by their enemies. Death leads away to himself the brave and thewarriors. who thought to lay waste the great world. Death leads away them that adorn themselves withall pleasant things, and the burial of an ass befalls them when they are buried. Death rules over theunborn, and takes them captive to himself before they are born. Death leads away to himself them thatare honoured with pomps, and they come into contempt when they descend to him, to the realm ofdarkness, where there is no light. He is not ashamed before Kings (that are) crowned with the diadem.He is not abashed before the lofty and the fierce ones who lay waste the lands. Death respects notthe persons of the honourable, nor does he receive a bribe from the rich. Death despises not thepoor, nor does his soul scorn him that has nothing. Death honours not hem that live in magnificence,nor with him are the good distinguished from the bad. He takes no account of the aged, rather than ofchildren in respect of honour. The lords of prudence he makes without understanding, and them thatused to make haste and vex themselves, in acquiring possessions there with him, these are stripped oftheir gains. He leads away to himself slaves and their masters; and there the masters are nothonoured more than their servants. Small and great are there, and they hear not the voice of theoppressor. The slave who is freed from his master(11) there pays no regard to him who used to oppresshim. Death binds and makes captive to himself the keepers of prisoners, and the prisoners who wereshut up. By means of Death the prisoners are released, and fear not again because of theiroppressors.

§8. They that live daintily fear death; but the afflicted look forward with hope that theyshall be speedily taken away. All the rich tremble because of death; but the poor desire it, thatthey may rest from their labour. Death terrifies the mighty when they remember him; but the sick lookforward with hope to him that through him they may forget their pains. Again the young children areafraid of death, for when it comes upon them they shall leave their pleasures; but the old menadvanced in years pray for it, they that are in need of daily bread.

§9. The sons of peace remember death; and they forsake and remove from them wrath and enmity.As sojourners they dwell in this world, and prepare for themselves a provision for the journey beforethem. On that which is above they set their thoughts, on that which is above they meditate; and thosethings which are beneath their eyes they despise. They send away their treasures to the place wherethere is no peril, the place where there is no moth, nor are there thieves. They abide in the worldas aliens, sons of a far laud; and look forward to be sent out of this world and to come to the city,the place of the righteous. They afflict themselves in the place of their sojourning; and they arenot entangled or occupied in the house of their exile. Ever day by day their faces are set upwards,to go to the repose of their fathers. As prisoners are they in this world, and as hostages of theKing are they kept. To the end they have no rest in this world, nor is (their) hope in it, that itwill continue for ever. They that acquire possessions, rejoice not in them, and they that begetchildren, death fills them with sorrow. They that build cities, shall not be left in them; and thosethat hasten and toil for anything, are in no wise to be distinguished from fools. O man withoutsense, whosoever he be whose trust is in this world!

§10. Remember, my beloved, and compare and consider in thy mind, who is there of formergenerations who has been left in this world so as to continue for ever? Death has led away the formergenerations, the great ones and the mighty and the subtle. Who is there that acquired greatpossessions, and at the time when he departed took them with him? That which was gathered togetherfrom the earth returns back into its bosom; and naked does a man depart from his possessions. Thewise, when they acquire goods, send some of them before them, as Job said:-My witnesses areheaven; and again:-My brethren and my lovers are with God.(12) And our Lord commanded them that acquirepossessions to make for themselves friends in heaven, and also to lay up treasuresthere.(13)

§11. Do thou also remember death, O wise scribe, that thy heart be not lifted up, so thatthou shouldest forget the sentence of judgment. Death leaves not aside the wise, nor respects thepersons of the subtle. Death leads away to himself the wise scribes, so that they forget that whichthey have learned, until the time comes in which all the righteous shall rise again.

