Exodus 12

1 And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,
2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of the months; it shall be the first month of the year to you.
3 Speak unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month let each man take a lamb according to the families of the fathers, a lamb per family;
4 and if the household is too small and is not able to eat the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of persons; each one according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.
5 The lamb shall be without blemish, a male of one year; ye shall take it out from the sheep or from the goats;
6 and ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month, and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it between the two evenings.
7 And they shall take of the blood and put it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses in which they shall eat it.
8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roasted with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
9 Eat none of it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roast with fire, his head with his legs, and with the entrails thereof.
10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remains of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.
11 And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD’s passover.
12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both among man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD.
13 And this blood shall be to you for a sign upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.
14 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it as a feast unto the LORD throughout your ages; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever.
15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses, for whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
16 And in the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, except that which every person must eat, that only may be done of you.
17 And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread, for in this same day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; therefore, shall ye observe this day for your ages by an ordinance forever.
18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening, ye shall eat unleavened bread until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening.
19 For seven days there shall be no leaven found in your houses; for whoever eats that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger or born in the land.
20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations ye shall eat unleavened bread.
21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said unto them, Draw out and take lambs according to your families and sacrifice the passover.
22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood that is in the basin and touch the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning.
23 For the LORD will pass through smiting the Egyptians, and when he sees the blood upon the lintel and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over that door and will not allow the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.
24 And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons forever.
25 And it shall come to pass, when ye have entered into the land which the LORD will give you, according as he has promised, that ye shall keep this service.
26 And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What do you mean by this service?
27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD’s passover, who passed over the houses of the sons of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians and delivered our houses. Then the people bowed and worshipped.
28 And the sons of Israel went away, and as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
29 And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the animals.
30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his slaves and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the sons of Israel, and go, serve the LORD as ye have said.
32 Also take your sheep and your cows, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.
33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people that they might send them out of the land in haste, for they said, We are all dead men.
34 And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.
35 And the sons of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked the Egyptians for vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and clothing.
36 And the LORD gave the people grace in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they gave unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.
37 And the sons of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, not counting the children.
38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them and many sheep and cows.
39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened because they were thrust out of Egypt and could not tarry nor prepare food for themselves.
40 Now the time that the sons of Israel dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years.
41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even that same day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.
42 It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this night should be observed unto the LORD by all the sons of Israel in their ages.
43 And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This shall be the ordinance of the passover: No stranger shall eat of it,
44 but every man’s slave that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat of it.
45 The foreigner and the hired servant shall not eat of it.
46 It shall be eaten in one house; thou shalt not carry forth any of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof.
47 All the congregation of Israel shall make this sacrifice.
48 And if a stranger shall sojourn with thee and desire to make the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and make this sacrifice; and he shall be as one that is natural in the land, but no uncircumcised person shall eat of it.
49 The same law shall be for the one who is natural, and for the stranger that sojourns among you.
50 Thus did all the sons of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
51 And it came to pass that same day that the LORD did bring the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts.

Exodus 12 Commentary

Chapter 12

The beginning of the year changed, The passover instituted. (1-20) The people instructed how to observe the passover. (21-28) The death of the first-born of the Egyptians The Israelites urged to leave the land of Egypt. (29-36) The Israelites' first journey to Succoth. (37-42) Ordinance respecting the passover. (43-51)

