Leviticus 16

1 And the LORD spoke unto Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they came near before the LORD and died;
2 and the LORD said unto Moses, Speak unto Aaron, thy brother, that he not enter at all times into the sanctuary inside the veil before the seat of reconciliation, which is upon the ark, that he not die; for I will appear in the cloud above the seat of reconciliation.
3 Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock as sin and a ram as a burnt offering.
4 He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen underwear upon his flesh and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he cover himself. These are holy garments; and he shall wash his flesh with water and put them on.
5 And he shall take of the congregation of the sons of Israel two he goats as the sin and one ram as a burnt offering.
6 And Aaron shall cause the bullock of his sin to be brought, and make reconciliation for himself and for his house.
7 After that, he shall take the two goats and present them before the LORD at the door of the tabernacle of the testimony.
8 And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two he goats, one lot for the LORD and the other lot for Azazel. {Heb. entire removal}
9 And Aaron shall cause the he goat upon which the LORD’s lot fell to be brought and offer him for the sin.
10 But the he goat on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make the reconciliation upon him and to send him to Azazel into the wilderness.
11 And Aaron shall cause the bullock of his own sin to be brought and shall make the reconciliation for himself and for his house and shall kill the bullock of his own sin.
12 After that he shall take the censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD and his hands full of aromatic incense beaten small and bring it inside the veil.
13 And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, and the cloud of the incense shall cover the seat of reconciliation that is upon the testimony, and he shall not die.
14 Then he shall take of the blood of the bullock and sprinkle it with his finger towards the seat of reconciliation eastward; towards the seat of reconciliation he shall sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times.
15 After that, he shall kill the goat of the sin of the people and bring its blood inside the veil and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock and sprinkle it upon the seat of reconciliation and before the seat of reconciliation;
16 and he shall cleanse the sanctuary of the uncleanness of the sons of Israel and of their rebellions and of all their sins; in the same manner so shall he do for the tabernacle of the testimony, which dwells among them in the midst of their uncleanness.
17 And no man shall be in the tabernacle of the testimony when he enters in to make reconciliation in the sanctuary until he comes out and has made reconciliation for himself and for his household and for all the congregation of Israel.
18 And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the LORD and reconcile it and shall take of the blood of the bullock and of the blood of the he goat and put it upon the horns of the altar round about.
19 And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times and cleanse it and sanctify it from the uncleanness of the sons of Israel.
20 And when he has made an end of reconciling the sanctuary and the tabernacle of the testimony and the altar, he shall cause the live he goat to be brought;
21 and Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live he goat and confess over it all the iniquities of the sons of Israel and all their rebellions and all their sins, putting them thus upon the head of the he goat and shall send him away into the wilderness by the hand of a man prepared for this;
22 and that he goat shall bear upon itself all their iniquities unto an uninhabitable land; and he shall send the he goat into the wilderness.
23 After that, Aaron shall come into the tabernacle of the testimony and shall put off the linen garments, which he put on to enter into the sanctuary, and shall put them there.
24 Then he shall wash his flesh with water in the holy place and put on his garments and come forth after that and make his burnt offering and the burnt offering of the people and make reconciliation for himself and for the people.
25 And the fat of the sin he shall incense upon the altar.
26 And he that took the he goat to Azazel shall wash his clothes and bathe his flesh with water and afterward come into the camp.
27 And he shall take outside the camp the bullock of the sin and the goat of the sin, whose blood was brought in to make the reconciliation in the sanctuary; and they shall burn in the fire their skins and their flesh and their dung.
28 And he that burns them shall wash his clothes and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp.
29 And you shall hold this as a perpetual statute: In the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls and do no work at all, whether it is a natural of your own country or a stranger that sojourns among you;
30 for on that day he shall reconcile you to cleanse you that ye may be clean from all your sins before the LORD.
31 It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a perpetual statute.
32 And the reconciliation shall be made by the priest who is anointed and whose hand has been filled to be priest in the place of his father; and he shall put on the linen clothes, the holy garments;
33 and he shall reconcile the holy sanctuary and reconcile the tabernacle of the testimony; he shall also reconcile the altar and the priests and all the people of the congregation.
34 And you shall hold this as a perpetual statute to reconcile the sons of Israel of all their sins once a year. And Moses did as the LORD commanded him.