§12. In that place they shall forget this world. There they have no want; and they shall loveone another with an abundant love. In their bodies there shall be no heaviness, and lightly shallthey fly as doves to their windows.(14) In their thoughts they shall not there rememberwickedness at all, nor shall anything of uncleanness arise in their heart. In that place there shallbe no natural desire, for there they shall be weaned from all appetites. There shall not arise intheir heart anger or lasciviousness; also they shall remove from them all things that gender sins.Fervent in their heart will be the love of each other; and hatred will not be fixed within them atall. They shall have no need there to build houses, for they shall abide in light, in the mansions ofthe saints. They shall have no need of woven raiment, for they shall be clothed in eternal light.They shall have no need of food, for they shall recline at His table and be nurtured for ever. Theair of that region is pleasant and glorious, and its light shines out, and is goodly and gladsome.Planted there are beautiful trees, whose fruits fail not, and whose leaves fall not. Their boughs areglorious, their perfume delightful, and of their taste no soul shall grow weary for ever. Spacious isthe region, nor is it limited; yet its inhabitants shall see its distance even as that which is near.There the inheritance shall not be divided, and no man shall say to his fellow:-"This is mine andthat is thine." They shall not be bound there in the desire of covetousness, nor shall they go astraythere concerning remembrance. There a man shall not love his neighbour with especial reverence, butabundantly shall they all love one another after one fashion. They shall not marry wives there, norshall they beget children; nor shall there the male be distinguished from the female; but all shallbe sons of their Father Who is in heaven; as the Prophet said:-Is there not one Father of us all;is there not one God Who created us?(15)

§13. And as regards that which I said; that there they shall not take wives, nor is maledistinguished from female, our Lord and His Apostles have taught us. For our Lord said:-They thatare worthy of that world, and of that resurrection from the abode of the dead, shall not take wives,nor shall (women) become wives to men; for they cannot die; but they are as the angels in heaven, andare the children of God.(16) And theapostle said:-There is neither male nor female, neither band nor free; but ye are all one in JesusChrist.(17) For, as for Eve, to spreadabroad generation, God took her out from Adam, that she might become the mother of all living; butyet in that world there is no female; even as in heaven also there is no female, nor generation, noruse of concupiscence. In that place there is no deficiency, but fulness and perfection. The agedshall not die and the young shall not grow old. And it is in expectation of growing old and dyingthat young men take wives and beget children, that when the fathers shall have died the children mayrise up in their stead. Now all these things have their use only in this world, for in that placethere is no want, nor any deficiency, nor concupiscence, nor generation, nor ending, nor failure, nordeath, nor termination, nor old age. There is neither hatred, nor wrath, nor envy, nor weariness, nortoil, nor darkness, nor night, nor falsehood. There is not in that place any want at all; but it isfull of light, and life, and grace, and fulness, and satisfaction and renewal, and love, and all thegood promises that are written but not yet sealed. For there is there that which eye hathnot seen and ear hath not heard, and which hath not come up into the heart of man,(18) that which is unspeakable and which a man cannotutter. And the Apostle said:-That which God hath prepared for them that love Him.(19) Though men shall say much, they shall not be ableto express it. That which eye hath not seen, they are unable to relate; and that which ear hath notheard, it is not right to speak of in such wise as to compare it with anything that the ear has heardand the eye has seen. And that which has not come up unto the heart, who is there dares to speak ofit, as though it was like anything that has come up into the heart? But this is right for a speaker,to liken and call that place the abode of God, and the place of life, the perfect place, the place oflight, the place of glory, the Sabbath of God, the day of rest, the repose of the righteous, the joyof the just, the abode and dwelling-place of the righteous and the holy, the place of our hope, thesure abode of our trust, the place of our treasure, the place that shall assuage our weariness andremove our afflictions, and soothe our sighs. To these things it is right for us to liken, and thusto call, that place.