Verses 1-20 The Lord makes all things new to those whom he delivers from the bondage of Satan, and takes to himself to be his people. The time when he does this is to them the beginning of a new life. God appointed that, on the night wherein they were to go out of Egypt, each family should kill a lamb, or that two or three families, if small, should kill one lamb. This lamb was to be eaten in the manner here directed, and the blood to be sprinkled on the door-posts, to mark the houses of the Israelites from those of the Egyptians. The angel of the Lord, when destroying the first-born of the Egyptians, would pass over the houses marked by the blood of the lamb: hence the name of this holy feast or ordinance. The passover was to be kept every year, both as a remembrance of Israel's preservation and deliverance out of Egypt, and as a remarkable type of Christ. Their safety and deliverance were not a reward of their own righteousness, but the gift of mercy. Of this they were reminded, and by this ordinance they were taught, that all blessings came to them through the shedding and sprinkling of blood. Observe, 1. The paschal lamb was typical. Christ is our passover, #1Co. 5:7 |. Christ is the Lamb of God, ( John 1:29 ) ; often in the Revelation he is called the Lamb. It was to be in its prime; Christ offered up himself in the midst of his days, not when a babe at Bethlehem. It was to be without blemish; the Lord Jesus was a Lamb without spot: the judge who condemned Christ declared him innocent. It was to be set apart four days before, denoting the marking out of the Lord Jesus to be a Saviour, both in the purpose and in the promise. It was to be slain, and roasted with fire, denoting the painful sufferings of the Lord Jesus, even unto death, the death of the cross. The wrath of God is as fire, and Christ was made a curse for us. Not a bone of it must be broken, which was fulfilled in Christ, Joh. 19:33 , denoting the unbroken strength of the Lord Jesus. 2. The sprinkling of the blood was typical. The blood of the lamb must be sprinkled, denoting the applying of the merits of Christ's death to our souls; we must receive the atonement, ( Romans 5:11 ) . Faith is the bunch of hyssop, by which we apply the promises, and the benefits of the blood of Christ laid up in them, to ourselves. It was to be sprinkled on the door-posts, denoting the open profession we are to make of faith in Christ. It was not to be sprinkled upon the threshold; which cautions us to take heed of trampling under foot the blood of the covenant. It is precious blood, and must be precious to us. The blood, thus sprinkled, was a means of preserving the Israelites from the destroying angel, who had nothing to do where the blood was. The blood of Christ is the believer's protection from the wrath of God, the curse of the law, and the damnation of hell, ( Romans 8:1 ) . 3. The solemn eating of the lamb was typical of our gospel duty to Christ. The paschal lamb was not to be looked upon only, but to be fed upon. So we must by faith make Christ our own; and we must receive spiritual strength and nourishment from him, as from our food, see ( john 6:53 john 6:55 ) . It was all to be eaten; those who by faith feed upon Christ, must feed upon a whole Christ; they must take Christ and his yoke, Christ and his cross, as well as Christ and his crown. It was to be eaten at once, not put by till morning. To-day Christ is offered, and is to be accepted while it is called to-day, before we sleep the sleep of death. It was to be eaten with bitter herbs, in remembrance of the bitterness of their bondage in Egypt; we must feed upon Christ with sorrow and brokenness of heart, in remembrance of sin. Christ will be sweet to us, if sin be bitter. It was to be eaten standing, with their staves in their hands, as being ready to depart. When we feed upon Christ by faith, we must forsake the rule and the dominion of sin; sit loose to the world, and every thing in it; forsake all for Christ, and reckon it no bad bargain, ( hebrews 13:13 hebrews 13:14 ) . 4. The feast of unleavened bread was ( 1 Corinthians. 5:7 ) Christ Jesus the Lord, we must continually delight ourselves in Christ Jesus. No manner of work must be done, that is, no care admitted and indulged, which does not agree with, or would lessen this holy joy. The Jews were very strict as to the passover, so that no leaven should be found in their houses. It must be a feast kept in charity, without the leaven of malice; and in sincerity, without the leaven of hypocrisy. It was by an ordinance for ever; so long as we live we must continue feeding upon Christ, rejoicing in him always, with thankful mention of the great things he has done for us.

Verses 21-28 That night, when the first-born were to be destroyed, no Israelite must stir out of doors till called to march out of Egypt. Their safety was owing to the blood of sprinkling. If they put themselves from under the protection of that, it was at their peril. They must stay within, to wait for the salvation of the Lord; it is good to do so. In after-times they should carefully teach their children the meaning of this service. It is good for children to ask about the things of God; they that ask for the way will find it. The keeping of this solemnity every year was, 1. To look backward, that they might remember what great things God had done for them and their fathers. Old mercies, to ourselves, or to our fathers, must not be forgotten, that God may be praised, and our faith in him encouraged. 2. It was designed to look forward, as an earnest of the great sacrifice of the Lamb of God in the fulness of time. Christ our passover was sacrificed for us; his death was our life.