Leviticus 16 Commentary

Chapter 16

The great day of atonement. (1-14) The sacrifices on it, The scape-goat. (15-34)

Verses 1-14 Without entering into particulars of the sacrifices on the great day of atonement, we may notice that it was to be a statute for ever, till that dispensation be at an end. As long as we are continually sinning, we continually need the atonement. The law of afflicting our souls for sin, is a statue which will continue in force till we arrive where all tears, even those of repentance, will be wiped from our eyes. The apostle observes it as a proof that the sacrifices could not take away sin, and cleanse the conscience from it, that in them there was a remembrance made of sin every year, upon the day of atonement, ( hebrews 10:1 hebrews 10:3 ) . The repeating the sacrifices, showed there was in them but a feeble effort toward making atonement; this could be done only by offering up the body of Christ once for all; and that sacrifice needed not to be repeated.

Verses 15-34 Here are typified the two great gospel privileges, of the remission of sin, and access to God, both of which we owe to our Lord Jesus. See the expiation of guilt. Christ is both the Maker and the Matter of the atonement; for he is the Priest, the High Priest, that makes reconciliation for the sins of the people. And as Christ is the High Priest, so he is the Sacrifice with which atonement is made; for he is all in all in our reconciliation to God. Thus he was figured by the two goats. The slain goat was a type of Christ dying for our sins; the scape-goat a type of Christ rising again for our justification. The atonement is said to be completed by putting the sins of Israel upon the head of the goat, which was sent away into a wilderness, a land not inhabited; and the sending away of the goat represented the free and full remission of their sins. He shall bear upon him all their iniquities. Thus Christ, the Lamb of God, takes away the sin of the world, by taking it upon himself, ( John 1:29 ) . The entrance into heaven, which Christ made for us, was typified by the high priest's entrance into the most holy place. See ( Hebrews 9:7 ) . The high priest was to come out again; but our Lord Jesus ever lives, making intercession, and always appears in the presence of God for us. Here are typified the two great gospel duties of faith and repentance. By faith we put our hands upon the head of the offering; relying on Christ as the Lord our Righteousness, pleading his satisfaction, as that which alone is able to atone for our sins, and procure us a pardon. By repentance we afflict our souls; not only fasting for a time from the delights of the body, but inwardly sorrowing for sin, and living a life of self-denial, assuring ourselves, that if we confess our sins, God is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. By the atonement we obtain rest for our souls, and all the glorious liberties of the children of God. Sinner, get the blood of Christ effectually applied to thy soul, or else thou canst never look God in the face with any comfort or acceptance. Take this blood of Christ, apply it by faith, and see how it atones with God.

Chapter Summary

INTRODUCTION TO LEVITICUS 16

This chapter treats of the day of atonement, and of the rites, sacrifices, and services of it, directs when Aaron should come into the holy of holies, Le 16:1,2; and in what habit he should then appear, and with what offerings both for himself, and for the people, Le 16:3-10; and that having slain his own sin offering, and that for the people, he should offer incense before the mercy seat, and sprinkle that with the blood of both, Le 16:11-15; and by these offerings make atonement for the holy place, the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, Le 16:16-19; and having done this, he was to take the live goat, lay his hands on it, confess over it, and put upon it all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and then send it away by a fit man into the wilderness, Le 16:20-22; upon which he was to put off his linen garments, wash his flesh, and put them on again, and offer the burnt offering for himself, and for the people, Le 16:23-25; also he that let go the goat, and he that carried and burnt the sin offerings without the camp, were to wash themselves and clothes also, Le 16:26-28; the observance of this day, once a year, which was on the tenth of the seventh month, as a day of affliction and atonement, was to be a statute for ever to the children of Israel, Le 16:29-34.

Leviticus 16 Commentaries