§14. Again, Death leads away to himself kings, the founders of cities, who strengthenthemselves in splendour. And he does not leave aside the Lords of the countries. Death leads away andtakes captive to himself the avaricious who are not satisfied nor say "Enough"; and he is greedy forthem with a greater greed than theirs. Death leads away to himself the despoilers who were not bytheir grace restrained from despoiling their fellows. Death leads away to himself the oppressors, andthrough death are they restrained from iniquity. Death leads away to himself the persecutors, and thepersecuted have rest till they go to him. Death leads away to himself them that swallow up theirfellows, and the down-trodden and oppressed have rest for a little until they themselves also are ledaway and go thither. Death leads away them that abound in meditations, and all they have thought uponis dissolved and brought to nought. Men meditate upon many matters, and death comes upon themsuddenly, and they are led away; and thereafter they remember nothing that they have thought upon.There is one that makes plans for many years, and (the knowledge) is withheld from him that he shallnot survive to-morrow. Some son of Adam is uplifted and vaunts himself over his fellow; and deathcomes upon him and brings to nought his vaunting. The rich man plans to add to his possessions, andhe knows not that he shall not continue to possess even that which he has acquired. Death leads awayto himself all the children of men, and binds them fast in his abode until the judgment. Also overthose that have not sinned is he king, because of the sentence of judgment that Adam received for hissins.

§15. And the Life-giver shall come, the Destroyer of Death, and shall bring to nought hispower, from over the just and from over the wicked. And the dead shall arise with a mighty shout, andDeath shall be emptied and stripped of all the captivity. And for judgment shall all the children ofAdam be gathered together, and each shall go to the place prepared for him. The risen of therighteous shall go unto life, and the risen of the sinners shall be delivered unto death. Therighteous who kept the commandment shall go, and shall not come nigh unto judgment in the day thatthey shall rise; as David asked, And bring not thy servant into judgment;(20) nor will their Lord terrify them in that day.

§16. Remember that the Apostle also said, We shall judge angels.(21) And our Lord said to His disciples, Ye shallsit on twelve thrones, and judge twelve tribes of the house of Israel.(22) And Ezekiel said concerning righteous men,(23) that they shall judge Ahola and Aholibah. Since,then, the righteous are to judge the wicked, He has made clear concerning them that they shall notcome into judgment. And as to what the apostles say, that We shall judge angels, hear, and Iwill instruct thee. The angels who shall be judged by the apostles are the priests who have violatedthe law; as the Prophet said, The lips of the priest shall guard knowledge, and the law shall theyinquire of his mouth; because he is the angel of the Lord, the most mighty.(24) The angels who are the priests, ofwhose mouth the law is inquired, when they transgress the law, shall be judged at the last by theapostles, and the priests who observe the law.

§17. And the wicked shall not arise in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation ofthe righteous.(25) And even as therighteous who are perfected in good works shall not come into the judgment to be judged, so of thewicked also whose sins are many, and the measure of whose offences is overflowing, it shall not berequired that they should draw nigh unto the judgment, but when they have risen again they shall turnback to Sheol, as David said, The wicked shall turn back to Sheol, and all the nations that forgetGod.(26) And Isaiah said, All thenations are as a drop from the bucket, and as the turning of the balance. And the isles as a grain ofsand shall be cast away, and all the nations are esteemed as nothingness by Him. For destruction andthe sword are they esteemed by Him.(27)Therefore learn and be persuaded, that all the nations that know not God their Maker, are esteemed byGod as nothingness, and shall not come nigh to judgment, but as soon as they have risen shall turnback to Sheol.

§18. But all the rest of the world who are called sinners shall stand in the judgment and berebuked. Those in whom there is a little shortcoming will the judge rebuke, and make known to themthat they have offended. And He will give them the inheritance of life after the judgment. Andunderstand that our Lord has made known to us in His Gospel, that every man according to his workshall receive his reward. He that received money, showed the increase on it. He whose pound or talentproduced tenfold, received life, perfect, in nothing lacking. He whose pound or talent producedfivefold, received the half of ten. One was given a tenfold authority and one a fivefold. Nowconsider and see, that the increase of five is less than that of ten; and the labourers who demandthe reward excel them that received it in silence. They who toiled all the day, with bold facereceive the reward and demand it, in confidence that He will add more to them. While they who workedone hour receive it in silence, and know that through grace they receive mercy and life. The sinnerswhose sins are many shall be condemned by the place of judgment, and shall go into torments. And fromthat time and onwards, judgment shall rule over them.