Verses 29-36 The Egyptians had been for three days and nights kept in anxiety and horror by the darkness; now their rest is broken by a far more terrible calamity. The plague struck their first-born, the joy and hope of their families. They had slain the Hebrews' children, now God slew theirs. It reached from the throne to the dungeon: prince and peasant stand upon the same level before God's judgments. The destroying angel entered every dwelling unmarked with blood, as the messenger of woe. He did his dreadful errand, leaving not a house in which there was not one dead. Imagine then the cry that rang through the land of Egypt, the long, loud shriek of agony that burst from every dwelling. It will be thus in that dreadful hour when the Son of man shall visit sinners with the last judgment. God's sons, his first-born, were now released. Men had better come to God's terms at first, for he will never come to theirs. Now Pharaoh's pride is abased, and he yields. God's word will stand; we get nothing by disputing, or delaying to submit. In this terror the Egyptians would purchase the favour and the speedy departure of Israel. Thus the Lord took care that their hard-earned wages should be paid, and the people provided for their journey.

Verses 37-42 The children of Israel set forward without delay. A mixed multitude went with them. Some, perhaps, willing to leave their country, laid waste by plagues; others, out of curiosity; perhaps a few out of love to them and their religion. But there were always those among the Israelites who were not Israelites. Thus there are still hypocrites in the church. This great event was 430 years from the promise made to Abraham: see ( Galatians 3:17 ) . So long the promise of a settlement was unfulfilled. But though God's promises are not performed quickly, they will be, in their season. This is that night of the Lord, that remarkable night, to be celebrated in all generations. The great things God does for his people, are to be not only a few days' wonder, but to be remembered throughout all ages; especially the work of our redemption by Christ. This first passover-night was a night of the Lord, much to be observed; but the last passover-night, in which Christ was betrayed and in which the first passover, with the rest of the Jewish ceremonies, was done away, was a night of the Lord, much more to be observed. Then a yoke, heavier than that of Egypt, was broken from off our necks, and a land, better than that of Canaan, set before us. It was a redemption to be celebrated in heaven, for ever and ever.

Verses 43-51 In times to come, all the congregation of Israel must keep the passover. All that share in God's mercies should join in thankful praises for them. The New Testament passover, the Lord's supper, ought not to be neglected by any. Strangers, if circumcised, might eat of the passover. Here is an early indication of favour to the gentiles. This taught the Jews that their being a nation favoured by God, entitled them to their privileges, not their descent from Abraham. Christ our passover ( 1 Corinthians. 5:7 1 Corinthians. 5:8 ) for our souls; without the shedding of it there is no remission; without the sprinkling of it there can be no salvation. Have we, by faith in him, sheltered our souls from deserved vengeance under the protection of his atoning blood? Do we keep close to him, constantly depending upon him? Do we so profess our faith in the Redeemer, and our obligations to him, that all who pass by may know to whom we belong? Do we stand prepared for his service, ready to walk in his ways, and to separate ourselves from his enemies? These are questions of vast importance to the soul; may the Lord direct our consciences honestly to answer them.

Chapter Summary

INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 12

This chapter begins with observing, that the month in which the above wonders were wrought in Egypt, and the following ordinance appointed to the Israelites, should hereafter be reckoned the first month in the year, Ex 12:1,2 on the tenth day of which a lamb here described was to be taken and kept till the fourteenth, and then slain, and its blood sprinkled on the posts of the houses of the Israelites, Ex 12:3-7, the manner of dressing and eating it is shown, Ex 12:8-11 and the reason of the institution of this ordinance being given, Ex 12:12-14, and an order to eat unleavened bread during seven days, in which the feast was to be kept, Ex 12:15-20, directions are also given for the immediate observance of it, and particularly about the sprinkling of the blood of the lamb, and the use of it, Ex 12:21-23, and this ordinance, which they were to instruct their children in, was to be kept by them in succeeding ages for ever, Ex 12:24-27 about the middle of the night it was first observed, all the firstborn in Egypt were slain, which made the Egyptians urgent upon the Israelites to depart in haste, Ex 12:28-33 and which they did with their unleavened dough, and with great riches they had borrowed of the Egyptians, Ex 12:34-36, the number of the children of Israel at the time of their departure, the mixed multitude and cattle that went with them, their baking their unleavened cakes, the time of their sojourning in Egypt, and of their coming out of it that night, which made it a remarkable one, are all particularly taken notice of, Ex 12:37-42, laws and rules are given concerning the persons that should partake of the passover, Ex 12:43-49 and the chapter is concluded with observing, that it was kept according to the command of God, and that it was on the same day it was first instituted and kept that Israel were brought out of Egypt, Ex 12:50,51.

Exodus 12 Commentaries

The Jubilee Bible

(from the Scriptures of the Reformation)

edited by Russell M. Stendal

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