But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto
From all tillage of it, from planting and cultivating any sort of trees in it; and even from digging pits, ditches; and caves, as say the Jewish writers F13: and this was typical of that rest which believers enter into under the Gospel dispensation, and of the rest in the new Jerusalem state, and especially in the ultimate glory; not only from the labours of the body, but of the mind, through sin, Satan, doubts and fears, and through conflicts with various enemies, and when even all spiritual labours and services will be at an end but that of praise:
a sabbath for the Lord;
for his honour and glory, to ascertain his property in the land, to show the power of his providence, and display his goodness in his care of all creatures, without any means used by them:
thou shalt neither sow thy field nor prune thy
under which are comprehended all acts of agriculture, which respect the cultivation of vines, olives, figs, and, according to the Misnah F14, there were some instruments which it was not lawful to sell to an artificer in the seventh year, such as a plough, with all belonging to it, a yoke, a fan, a spade, but he may sell him a scythe, or a sickle, or a cart, and all its instruments; and which the commentators F15 interpret of one that is suspected of working in that year; the house of Shammai say, an heifer that ploughed might not be sold that year.