§19. Furthermore, hearken unto the Apostle who said, Every man according his work shallreceive his reward.(28) He that toiledlittle, shall receive according to his remissness; and he that made much speed, shall be rewardedaccording to his speed. And Job also said, Far be it from God to do iniquity; and far be it fromHim to do sin. For according to a man's works will He reward him, and a man shall receive accordinghis ways.(29) And also the Apostle said,Star excels star in brightness. So also is the resurrection of the dead.(30) Therefore know that, even when men shall enterinto life, yet reward shall excel reward, and glory shall excel glory, and recompense shall excelrecompense. Degree is higher than degree; and light is more goodly than light in aspect. The sunexcels the moon, and the moon is greater than the stars that are with her. And observe that the moonand the stars are also under the power of the sun, and their light is swallowed up in the splendourof the sun. And the sun has power along with the moon and the stars, that he may not abolish thenight which has been separated from the day. And when the sun was created, he was called a luminary.And observe that the sun and the moon and the stars are all called luminaries; but luminary excelsluminary. The sun obscures the light of the moon, and the moon likewise darkens the light of thestars; and star excels star in its light.

§20. And understand (this) also, from that which is of this world, those who labour withtoil, and from the hired men who work with their fellows. There are some who hire their fellow-men byday-wages, and (these) receive the wage of their toil; and there are some who are hired for themonth, and compute and receive the wage for the time, at the time agreed. And the day-wage isdistinguished from the monthly wage; and yearly exceeds monthly wage.

§21. And also again, understand it from the authority that is in this world. There are somewho please the king by their activity, and receive honour from those in authority. One receives acrown from the king, to become governor in one of the countries. And under the authority of another,the king places towns; and also he excels his inferiors in his attire. Some receive presents andgifts, and one honour is distinguished from another. There is one to whom the king gives the honourof being steward over all the treasury. Another, according to his lower condition, serves the king,and his authority is only to provide the daily food.

§22. Also in respect of penalty, I say that all men are not equal. He that has done greatwickedness is greatly tormented. And he that has offended not so much is less tormented. Someshall go into outer darkness, where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth.(31) Others shall be cast into the fire, according asthey deserve; for it is not written that they shall gnash their teeth, nor that there is darknessthere. Some shall be cast into another place, a place where their worm shall not die, and theirfire shall not be quenched, and they shall became an astonishment to all flesh.(32) In the faces of others the door shall be closedand the Judge will say to them:-I know you not.(33) And consider that, as the reward for good deedsis not equal for all men, so it is also for evil deeds. Not in one fashion shall men be judged, butevery man according to his works shall receive his requital, because the Judge is clothed inrighteousness and regards not the persons of men.

§23. And even as I have showed thee concerning the world, how one honour excels another, ofthose that kings and rulers of this world give to those beneath them; also concerning this I haveshowed thee, that even as kings have good gifts to give to those honoured by them, so also they haveprisons and chains and fetters, which are various kinds of bonds. One man offends the king with agrievous offence, and without inquiry he is delivered over to death. Another offends, yet is notdeserving of death; he is put in bonds until he is judged; and is chastised, and the king remits hisoffence. There is another whom the king has held in regard; and outside the prison house he is keptin freedom, without chains and without bonds. He that is put to death is distinguished from him thatis bound; and the punishment of one exceeds that of another, according to the desert of his offence.But come thou to our Redeemer, Who said:-Many are the mansions in My Father's house.(34)

§24. My beloved, men who are inferior in understanding, dispute about this that I write tothee, and say:-"What is the place in which the righteous shall receive a good reward; and what is theplace in which are torments, in which the wicked shall receive the punishments of their works?" O manthat thinkest thus, I will ask thee, and tell thou me, why is death called death, and why is Sheolcalled Sheol? For it is written that when Korah and his companions made a schism against Moses,the earth opened her mouth and swallowed them up, and they went down alive into Sheol.(35) Therefore that was the mouth of Sheol that wasopened in the wilderness. David also said, The wicked shall turn back to Sheol.(36) We say that to Sheol, in which Korah and hiscompanions were swallowed up, thither shall the wicked be turned back. For God has power, if Hechooses, to give inheritance of life in heaven, and if it please Him, in the earth. Jesus our Lordsaid, Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.(37) And to one of those who were crucified with Him,who believed on him He swore:-Thou shalt be with Me to-day in the garden Eden.(38) And the Apostle said, When the righteous shallrise again, they shall fly upwards to meet our Redeemer.(39) But, however, we say thus: That which ourRedeemer said to us is true:-Heaven and earth shall pass away.(40) And the Apostle said, Hope which is seen isnot hope.(41) And the Prophet said, Theheavens shall pass away as smoke, and the earth as a garment shall wear away; and its inhabitantsshall become like it.(42) And Job saidconcerning those that sleep, Till the heavens wear out, they shall not be aroused, nor shall theywake out of their sleep.(43) From thesethings be thou persuaded that this earth, in which the children of Adam are sown, and the firmamentthat is over men, (even) that firmament which is set to divide the upper heavens from the earth andthis life, shall pass away, and wear out, and be destroyed. And God will make a new thing for thechildren of Adam, and they shall inherit inheritances in the Kingdom of Heaven. If He shall give theminheritance in the earth, it shall be called the kingdom of heaven. And if in Heaven, it is easy forHim to do. For with the kings of the earth also, although each one of them abides in his own place,yet every place to which their authority extends, is called their kingdom. So the sun is a luminaryset in the heaven, yet for every place to which its rays extend, its authority suffices, whether onsea or on land. And observe that the princes of the world also have banquetings and delights, and inevery place or state into which they go, their banquetings are with them; and in whatever placepleases them, they make a prison-house. For the sun in twelve hours circles round, from the east untothe west; and when he has accomplished his course, his light is hidden in the night-time, and thenight is not disturbed by his power. And in the hours of the night the sun turns round in his rapidcourse, and turning round begins to run in his accustomed path. As for the sun that is with thee,thou wise man, from thy childhood till the completion of thy old age, thou knowest not where he runsin the night-time, so as to circle round to the place of its course. Is it necessary for thee toinquire into those things that are hidden from thee?

§25. These memorials I have written for our brethren and beloved, the children of the Churchof God, that when these come into their hands in various places, and when they read in them, they mayalso remember my insignificance in their prayers, and may know that I am a sinner also, and failshort; but that this is my faith, that I have set forth from the beginning and written, in thesechapters written (by me). Faith is the foundation, and upon faith (rest) the works that becomeit. And after Faith (I wrote) that there are two commandments of Love. And after Love, I havewritten of Fasting, in its demonstration also along with its works. And after Fasting, I wroteof Prayer in its fruit and in its works. And after Prayer, have written about War andabout whatever Daniel wrote concerning the kingdoms. And after War, I have written of the exhortationfor Monks. And after the Monks, I have written about Repentance. And after Repentance,I have written about the Resurrection of the dead. And after the Resurrection of the dead, Ihave written about Humility. And after Humility, I have written of the Pastors, theteachers. And after the Pastors, I have written about the Circumcision in which the people ofthe Jews pride themselves. And after the Circumcision, I have written about the Passover, andabout the fourteenth day. And after the Passover, I have written about the Sabbath, in whichthe Jews are puffed up. And after the Sabbath, I have written an Exhortation, on account ofthe dissension which happened in our days. And after the Exhortation, I have written aboutMeats, those that the Jews deem unclean. And after the Meats, I have written about theGentiles, that they have entered in and become heirs instead of the original people. And afterthe Gentiles, I have written and proved that God has a Son. And after the Son of God, Ihave written against the Jews, who speak injuriously about Virginity. And after the apologyabout Virginity, I have written again Against the Jews, who say:-"It is appointed for us to begathered together." And after that defence, I have written about Almsgiving to the Poor. Andafter the Poor, I have written a demonstration about The Persecuted. And after the Persecuted,I have written at the end about Death and the Last Times. These twenty-two discourses have Iwritten according to the twenty-two letters of the alphabet. The first ten I wrote in the six hundredand forty-eighth year of the kingdom of Alexander the son of Philip the Macedonian, as is written inthe end of them. And these twelve last I wrote in the six hundred and fifty-fifth year of the kingdomof the Greeks and of the Romans, which is the kingdom of Alexander, and in the thirty-fifth year ofthe Persian King(44)

§26. These things I have written according to what I have attained to. But if anyone shallread these dicourses, and find words that do not agree with his thought, he ought not to scorn them;because whatsoever is written in these chapters was not written according to the thought of one man,nor for the persuasion of one reader; but according to the thought of all the Church, and for thepersuasion of all faith. If he shall read and hear with persuasion, it is well; and if not, it ismeet for me to say that I wrote for those open to persuasion and not for mockers. And if again anyreader should find words that are spoken by us in one fashion, and by another sage in anotherfashion, let him not be disturbed at this; for every man speaks to his hearers according to what hecan attain to. So I, who have written these things, even if some of the words do not agree with whatother speakers have said, yet say this; that those sages have spoken well, yet it seemed good to meto speak thus. And if any man shall speak and demonstrate to me about any matter, I will receiveinstruction from him without contention. Everyone who reads the sacred scriptures, both former andlatter, in both covenants, and reads with persuasion, will learn and teach. But if he strives aboutanything that he does not understand, his mind does not receive teaching. But if he finds words thatare too difficult for him, and he does not understand their force, let him say thus, "Whatsoever iswritten is written well, but I have not attained to the understanding of it." And if he shall askabout the matters that are too hard for him of wise and discerning men who inquire into doctrine,then, when ten wise men shall speak to him in ten different ways about one matter, let him acceptthat which pleases him; and if any please not him, let him not scorn the sages; for the word of Godis like a pearl, that has a beautiful appearance on whatever side you turn it. And remember, Odisciple, what David said, From all my teachers have I learned.(45) And the Apostle said:-Thou readest everyScripture that is in the Spirit of God. And prove everything; hold fast that which is good; and fleefrom every evil thing.(46) For if the daysof a man should be many as all the days of the world from Adam to the end of the ages, and he shouldsit and meditate upon the Holy Scriptures, he would not comprehend all the force of the depth of thewords. And man cannot rise up to the wisdom of God; as I have written in the tenth discourse. But,however, the words of all speakers who do not take from the great treasure, are accursed and to bedespised. For the image of the king (on his coin) is received wher- ever it goes; but (the coin) inwhich there is base metal, is rejected and is not received. And if any one should say, "Thesediscourses were spoken by such an one;" let him carefully learn that to be careful to inquire aboutthe speaker is not commanded him. I also according to my insignificance have written these things, aman sprung from Adam, and fashioned by the hands of God, a disciple of the Holy Scriptures. For ourLord said:-Every one that asketh receiveth, and he that seeketh findeth, and for him that knockethit shall be opened.(47) And the prophetsaid:-I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh in the last days, and they shallprophesy.(48) Therefore whoever shall readanything that I have written above, let him read with persuasion, and pray for the author as abrother of the Body; that through the petition of all the Church of God; his sins may be forgiven.And let whoever reads understand what is written:-Let him that hears the word, communicate to himthat causes him to hear, in all good things.(49) And again it is written, The sower and thereaper shall rejoice together.(50) AndEvery man according to his labours shall receive his reward.And There is nothing hidden that shall not be revealed to every man. parparpar